Publications by authors named "Helene Childs"

7 Publications

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Importance of Reference Muscle Selection in Quantitative Signal Intensity Analysis of T2-Weighted Images of Myocardial Edema Using a T2 Ratio Method.

Biomed Res Int 2015 21;2015:232649. Epub 2015 Jun 21.

CMR Centre, Montreal Heart Institute, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada H1T 1C8 ; Stephenson CMR Centre, Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 2T9.

Objectives: The purpose of our study was to identify the suitability of various skeletal muscles as reference regions for calculating the T2 SI ratio for a semiautomated quantification of the extent of myocardial edema with T2-weighted images.

Methods: Thirty-four patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) were enrolled. The extent of myocardial edema was determined by T2 SI ratio map, using 4 different muscles as reference: major and minor pectoralis, serratus anterior, teres minor-infraspinatus, and subscapularis. The size of myocardial edema as visually quantified was used as the standard of truth. The control group consisted of 15 patients with chronic MI. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed.

Results: Due to poor image quality four patients were excluded from the analysis. In acute MI patients, serratus anterior muscle showed the strongest correlation with the visual analysis (r = 0.799; P < 0.001) and low inter- and intraobserver variability, while the other muscles resulted in a significant interobserver variability. In contrast, the use of other muscles as a reference led to overestimating edema size.

Conclusions: In acute MI patients, serratus anterior resulted to be the most reliable and reproducible muscle for measuring the extent of myocardial edema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/232649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4491384PMC
April 2016

Predictive value of CMR criteria for LV functional improvement in patients with acute myocarditis.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2014 Oct 12;15(10):1140-4. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Stephenson Cardiovascular MR Centre, Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Cardiology, Philippa and Marvin Carsley Cardiovascular MR Centre at the Montreal Heart Institute, Université de Montréal, 5000 Bélanger Street, Montréal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8

Aim: We assessed the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) criteria ('Lake Louise Criteria') for predicting left ventricular (LV) functional improvement in patients with acute myocarditis.

Methods And Results: We studied 37 patients who referred for acute myocarditis during clinically acute myocarditis and after a 12-month follow-up. CMR sequences sensitive for oedema, hyperaemia, and irreversible injury were applied. Global and regional oedema were defined using published quantitative signal intensity (SI) cut-off values (area with an SI of >2 SD above visually normal myocardium). LV function was analysed using six long-axis views, with an increase of at least 5% of left ventricular ejection fraction considered as improvement. Out of a total of 37 patients, 29 met the CMR Lake Louise criteria (LL+) and eight did not (LL-). Baseline and 12-month ejection fraction (EF) were significantly lower in LL+ (53.2 ± 8 vs. 62.2 ± 5, P = 0.007 and 58.9 ± 4 vs. 62.9 ± 5, P = 0.045, respectively). At follow-up, EF increased in LL+ but remained unchanged within normal limits in LL- groups (delta EF: 5.7 ± 9.8 vs. 0.7 ± 2.0). The presence of global or regional myocardial oedema was strongly associated with an increase of EF ≥5%. In a multivariate analysis, the presence of global and/or regional oedema on admission was the only independent predictor of an increase of EF (P = 0.046).

Conclusion: In patients with clinically suspected acute myocarditis, the presence of positive CMR criteria is associated with LV function recovery. Myocardial oedema as defined by CMR was the strongest parameter, indicating that the observed increase of EF may be due to the recovery of reversibly injured (oedematous) myocardium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeu099DOI Listing
October 2014

Short-term obesity results in detrimental metabolic and cardiovascular changes that may not be reversed with weight loss in an obese dog model.

Br J Nutr 2014 Aug 30;112(4):647-56. Epub 2014 May 30.

Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan,52 Campus Drive,Saskatoon,SK,CanadaS7N 5B4.

The time course of metabolic and cardiovascular changes with weight gain and subsequent weight loss has not been elucidated. The goal of the present study was to determine how weight gain, weight loss and altered body fat distribution affected metabolic and cardiovascular changes in an obese dog model. Testing was performed when the dogs were lean (scores 4-5 on a nine-point scale), after ad libitum feeding for 12 and 32 weeks to promote obesity (>5 score), and after weight loss. Measurements included serum glucose and insulin, plasma leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein, echocardiography, flow-mediated dilation and blood pressure. Body fat distribution was assessed by computed tomography. Fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with obesity (P< 0·05). Heart rate increased by 22 (SE 5) bpm after 12 weeks of obesity (P= 0·003). Systolic left ventricular free wall thickness increased after 12 weeks of obesity (P= 0·002), but decreased after weight loss compared with that observed in the lean phase (P= 0·03). Ventricular free wall thickness was more strongly correlated with visceral fat (r 0·6, P= 0·001) than with total body fat (r 0·4, P= 0·03) and was not significantly correlated with subcutaneous body fat (r 0·3, P= 0·1). The present study provides evidence that metabolic and cardiovascular alterations occur within only 12 weeks of obesity in an obese dog model and are strongly predicted by visceral fat. These results emphasise the importance of obesity prevention, as weight loss did not result in the return of all metabolic indicators to their normal levels. Moreover, systolic cardiac muscle thickness was reduced after weight loss compared with the pre-obesity levels, suggesting possible acute adverse cardiovascular effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514001214DOI Listing
August 2014

Auto-threshold quantification of late gadolinium enhancement in patients with acute heart disease.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2013 Feb 25;37(2):382-90. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

Stephenson Cardiovascular MR Centre, Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Purpose: To assess the Otsu-Auto-Threshold (OAT) for accuracy and reproducibility for sizing irreversible injury in late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images of patients with acute heart disease. The OAT method automatically identifies high signal intensity areas using a cutoff derived from the signal intensity histogram and therefore is user-independent.

Materials And Methods: LGE was performed in 28 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and 30 patients with acute myocarditis. LGE mass was compared between OAT and thresholds using 2 standard deviations (SD), 3SD, and 5SD above remote myocardium, and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). A separate, blinded visual assessment served as the standard of truth.

Results: In patients with acute MI, OAT and 5SD did not differ (26.1 ± 11.4 g vs. 25.4 ± 11.1 g, P = 0.088), but thresholds of 2SD and 3SD overestimated LGE mass by 37% and 20%, respectively, and FWHM underestimated by 15%. In acute myocarditis, OAT was not different from a visual quantification, but thresholds of 2SD and 3SD overestimated LGE mass by 46% and 19%, respectively, and thresholds of 5SD and FWHM underestimated LGE mass by 17% and 26%, respectively. OAT and FWHM showed the best intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility.

Conclusion: Automatic thresholding using OAT may serve as an accurate and reproducible method to quantify irreversible myocardial injury in acute heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.23814DOI Listing
February 2013

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in myocarditis.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2011 Nov-Dec;54(3):266-75

Stephenson Cardiovascular MR Centre at the Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, Department of Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has become the leading modality in noninvasive imaging of myocarditis. Consensus on the use of 3 CMR criteria for myocarditis, referred to as edema, early, and late enhancement, has standardized CMR protocol for assessing myocarditis. Although definite diagnosis of myocarditis remains challenging, the outcome of this disease necessitates further investigation with the objective of providing robust noninvasive tests. Moreover, relative to current tools such as endomyocardial biopsy, CMR is a promising technique in the setting of this insidious and complex disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2011.09.003DOI Listing
December 2011

Comparison of long and short axis quantification of left ventricular volume parameters by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, with ex-vivo validation.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2011 Aug 11;13:40. Epub 2011 Aug 11.

Stephenson Cardiovascular MR Centre at Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, Departments of Cardiac Sciences and Radiology, University of Calgary, AB, Canada.

Background: The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy and evaluation time of quantifying left ventricular (LV), left atrial (LA) volume and LV mass using short axis (SAX) and long axis (LAX) methods when using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).

Materials And Methods: We studied 12 explanted canine hearts and 46 patients referred for CMR (29 male, age 47 ± 18 years) in a clinical 1.5 T CMR system, using standard cine sequences. In standard short axis stacks of various slice thickness values in dogs and 8 mm slice thickness (gap 2 mm) in patients, we measured LV volumes using reference slices in a perpendicular, long axis orientation using certified software. Volumes and mass were also measured in six radial long axis (LAX) views.LV parameters were also assessed for intra- and inter-observer variability. In 24 patients, we also analyzed reproducibility and evaluation time of two very experienced (> 10 years of CMR reading) readers for SAX and LAX.

Results: In the explanted dog hearts, there was excellent agreement between ex vivo data and LV mass and volume data as measured by all methods for both, LAX (r² = 0.98) and SAX (r² = 0.88 to 0.98). LA volumes, however, were underestimated by 13% using the LAX views. In patients, there was a good correlation between all three assessed methods (r² ≥ 0.95 for all). In experienced clinical readers, left-ventricular volumes and ejection fraction as measured in LAX views showed a better inter-observer reproducibility and a 27% shorter evaluation time.

Conclusion: When compared to an ex vivo standard, both, short axis and long axis techniques are highly accurate for the quantification of left ventricular volumes and mass. In clinical settings, however, the long axis approach may be more reproducible and more time-efficient. Therefore, the rotational long axis approach is a viable alternative for the clinical assessment of cardiac volumes, function and mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1532-429X-13-40DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3169477PMC
August 2011

Impact of the revision of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia task force criteria on its prevalence by CMR criteria.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2011 Mar;4(3):282-7

Stephenson Cardiovascular MR Centre at Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, Department of Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Objectives: The purpose of our study was to assess the impact of revised versus original criteria on the prevalence of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) criteria in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) studies.

Background: Recently, the ARVC/D task force criteria have been revised, aiming for a better diagnostic sensitivity. The implications of this revision on clinical decision making are unknown.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the CMR scans of 294 patients referred for ARVC/D between 2005 and 2010, and determined the presence or absence of major and minor CMR criteria using the original and the revised task force criteria. Previously, major and minor abnormalities were identified by the presence of right ventricle dilation (global or segmental), right ventricle microaneurysm, or regional hypokinesis. The revised criteria require the combination of severe regional wall motion abnormalities (akinesis or dyskinesis or dyssynchrony) with global right ventricle dilation or dysfunction (quantitative assessment).

Results: Applying the original criteria, 69 patients (23.5%) had major original criteria, versus 19 patients (6.5%) with the revised criteria. Forty-three patients (62.3%) with major original criteria did not meet any of the revised criteria. Using the original criteria, 172 patients (58.5%) had at least 1 minor criterion versus 12 patients (4%) with the revised task force criteria; 167 patients (97%) with minor original criteria did not meet any of the revised criteria. In the subgroup of 134 patients with complete diagnostic work-up of ARVC, 10 patients met the diagnosis of proven ARVC/D without counting imaging criteria. Only 4 of 10 met major criteria according to the revised CMR criteria; none met minor criteria. However, 112 of 124 patients without ARVC/D were correctly classified as negative by major and minor criteria (specificity 94% and 96%, respectively).

Conclusions: In our experience, the revision of the ARVC/D task force imaging criteria significantly reduced the overall prevalence of major and minor criteria. The revision, although maintaining a high specificity, may not have improved the sensitivity for identifying patients with ARVC/D. Larger studies including follow-up are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2011.01.005DOI Listing
March 2011
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