Publications by authors named "Helena Rotsztejn"

60 Publications

Efficacy of fractional laser, radiofrequency and IPL rejuvenation of periorbital region.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Łódź, Muszyńskiego 1 Street, 91-151, Łódź, Poland.

The purpose of this study was to assess skin elasticity, the reduction in the number and the depth of wrinkles and changes in the other skin defects (bags under the eyes, dark circles under the eyes, skin hyperpigmentation in the ageing eye area following the use of non-ablative fractional laser, bipolar radiofrequency and intense pulsed light). Moreover, the study was also comparison which device brought better results than the others. This study included 71 patients (66 women, 5 men), aged 33-63 years (the average age was 45.81 years) with skin phototypes II and III. Twenty-four patients received five treatment sessions with a 1410-nm non-ablative fractional laser in 2-week intervals, 23 patients received five treatment sessions with a bipolar radiofrequency in 1-week intervals and 24 patients received five treatment sessions with an intense pulsed light in 2-week intervals. The treatment was applied on the skin in the eye area. The Cutometer (Courage + Khazaka electronic) reference test was used as an objective method for the assessment of skin elasticity. A questionnaire was used to compare baseline state with changes that occurred after the series of treatment sessions. The results of cutometric measurements of R2, R6 and R7 parameters and the results of questionnaires indicated that non-ablative fractional laser therapy, bipolar radiofrequency and intense pulsed light improved skin elasticity. Of the three treatments, the most significant percentage improvement in the R6 parameter was demonstrated by non-ablative fractional laser therapy which gave better final results than the other methods (p < 0.0001). No other statistically significant relationships were found between RF and IPL. In the (subjective) opinion of study participants (questionnaire), all used methods resulted in the reduction of the amount and the depth of wrinkles. However, they did not observe significant impact of individual treatment method on the signs of skin ageing, including discolorations within eye area, bags (fatty hernia), dark circles (vascular/pigmentary) and oedema (predisposition to water retention). Non-ablative fractional laser therapy, bipolar radiofrequency and intense pulsed light improved skin elasticity and the reduction of wrinkles. The most significant improvement of elasticity was demonstrated by laser therapy. It seems necessary to expand the group with the effect of individual treatments against bags and dark circles under the eyes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-021-03329-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Shikimic acid in the light of current knowledge.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Shikimic acid (SA) has been mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry for production of drugs, however, recently it has also appeared in the world of cosmetics. So far, there have not been many publications on cosmetics containing SA or research studies on the compound, especially those that would involve testing cosmetic products on subjects. The main source of SA is star anise. The recommended concentration of SA in cosmetic preparations ranges between 1 and 5%. The pH of a 5% solution of SA in water is 3. SA at a concentration of 5% has a similar exfoliative effect to that of 50% glycolic acid. It shows antiviral, exfoliating, deodorizing, anti-acne, anti-dandruff, whitening and moisturizing activity. It also regulates the amount of secreted sebum, moreover, it has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hair-growth stimulating, anti-aging effect and antifungal properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14136DOI Listing
April 2021

Corneometric evaluation of skin moisture after application of 10% and 30% gluconolactone.

Skin Res Technol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Background: Dry skin, caused by improper care or genetic conditions, can affect people of all ages. Skin hydration is determined its lipid content, which inhibits water loss from the epidermis, as well as other substances such as polyhydroxy acids and gluconolactone that can bind water. The aim of this study was to evaluate skin hydration after the application of 10% and 30% gluconolactone solution in a split face model.

Materials And Methods: Sixteen healthy women were qualified for the study. Three split face treatments were performed, with 10% and 30% gluconolactone solution applied to two sides of the face. Skin moisture was measured before each treatment and a week after the last treatment at three measurement sites on either side of the face, that is, on the forehead, around the eye and on the cheek.

Results: Corneometric measurements showed a significant increase in facial skin hydration after gluconolactone treatment. No significant differences were observed between the application of 10% and 30% solution.

Conclusion: Gluconolactone is a moisturizing substance which works well in dry skin care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.13044DOI Listing
March 2021

How has the pandemic lockdown changed our daily facial skin care habits?

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department od Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Poland implemented widespread closure of beauty and cosmetic services to control the virus spread.

Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on home face care of women and to analyze changes that have occurred in their daily habits.

Patients/methods: An online survey was completed by 412 women living in Poland during the spring lockdown. Questions addressed changes in face care during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results And Conclusions: Our questionnaire showed that during the lockdown women were more interested in face skin care, more often followed the procedure of full home skin care. And after implementing the changes of skin care they saw the good impact on their skin. The significance of the Internet also increased considerably, not only as a source of knowledge in the field of cosmetology but also as a thriving market selling cosmetic products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14059DOI Listing
March 2021

The influence of topical 5% tranexamic acid at pH 2.38 with and without corundum microdermabrasion on pigmentation and skin surface lipids.

Dermatol Ther 2020 11 22;33(6):e14391. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Tranexamic acid (TA) has anti-hemorrhagic effects; however, oral administration has been found to decrease hyperpigmentation. The aim of the work was to compare the effects of treatment with 5% tranexamic acid in combination with corundum microdermabrasion on skin pigmentation, redness, pH, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum level and hydration of back surface and dorsal surface of the hand skin. Six treatments were performed every week on the back surface and both dorsal surfaces of the hands of 12 subjects. The entire back/both hands were treated with 5% tranexamic acid at pH 2.38; left side of the back or left hand were also subjected to corundum microdermabrasion. Skin parameters were measured using the Courage & Khazaka 580 Multi Probe Adapter. Clinical photos were taken using the Fotomedicus system. Significant differences between treatment methods were observed for melanin, erythema and pH. In addition, the two methods differed significantly with regard to the amount of sebum, TEWL and the level of moisture in the skin. Both methods gave similar acidic pH. Summing up tranexamic acid causes a significant reduction in epidermal melanogenesis, has a significant impact on the level of skin hydration, lipids of the epidermis and maintaining the proper TEWL. TA has a significant effect on reducing skin redness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14391DOI Listing
November 2020

The eye area as the most difficult area of activity for esthetic treatment.

J Dermatolog Treat 2020 Oct 15:1-8. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lódź, Łódź, Poland.

Eyes area is of high importance in esthetic dermatology. This area is one of the most difficult for procedures. Skillful treatment can significantly improve the quality of patients' life. The aim of the study was to present and differentiate a variety of changes observed in the eye area and factors stimulating their appearance and enhancing intensity. This article also presents treatment methods in the field of esthetic dermatology, which are used in the in the following problems: eyelid edema, fatty bags under the eyes, vascular circles under the eyes, pigment shadows, periorbital melanosis, structural shadows, tear trough, wrinkles and loss of skin elasticity and dry skin around the eyes. Their correct diagnosis requires the knowledge of the characteristics of the skin structure within the eye area and also the mechanisms responsible for disorders in its functioning. Many patients and people performing procedures, limit the problems within eye area to a generalized division into shadows, swelling and wrinkles under the eyes and probably to one selected form of therapy. However, as it has been shown in this review, the variety of defects is large. Actions in case of problems with skin around the eyes require a systemic, multi-specialist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2020.1832189DOI Listing
October 2020

The effectiveness of ferulic acid and microneedling in reducing signs of photoaging: A split-face comparative study.

Dermatol Ther 2020 11 26;33(6):e14000. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Chair of Cosmetology, Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

Photoaging is closely related to ultraviolet-induced oxidative stress. Ferulic acid is a plant-based antioxidant with antiaging activity. Combining ferulic acid peel with microneedling enhances its transdermal penetration. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of 14% ferulic acid peel combined with microneedling for facial photoaging. Sixteen women aged 45 to 60 years with Fitzpatrick skin types II and III were enrolled in this trial. All patients received eight treatment sessions with a full face application of chemical peeling based on 14% ferulic acid in 1-week intervals. During each session, on the right half of patient's face, peeling application was followed by microneedling. Efficacy was measured using Multi Probe Adapter (Courage + Khazaka electronic). The measurement of hydration, elasticity, melanin index, and erythema index were taken before treatments, after eighth session and 1 month after the last application. The objective evaluation showed statistically significant improvement in all measured skin parameters (P < .05), after ferulic acid peel application, as well as ferulic acid peel followed by microneedling. Combined therapy showed significantly greater improvement especially in skin elasticity, comparing to peeling administered alone. Ferulic acid has a significant bleaching, antiredness, smoothing, and moisturizing activity. When combined with microneedling, the efficiency is increased, in particular regarding skin elasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14000DOI Listing
November 2020

Effect of oxybrasion on selected skin parameters.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Feb 12;20(2):657-663. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Background: Oxybrasion is one of the types of microdermabrasion. This method removes a superficial epidermal layer with the use of a stream of 0.9% saline solution and compressed air.

Aims: The assessment of skin hydration, sebum, pH, TEWL (transepidermal water loss), and pigmentation using oxybrasion.

Material And Methods: The study involved 27 female subjects. Five treatments were performed every 2 weeks using the oxygen microdermabrasion. Measurements of the skin parameters were taken before each treatment and 2 weeks after the last procedure. The measurement points were on the forehead, the cheek, and on the petal of the nose.

Results: Sebum measurement showed some statistically significant differences between the sebum level on the cheek and the nose after a series of treatments. A higher hydration level was found at all measurement points. There were no statistically significant differences in TEWL parameter. pH measurement showed that the pH value decreased after each of the procedures. Most of the pigmentation measurements differed in a statistically significant way.

Conclusion: Results of the study indicate that the oxybrasion treatments increase the skin hydration and they have a significant influence on the decrease of the skin hydrolipid coat and pH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13557DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparison of hair reduction by intensive pulsed light device and combined intense pulsed light with a bipolar radiofrequency.

J Dermatolog Treat 2020 Feb 10:1-5. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Photoepilation has become a very popular epilation procedure in esthetic and cosmetic practice. There are some types of lasers and other light sources used for epilation. The purpose of our study was to compare an IPL device with an IPL plus RF in one device, using a within-patient, right-left controlled study design. Thirty-three patients completed four treatment sessions and the follow-up period of the study. Hair reduction was effective after the first treatment, but similar results were achieved using the IPL system alone, and with IPL combined with RF. The degree of hair reduction increased after the following treatments, but the two methods yielded similar effects. Three months after the last treatment, some hair had regrown in both treatments, the combined IPL with RF treatment gave significantly better results than the IPL treatment alone. In conclusion, IPL and IPL-RF are effective hair reduction therapies, yielding similar effects in patients with skin phototypes II or III. However, IPL-RF can be more effective in long-term observations. These therapies are also safe and regarded be quite comfortable in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2020.1722310DOI Listing
February 2020

Comparative study of 15% trichloroacetic acid peel combined with 70% glycolic acid and 35% trichloroacetic acid peel for the treatment of photodamaged facial skin in aging women.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Jan 11;19(1):137-146. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Background: Photoaging (extrinsic aging) is caused by environmental exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Superficial and medium-depth chemical peels with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are performed to reduce wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, dryness, and erythema caused by photoaging process.

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of 15% TCA peel against the combined 70% glycolic acid and 35% TCA for the treatment of photodamaged facial skin.

Patients/methods: Forty female patients with types II and III of Glogau photoaging scale were divided into two groups of twenty subjects (GA/TCA and 35% TCA). The GA/TCA group was treated with combination peeling of 70% GA and 15% TCA, whereas the 35% TCA group was treated with monopeeling of 35% trichloroacetic acid. Each patient was submitted to five sessions of these peels, with an interval of 14 days between each session. The following skin aging parameters were examined before treatments, before each session, and 3 months after the last application: hydration, elasticity, melanin index, and erythema index (MPA-5; Courage-Khazaka, Germany); and depth and volume of wrinkles (PRIMOS; GFMesstechnik GmbH, Germany).

Results: Both peel methods achieved significant improvement in all skin parameters: elasticity, hydration, melanin index, and erythema index. Significant differences between the GA/TCA and 35% TCA groups were found only for hydration and melanin index. GA/TCA was characterized by significantly higher values of the hydration parameter and lower values of melanin index compared with 35% TCA. Combination peel GA/TCA did not cause dryness, edema, or intensive lysis of the epidermis, and the frequency of peel-induced erythema did not increase with the addition of glycolic acid, but with higher concentration of the TCA solution. However, subject-perceived improvements of the 35% TCA peel did not differ significantly from subject-perceived improvements of combination peel treatment. Adverse events requiring intervention or discontinuing treatment were not observed in either group.

Conclusion: The addition of glycolic acid before 15% TCA chemical peel application significantly enhanced TCA-induced improvement in photoaging parameters (increase in skin elasticity and hydration; reduction in melanin index and erythema index), and subject-perceived improvements. However, 35% TCA peel is more effective in reducing wrinkles, despite a lower tolerability. Both medium-depth chemical peels including 15% TCA in combination with 70% GA and 35% TCA alone proved to be useful for the removal of epidermal or superficial lesions and to improve the texture of photodamaged facial skin (grade II-III Glogau photoaged skin).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13171DOI Listing
January 2020

The evaluation of elasticity after nonablative radiofrequency rejuvenation.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2019 Apr 25;18(2):511-516. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Background: Laxity and rhytides are manifestations of photodamage on the face and chest. Nonablative radiofrequency (RF) is one of the most common procedures used for skin rejuvenation.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the elasticity of face and chest skin after multipolar radiofrequency.

Patients/methods: Thirty women, aged 43-68, were included in the study. Twenty women were postmenopausal and 10 were premenopausal. They received 4 treatment sessions with an application of nonablative radiofrequency in 2-week intervals. Biomechanical properties of the skin were measured with the use of a Cutometer.

Results: The objective evaluation in a cutometric analysis showed a statistically significant improvement between measurements taken in the pretreatment period and 3 months after the treatment.

Conclusions: The study is an objective confirmation that RF treatment improves skin elasticity. The method may appear to be beneficial for women of any age and skin types. It is a noninvasive treatment with a low risk of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12689DOI Listing
April 2019

Effects of lactobionic acid peel, aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion, and both procedures on skin hydration, elasticity, and transepidermal water loss.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2019 Jan 20. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Background: Topical applications of alpha-hydroxy acids and poly hydroxy acids in the form of peels gained popularity. To enhance the effect of these substances, aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion can be used in one procedure.

Aims: The assessment of skin hydration, elasticity, and TEWL after using lactobionic acid in the form of 20% peel and lactobionic acid in the form of 20% peel combined with aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion.

Material And Methods: The study involved 20 Caucasian female subjects. Six treatments were performed at weekly intervals, using the Split face method-20% LA was used on the left side of the face and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion followed by 20% LA application on the right side of the face.

Results: Corneometric measurement showed statistically significant differences between the hydration level for sessions 1 and 3 and 1 and 6. A higher hydration level was found on the side with the combined procedure. Tewametric measurement showed that the TEWL values were different for sessions 1 and 3 and 1 and 6-they decreased. There were no statistically significant differences between the two procedures. The cutometric measurement indicated statistically significant differences between skin elasticity for pairs in session 1 and 3 and 1 and 6.

Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that the combination of LA peel with microdermabrasion increases its moisturizing effect and improves skin elasticity. The use of both procedures also contributed to the decrease in TEWL; however, greater exfoliation of the epidermis in combined procedures resulted in slightly higher TEWL values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12859DOI Listing
January 2019

The effect of various primers improving adhesiveness of gel polish hybrids on pH, TOWL and overall nail plates condition.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Background: Hybrid manicure is now a popular method of nail care and nail art, which is associated with its durability. Unfortunately, it has an adverse effect on pH, TOWL and overall nail plates condition and has not been investigated in detail so far.

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the pH and TOWL of the hand nails after using different primers. The effect of application time, breaks between applications and the method of curing and removal on those parameters and overall nail plates condition were evaluated.

Patients/methods: An evaluation survey was conducted among 116 women. pH and TOWL measurements of the nail plate in 35 women were taken using the Courage & Khazaka. Clinical photos were made using the Fotomedicus system.

Results: The measured pH values of the nail plate in the test group with gel polish hybrid on the nails were from 5.50 to 6.65, while after removal of the gel polish hybrid, the values ranged from 5.63 to 6.68. TOWL of the nail plate covered with gel polish hybrid ranged from 2.9 to 33.2 g/m /h, whereas after removal of hybrids-from 1.9 to 45.7 g/m /h.

Conclusion: Different forms of acid-free primers maintain a lower pH of the nail plate covered with a gel polish hybrid, while the acidic primer maintains higher values of the nail plate pH. The significant decrease in the nail plate TOWL following the application of gel polish hybrid indicates a reduced loss of water from the surface of the nail to the atmosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12854DOI Listing
January 2019

The assessment of the effects of the combination of microdermabrasion and cavitation peeling in the therapy of seborrhoeic skin with visible symptoms of acne punctata.

J Cosmet Laser Ther 2019 Aug 9;21(5):286-290. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

a Chair of Cosmetology, Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy , Medical University of Lódź , Łódź (AA, HR) , Poland.

The aim of this study was to assess objectively the effects of the combination of corundum microdermabrasion and cavitation peeling in the therapy of seborrheic skin with visible symptoms of acne punctata. The study involved a group of nine women. A series of six treatments with the combination of microdermabrasion and cavitation peeling were performed within facial skin at 10-14 days intervals. Corneometric measurements examining skin hydration level and sebumetric measurements analyzing skin sebum level were made before the series of treatments and after second, fourth and sixth procedure in five facial areas. Clinical assessment of the efficacy of the therapy was performed on the basis of photographic documentation (Fotomedicus). Anonymous questionnaires were used in order to evaluate patients' satisfaction rate. Statistically significant improvement in skin sebum level was observed in all examined areas (forehead  = 0.002; nose  = 0.001, chin  = 0.01, left cheek  = 0.009, right cheek  = 0.007). In case of skin hydration, significant improvement was found only in the area of chin ( = 0.03). 78% of participants estimated that the improvement was in the range of 55-70%, while 22% of participants of 75-100%. The reduction in the amount and visibility of comedones and pimples were demonstrated on the basis of questionnaire and photographic documentation. Combined microdermabrasion and cavitation peeling treatments improve the condition of seborrheic skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14764172.2018.1525751DOI Listing
August 2019

Lactic and lactobionic acids as typically moisturizing compounds.

Int J Dermatol 2019 Mar 30;58(3):374-379. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Background: Recently more attention has been drawn to alpha hydroxy and polyhydroxy acids (AHA and PHA) due to their excellent moisturizing and antioxidant properties. These compounds are very beneficial in terms of both cosmetic and dermatological treatments.

Objective: The aim of this study was an assessment of moisturizing properties of lactobionic and lactic acids based on available literature.

Methods: Literature review using scientific databases: PubMed, Medline (EBSCO), Medline Complete, Karger, Springer/ICM, SpringerLink/online, Wiley Online Library.

Results And Conclusions: Through their construction, alpha AHA and PHA are able to bind large amounts of water and act as potent antioxidant agents through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and strong chelating properties. Another important characteristic is the maintenance of the epidermal barrier integrity during application of lactic acid (LAC) and lactobionic acid (LA) and thus the opportunity to use them on sensitive skin types including couperose skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.14202DOI Listing
March 2019

Is skin microneedling a good alternative method of various skin defects removal.

Dermatol Ther 2018 11 24;31(6):e12714. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Chair of Cosmetology, Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

Skin microneedling accelerates the process of skin regeneration through the creation of numerous microinjuries which emerge when skin is deeply punctured with very thin needles. The whole procedure evokes various reactions which can be divided into three major phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. It activates platelet growth factors which are responsible for the stimulation of fibroblasts to produce collagen and elastin. Moreover, skin breakdown enhances penetration of active ingredients. Treatment can be performed with the use of different devices, all equipped with needles of various lengths. Due to the fact that skin microneedling stimulates the synthesis of significant rebuilding and structural skin elements (collagen, elastin, proteoglycan), it is used in the treatment of many skin defects of different etiologies (e.g., photoaging, wrinkles, loss of elasticity, hypo- or hypertrophic scars, pigmentation changes, infraorbital dark circles, teleangiectasia, stretch marks, cellulite, alopecia, and vitiligo). In order to accelerate postsurgical regeneration and/or to enhance effects, microneedling is combined with the application of UV light (photodynamic therapy with ALA), LED light, platelet-rich plasma, chemical peels, stem cells, retinoids and other pharmaceuticals, and vitamins. High effectiveness, limited number of side effects, and short recovery time, make skin microneedling a popular cosmetic, and medical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.12714DOI Listing
November 2018

Evaluation of structural damage and pH of nail plates of hands after applying different methods of decorating.

Int J Dermatol 2019 Mar 23;58(3):311-318. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nail polish, gel polish hybrid, gel nail, and acrylic nail powder and the removal of these formulas on the nail plates properties, particularly the influence of different coatings on morphology and pH.

Methods: The morphology and structure of nail plates were analyzed with use of scanning electron microscopy. The pH values of the nail plates of hands were measured using the system Courage & Khazaka.

Results: The analysis of morphology and structure of the surface of nail plates showed distinct changes caused by decorative coatings. The most common ones include fragility and splitting of the nails. The pH value measured in the whole group ranged from 5.21 to 7.00.

Conclusions: The methods used to prepare nails for decoration and all methods of removing the applied preparations damage the healthy nail plates. The most common changes are brittleness and nail splitting. The nail polish remover causes less damage than acetone, and the use of a nail drill machine and nail file causes the greatest destruction of nail plates. The biggest effect on the pH change has the gel polish hybrid, gel nail, and acrylic nail powder, causing the pH value of nail plates to rise above 6.0, whereas after the application of the nail polish, the pH of the plates was on average 5.8 which is closest to the normal value, assumed as physiological.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.14198DOI Listing
March 2019

Antioxidant Properties of Ferulic Acid and Its Possible Application.

Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2018 20;31(6):332-336. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Ferulic acid has low toxicity and possesses many physiological functions (anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, anticancer, and antidiabetic effect). It has been widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industry. Ferulic acid is a free radical scavenger, but also an inhibitor of enzymes that catalyze free radical generation and an enhancer of scavenger enzyme activity. Ferulic acid has a protective role for the main skin structures: keratinocytes, fibroblasts, collagen, elastin. It inhibits melanogenesis, enhances angiogenesis, and accelerates wound healing. It is widely applied in skin care formulations as a photoprotective agent, delayer of skin photoaging processes, and brightening component. Nonetheless, its use is limited by its tendency to be rapidly oxidized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000491755DOI Listing
November 2018

Is carboxytherapy a good alternative method in the removal of various skin defects?

Dermatol Ther 2018 09 28;31(5):e12699. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

Carbon dioxide is a physiologic compound present in our body, mainly as a result of cellular metabolism. The frequency of carboxytherapy use by dermatologists and cosmetologists increased significantly in the second half of the 20th century due to the fact that it improves blood circulation within skin tissues. This article focuses on the use of carboxytherapy in case of various skin problems, such as stretch marks, scars, loss of elasticity, redundancy of fatty tissue, cellulite, morphea, and alopecia. The review of sparse studies that are available indicate increasing interest in this method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.12699DOI Listing
September 2018

Evaluation of selected skin parameters following the application of 5% vitamin C concentrate.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2019 Feb 30;18(1):236-241. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Cosmetology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Background: Ascorbic acid is a substance with confirmed anti-free-radical properties. It triggers the collagen synthesis, has a depigmenting effect and seals blood vessels. All these properties have a significant effect of the skin's appearance. The characteristic traits of capillary skin include telangiectasias as well as erythema, which might consolidate in the future, along with the feeling of burning and increased skin sensitivity.

Objectives: Study and evaluation of selected parameters of capillary skin after the application of 5% vitamin C concentrate throughout the period of 6 weeks with the use of instrumental tests and questionnaires.

Methods: The research was conducted on a group of 30 women ranging from 30 to 60 years of age with capillary skin indicating visible signs of erythematous plaques. The concentrate was applied once a day. Analyses of skin conditions were conducted four times: before the launch of the research D(0), after two 2D(14), after four 4D(28), and after 6 D(42) weeks of application. The research was conducted with the use of Mexameter MPA equipment, which was used to measure changes in the intensity of erythematous plaques. The depth of wrinkles was measured by PRIMOS system (two times D0 and 6D(42). The research also used VISIA system which allowed to perform visual and numeral skin analyses. Each research was finalized with a questionnaire which provided a subjective evaluation of the examined product among participants.

Results: Significant reduction in erythema has been widely recorded. After 2 weeks, erythema dropped by 9%. After 4 weeks, it decreased by 16% and by 21% after 6 weeks. The concentrate's efficiency in diminishing erythematous plaques was confirmed by photographs generated by VISIA photograph system. Thanks to PRIMOS, decrease in both depth and volume of nasolabial folds was recorded in 87% of participants after 6 weeks of research.

Conclusion: 5% vitamin C concentrate is effective in treating capillary and photograph-aging skin. It decreases erythema and telangiectasias as well as triggers the shallowing of skin wrinkles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12562DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparative evaluation of skin moisture after topical application of 10% and 30% lactobionic acid.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2018 Dec 9;17(6):1096-1100. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Background: Dry skin is characterized by symptoms such as itching, redness, excessive exfoliation. These symptoms cause discomfort and contribute to secondary bacterial infections. Dry skin treatments are based on topical applications of various formulations. Among many of them are polyhydroxy acids, which recently gained more attention.

Aims: The aim of this study was a comparative assessment of hydration level (corneometric) after application of lactobionic acid (LA) in the form of peel at concentrations of 10% and 30%.

Material And Methods: The study involved 10 Caucasian individuals aged 26-73 years. Eight treatments were performed at weekly intervals. The peels were applied using the "Split face" method-on the left side of the face 10% LA, and the right side 30% LA which consisted of specified concentration of LA, deionized water, xanthan gum, ethoxydiglycol. The test subjects received a 5% LA cream for overnight use. The cream consisted of deionized water, LA, isopropyl palmitate, ascorbyl palmitate, methylparaben. The products for this study were provided by Grehen Ltd. Celestynów, Poland. Prior to each procedure, the skin hydration level was measured using Corneometer CM 825 from Courage + Khazaka electronic GmbH.

Results: There was a statistically significant improvement in hydration level after 8 treatments for all measuring points and both concentrations. The difference of the skin hydration level between 10% LA and 30% LA could not be determined.

Conclusions: Lactobionic acid is a highly moisturizing agent. There was no significant difference in moisturizing effect between 10% LA concentration and 30% LA concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12485DOI Listing
December 2018

Cutometric assessment of elasticity of skin with striae distensae following carboxytherapy.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2018 Dec 6;17(6):1170-1174. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Chair of Cosmetology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of striae distensae. Additionally, discomfort and side effects associated with the treatment were assessed.

Materials And Methods: This study involved 15 women aged 22-40 years. They underwent 3 sessions of carboxytherapy at one-week intervals. Treatment was performed in skin area within stretch marks located on stomach, buttocks, and thighs. Cutometric probe was used to evaluate skin elasticity. Four measurements were performed-immediately before each treatment and one month after the last session. Photographic documentation was made before and after a series of treatment to perform clinical evaluation of changes in skin condition.

Results: Statistical analysis of results obtained with the use of Cutometer (R2 and R8 parameters) demonstrated that carboxytherapy significantly improved skin elasticity within stretch marks (P < .05). The analysis of photographic documentation revealed 58% improvement in stretch mark visibility. The width and length of stretch marks decreased, and their color became more like the natural color of the skin. Carboxytherapy is associated with moderate pain/discomfort. The occurrence of hematoma is the main side effect of this procedure.

Conclusions: Carboxytherapy seems to be an effective method of reducing stretch marks. This procedure is safe, and it can be performed without the risk of complications. Moreover, it does not require special postoperative convalescence. Photographic documentation is a method of assessment of aesthetic procedures effectiveness, which is complementary to other objective methods (eg, the use of MPA probes).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12465DOI Listing
December 2018

Evaluation of the relation between lipid coat, transepidermal water loss, and skin pH.

Int J Dermatol 2017 Nov 7;56(11):1192-1197. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Objective: The epidermis is an epidermal barrier which accumulates lipid substances and participates in skin moisturizing. An evaluation of the epidermal barrier efficiency can be made, among others, by the measurement of the following values: the lipid coat, the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) index, and pH.

Materials: The study involved 50 Caucasian, healthy women aged 19-35 years (mean 20.56).

Methods: Measurements were made using Courage & Khazaka Multi Probe Adapter MPA 580: Tewameter TM 300, pH-Meter PH 905, Sebumeter SM 815. The areas of measurements included forehead, nose, left cheek, right cheek, chin, and thigh.

Results: In the T-zone, the lipid coat was in the range between 0 and 270 μg/cm (mean 128 μg/cm ), TEWL between 1 and 55 g/m /h (mean 11.1 g/m /h), and pH 4.0-5.6 (mean 5.39). Lower values of the lipid coat up to 100 μg/cm were accompanied by TEWL greater than 30 g/m /h and less acidic pH of 5.6-9.0. In the U-zone the range of lipid coat was up to 200 μg/cm (mean 65.2 μg/cm ), the skin pH remained 4.0-5.6 (mean 5.47), and TEWL was in the range between 1 and 20 g/m /h (mean 8.7 g/m /h). Lower values of the lipid coat up to 100 μg/cm were accompanied by TEWL between 1 and 20 g/m /h and less acidic pH of 5.6-9.0. High values of the lipid coat between 180 and 200 μg/cm were connected with TEWL of 1-15 g/m /h. On the skin of the thigh, we observed a very thin lipid coat - 35 μg/cm (mean 5.6 μg/cm ), pH (mean 5.37), and TEWL (mean 8.5 g/m /h) were considered by us to be within regular limits.

Conclusions: In the T-zone, a thinner lipid coat resulted in relatively high TEWL and pH levels changing toward alkaline. In the U-zone, thinner lipid coat was accompanied by lower TEWL and pH changing toward alkaline. We also observed that lower values of lipid coat up to 100 μg/cm were associated with higher pH values ranging toward the basic character pH 5.6-9.0).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.13726DOI Listing
November 2017

Melanin and lipofuscin as hallmarks of skin aging.

Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2017 Apr 13;34(2):97-103. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Discoloration are symptoms of skin aging. They are connected with presence of melanin and lipofuscin, whose excess and abnormal distribution in the skin cause dark spots to appear. Melanin is formed under the influence of tyrosinase during melanogenesis. Its content changes with age, which may be a result of menopause. Lipofuscin is another example of the age pigment. It is composed of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. It is described as an age pigment because its content increases with age. The formation and accumulation of lipofuscin is inevitable and leads to cell and homeostasis dysfunction because it reduces the proteasome activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ada.2017.67070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5420599PMC
April 2017

Mexametric and cutometric assessment of the signs of aging of the skin area around the eyes after the use of non-ablative fractional laser, non-ablative radiofrequency and intense pulsed light.

Dermatol Ther 2017 Mar 21;30(2). Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lódź, Muszyńskiego 1 Street, 91 - 151, Łódź, Poland.

The assessment of the signs of aging within eyes area in cutometric (skin elasticity) and mexametric (discoloration and severity of erythema) examination after the treatment with: non-ablative fractional laser, non-ablative radiofrequency (RF) and intense light source (IPL). This study included 71 patients, aged 33-63 years (the average age was 45.81) with Fitzpatrick skin type II and III. 24 patients received 5 successive treatment sessions with a 1,410-nm non-ablative fractional laser in two-week intervals, 23 patients received 5 successive treatment sessions with a non-ablative RF in one-week intervals and 24 patients received 5 successive treatment sessions with an IPL in two-week intervals. The treatment was performed for the skin in the eye area. The Cutometer and Mexameter (Courage + Khazaka electronic) reference test was used as an objective method for the assessment of skin properties: elasticity, skin pigmentation and erythema. Measurements of skin elasticity were made in three or four sites within eye area. The results of cutometric measurements for R7 showed the improvement in skin elasticity in case of all treatment methods. The largest statistically significant improvement (p < .0001) was observed in case of laser and RF, during treatment sessions, at sites at upper and lower eyelid. The smallest change in skin elasticity for the laser, RF and IPL - p = .017, p = .003 and p = .001, respectively-was observed in a site within the outer corner of the eye. In all sites of measurements and for all methods, the greatest improvement in skin elasticity was demonstrated between the first and second measurement (after 3rd procedures). The majority of the results of mexametric measurements-MEX (melanin level) and ERYT (the severity of erythema) are statistically insignificant. Fractional, non-ablative laser, non-ablation RF and intense light source can be considered as methods significantly affecting elasticity and to a lesser extent erythema and skin pigmentation around the eyes. Fractional non-ablative laser is a method which, in comparison to other methods, has the greatest impact on skin viscoelasticity. These procedures are well tolerated and are associated with a low risk of side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.12470DOI Listing
March 2017

Intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment for the skin in the eye area - clinical and cutometric analysis.

J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017 Feb 23;19(1):18-24. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

a Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology , Chair of Cosmetology, Faculty of Pharmacy , Medical University of Lódź, Łódź , Poland.

Objective: The aim of the research was to establish the influence of IPL treatment on skin ageing in the eye area.

Material And Methods: This study included 24 women, aged 38-63 years (mean age was 48.04) with Fitzpatrick skin type II and III who underwent five successive treatment sessions with an IPL in two-week intervals. The Cutometer (Courage + Khazaka electronic) reference test was an objective method for the assessment of the biomechanical properties of the skin. The measurements were made in three places around the eye. The photo documentation was used to compare state of skin before and after three months of treatments. Additionally, patients filled in a questionnaire, which contained questions concerning self-assessment of the procedure effects.

Results: Cutometric analysis showed significant improvement of skin elasticity (statistical significance level is mostly < 0.0001). The comparison of clinical changes in the therapy, based on photo documentation, showed a 25% improvement.

Conclusions: This treatment was used in order to improve skin elasticity and decrease the amount and depth of wrinkles. It is a non-invasive treatment, with low risk of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14764172.2016.1247963DOI Listing
February 2017

Paxillin and its role in the aging process of skin cells.

Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 2016 Oct 6;70(0):1087-1094. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

Zakład Kosmetologii i Dermatologii Estetycznej, Katedra Kosmetologii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi.

Morphology of senescent cells is constantly changing at the molecular level, which in turn leads to disruption of their function. It is connected with reduced ability to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) and leads to the dysfunction of integrin adhesion molecules and adhesion clusters. In skin, these factors cause a loss of communication between the extracellular matrix and fibroblasts. This contributes to the appearance of signs of aging. The aim of this study is to draw attention to the very important molecule such as paxillin, which is an adaptor protein with mass of 68 kDa. This family of proteins includes Hic-5, PaxB and leupaxin. Paxillin binds to actin-binding proteins such as vinculin, actopaxin, and kinases (e.g. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK)). Moreover, it plays an important role in the integrity of the matrix, because it transduces transmembrane signaling between integrins and growth factors. Paxillin is a scaffold protein, activating the arrangement and organization of the cytoskeleton. Signaling through paxillin affects the long-term changes in gene expression, cell proliferation, and organization of the ECM. Correct functioning of the ECM is important for the wound healing processes and regeneration of tissues or tissue repair. Decrease or lack of paxillin expression results in changes in the structure and integrity of the ECM, which are manifested by aging of cells and organs. Restoration of the cellular matrix connections would be a significant element in the processes related to the anti-aging activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/17322693.1221385DOI Listing
October 2016

Nonablative radiofrequency treatment for the skin in the eye area - clinical and cutometrical analysis.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2016 Dec 29;15(4):427-433. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lódź, Łódź, Poland.

Objective: The purpose of the research was to evaluate skin elasticity and reduction in the aging eye area after using a nonablative radiofrequency treatment.

Material And Methods: This study included 23 patients, aged 34-58 years with Fitzpatrick skin type II and III. They received five treatment sessions with a nonablative radiofrequency in 1-week intervals. Biomechanical properties of the skin were measured using Cutometer. A photodocumentation was used to compare changes before and after the series of treatment sessions. Additionally, the patients filled in a questionnaire in which they were asked to make a self-evaluation of the procedure.

Results: Cutometrical analysis showed improvement of skin elasticity. Changes in the measurements of R2 and R6 parameters indicate that the statistical significance level is mostly P < 0.0001 for the differences in the measurements. The comparison of clinical changes in the therapy, based on photodocumentation, showed a 33.26% improvement.

Conclusions: This treatment was used to improve skin tightness and decrease the amount and depth of wrinkles. It is a noninvasive treatment, with low risk of complications. The cutometrical measurements seem to be useful to assess improvement of elasticity of the skin after cosmetology or esthetic dermatology treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12254DOI Listing
December 2016

Nonablative fractional laser treatment for the skin in the eye area - clinical and cutometric analysis.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2016 Dec 17;15(4):399-406. Epub 2016 Jul 17.

Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lódź, Łódź, Poland.

Objective: The purpose of the research was to evaluate skin elasticity and reduction in the aging eye area using a 1410-nm nonablative fractional laser treatment, cutometric measurements and photographic documentation.

Material And Methods: This study included 24 patients (21 women, three men), aged 33-50 years (the average age was 44.6) with Fitzpatrick skin type II and III. They received five successive treatment sessions with a 1410-nm nonablative fractional laser in 2-week intervals. Biomechanical properties of the skin were measured by using Cutometer (Courage+Khazaka electronic). Measurements of skin elasticity were made in three places of the eye area. A photographic documentation was used to compare changes after the series of treatment sessions. Additionally, the patients filled in a survey in which they were asked to make a self-evaluation of the administered procedure.

Results: Cutometric analysis showed a significant improvement of skin elasticity. Changes in the measurements of R2 and R6 parameters indicate that the statistical significance level is mostly P < 0.0001 for the differences in the measurements. The analysis of clinical results of the therapy, using photographic documentation, showed a 47% decrease in the quantity and depth of wrinkles in the eye area.

Conclusions: A 1410-nm nonablative fractional laser treatment seems to be an effective method aiming at reducing wrinkles in the eye area and improving tightness. Cutometric measurements provide invaluable help in the objective evaluation of the anti-aging treatment and the photographic documentation is an excellent addition to the clinical analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12230DOI Listing
December 2016

Fractional non-ablative laser treatment at 1410 nm wavelength for periorbital wrinkles - reviscometrical and clinical evaluation.

J Cosmet Laser Ther 2016 Oct 2;18(5):275-9. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

a Department of Cosmetology and Aesthetic Dermatology , Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz , Lódź , Poland.

Objective: The aim of the research was to establish the influence of 1410-nm fractional non-ablative laser treatment on skin aging in the eye area. The reviscometer reference test is an objective method of estimating the flexibility of the skin. The photographic records were used as the auxiliary method of the therapy quality effectiveness.

Materials And Methods: The study involved the group of 13 people (12 females and 1 male, aged 33-47 with prototype II and III according to the Fitzpatrick scale), who underwent two sessions of fractional non-ablative laser therapy (wavelength of 1410 nm) with a 2-week interval. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the quality of the treatment a reviscometer probe was used to measure the skin elasticity (Reviscometer RVM 600). The measurements were taken twice: directly before and two weeks after the treatment. Furthermore, to facilitate the clinical evaluation an anonymous photographical documentation was prepared.

Results: An improvement of the skin flexibility in the eye area was observed and the fact was confirmed by values obtained using the reviscometer probe (significant statistic differences: P < 0.0001) as well as clinical assessment based on photographical records.

Conclusion: On the basis of the reviscometer measurements analysis and photographical records, 1410-nm fractional non-ablative laser treatment appears to be an efficient method contributing to the improvement of the skin flexibility of the eyes area as well as to the reduction of the number of wrinkles. The post-treatment observation proves that the method is well-tolerated in the sensitive eyes area and does not cause any significant side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14764172.2016.1157370DOI Listing
October 2016