Publications by authors named "Helena Garrido-Hernansaiz"

14 Publications

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Working in the Times of COVID-19. Psychological Impact of the Pandemic in Frontline Workers in Spain.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 4;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 4.

School of Human and Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Comillas Pontifical University, 28015 Madrid, Spain.

This study evaluates the psychological impact (PI) of the COVID-19 pandemic in frontline workers in Spain. Participants were 546 workers (296 healthcare workers, 105 media professionals, 89 grocery workers, and 83 protective service workers). They all completed online questionnaires assessing PI, sadness, concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and demographic and work-related variables. All groups but protective services workers showed higher PI levels than the general population. Healthcare and grocery workers were the most affected, with 73.6% and 65.2% of the participants, respectively, showing a severe PI. Women showed a higher PI level. Healthcare workers in the regions with higher COVID-19 incidences reported greater PI levels. The main concerns were being infected by COVID-19 or infecting others. Levels of concern correlated with higher PI levels. The protection equipment was generally reported as insufficient, which correlated with higher PI levels. Professionals reporting to overwork during the crisis (60% mass-media, 38% of healthcare and grocery and 21.7% of protective service) showed higher PI levels. In the healthcare group, taking care of patients with COVID-19 (77%) or of dying patients with COVID-19 (43.9%) was associated with higher PI levels. The perceived social recognition of their work was inversely related to PI. Most of the sample had not received psychological support. We suggest some organizational measures for frontline institutions, such as the periodical monitoring or inclusion of psychologists specialized in crisis-management to prevent negative symptoms and provide timely support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663407PMC
November 2020

Psychological Impact and Associated Factors During the Initial Stage of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Among the General Population in Spain.

Front Psychol 2020 23;11:1540. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Psychology and Sociology, Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Universidad de Zaragoza, Teruel, Spain.

The outbreak of COVID-19 in Spain started at the end of February. By 9th April 2020 Spain was the second country in confirmed cases and in deaths. On March 14, 2020, the Spanish Government declared the state of alarm to limit viral transmission. During such state, citizens must stay confined at home with few justified exceptions. This whole situation drastically changed the life of the population, which can cause a wide range of psychosocial impacts. This study explored the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the general adult population ( = 3055) during the first stages of the outbreak in Spain, as well as their anxiety, stress and depression levels. We also examined the extent to which the following variables were associated to participants' mental health: (1) demographics; (2) degree of concern about the pandemic; (3) environmental conditions during the home confinement, (4) changes in daily life as a consequence of the pandemic; (5) contact with the COVID-19 disease; (6) actual and perceived severity of the crisis; (7) information about the COVID-19, (8) perceived health status and (9) leisure activities conducted within the last 24 h. Our results show that Spanish consider the current COVID-19 health crisis as fairly severe, and the majority felt that the COVID-19 crisis had greatly impacted on their daily life, including changes in their daily routines and cancelation of important activities. About 36% of the participants reported moderate to severe psychological impact, 25% showed mild to severe levels of anxiety, 41% reported depressive symptoms, and 41% felt stressed. Women, young, and those who that lost their job during the health crisis showed the strongest negative psychological symptoms. What worried Spaniards the most was the likelihood of suffering an economic crisis derived from the pandemic. We found factors associated with better mental health, such as being satisfied with the information received about the health crisis, conducting leisure activities, and the perception of being in good health. These findings can be used to design psychological interventions to help coping with COVID-19 pandemic, both in Spain and other countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325630PMC
June 2020

Psychological impact of COVID-19 in Spain: Early data report.

Psychol Trauma 2020 Jul 15;12(5):550-552. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Psychology and Sociology, School of Social and Human Sciences, University of Zaragoza.

By the end of March 2020, Spain was one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This commentary provides an initial picture of the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak during its initial stage in Spain. Data of 3055 participants aged 18-88 years old were collected over a week (March 17th-24th 2020) using an online forms platform. Participants provided information regarding sociodemographic data and completed the Spanish version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, which assesses psychological distress caused by a traumatic life event in terms of three symptomatic responses (avoidance, intrusion, and hyperarousal). Results revealed that 36.6% of participants showed psychological distress due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Avoidance was the most prevalent symptom in the total sample and for all genders studied. The psychological impact was consistently higher for young people, and for women compared to men. Our data confirm the great psychological toll that the COVID-19 crisis took on the Spanish general population during the first week of confinement. Women and young people seem particularly vulnerable to the negative psychological impact of the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000943DOI Listing
July 2020

Predictors of anxiety and depression among newly diagnosed people living with HIV: A longitudinal study.

Scand J Psychol 2020 Oct 30;61(5):616-624. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

This longitudinal study examined whether past resilience and internalized stigma predicted anxiety and depression among newly diagnosed Spanish-speaking people living with HIV (PLWH). We also analyzed whether coping strategies mediated this relationship. Data were collected at two time points from 119 PLWH. Approximately a third of participants had scores indicative of anxiety symptoms, the same result was found for depressive symptoms. Structural equations modeling revealed that 61% of the variance of anxiety and 48% of the variance of depression 8 months after diagnosis was explained by the proposed model, which yielded a good fit to data. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were significantly and negatively predicted by positive thinking, thinking avoidance, and past resilience, and positively predicted by self-blame. Additionally, anxiety was positively predicted by internalized stigma. Past resilience negatively predicted internalized stigma, self-blame, and thinking avoidance and it positively predicted positive thinking. Internalized stigma positively predicted self-blame. Moreover, internalized stigma had a significant indirect effect on anxiety symptoms through self-blame, and past resilience had significant indirect effects on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms through internalized stigma and coping. The results point to the need for clinicians and policy makers to conduct systematic assessments and implement interventions to reduce internalized stigma and train people living with HIV to identify and use certain coping behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12621DOI Listing
October 2020

Evaluating Resilience: Development and Validation of the Situated Subjective Resilience Questionnaire for Adults (SSRQA).

Span J Psychol 2018 Oct 29;21:E39. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain).

Although resilience varies depending on the specific type of adverse situation faced by the individual, to date resilience questionnaires do not consider its situational character. This study aims to develop and validate the Situated Subjective Resilience Questionnaire for Adults (SSRQA), which assesses resilience in five different adverse contexts. A total of 584 Spanish adults (including general population and clinical samples individuals) completed the SSRQA and other measures of resilience, optimism, and self-efficacy. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the SSRQA structure fitted the situational model better (χ2/df = 1.90; CFI = .96; TLI = .95; RMSEA = .07) than the non-situational version (χ2/df = 4.99; CFI = .79; TLI = .76; RMSEA = .15). The SSRQA was shown to be reliable (α = .90) and to be significantly and positively correlated with other resilience measures (p < .001) and, to a lower degree, with optimism and self-efficacy (p < .001). Degree of exposure to each adverse situation was negatively correlated with resilience in the face of that situation (p < .05), supporting a vulnerability to stress model. The SSRQA has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid situated measure for resilience towards different adverse contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2018.44DOI Listing
October 2018

HIV-related stigma and optimism as predictors of anxiety and depression among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

AIDS Care 2018 09 1;30(9):1173-1179. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

b Research Centre for Psychological Health , School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin , Dublin , Ireland.

This study investigated the associations between forms of HIV-related optimism, HIV-related stigma, and anxiety and depression among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. HIV health optimism (HHO) and HIV transmission optimism (HTO) were hypothesised to be protective factors for anxiety and depression, while the components of HIV-related stigma (enacted stigma, disclosure concerns, concern with public attitudes, and internalised stigma) were hypothesised to be risk factors. Data were collected from 278 HIV-positive MSM using an online questionnaire. The prevalence of psychological distress was high, with close to half (48.9%) of all participants reporting symptoms of anxiety, and more than half (57.9%) reporting symptoms of depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that both anxiety and depression were positively predicted by internalised stigma and enacted stigma, and negatively predicted by HHO. For both anxiety and depression, internalised stigma was the strongest and most significant predictor. The results highlight the continued psychological burden associated with HIV infection among MSM, even as community support services are being defunded across the United Kingdom and Ireland. The results point to the need for clinicians and policy makers to implement stigma reduction interventions among this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2018.1445827DOI Listing
September 2018

Development and Validation of the ADAS Scale and Prediction of Attitudes Toward Affective-Sexual Diversity Among Spanish Secondary Students.

J Homosex 2018 19;65(8):1032-1050. Epub 2017 Sep 19.

d Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology , Universidad Autónoma de Madrid , Madrid , Spain.

Violence against non-heterosexual adolescents in educational contexts remains a worrying reality, but no adequate attitudes toward affective-sexual diversity (AtASD) measure exists for Spanish adolescent students. We developed a 27-item scale including cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects, which was completed by 696 secondary school students from the Madrid area. Factor analyses suggested a unidimensional model, Cronbach's alpha indicated excellent scale scores reliability, and item calibration under the item response theory framework showed that the scale is especially informative for homophobic attitudes. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that variables traditionally related to AtASD (gender, age, religion, nationality, perceived parental/peer attitudes, direct contact with LGB people) also were so in our sample. Moreover, interest in sexuality topics and perceived center's efforts to provide AtASD education were related to better AtASD. Our scale was reliable and valid, and it may also prove useful in efforts to detect those students with homophobic attitudes and to guide interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2017.1364951DOI Listing
June 2018

Predictors of Resilience and Posttraumatic Growth Among People Living with HIV: A Longitudinal Study.

AIDS Behav 2017 Nov;21(11):3260-3270

Department of Biological and Health Psychology, School of Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle Ivan Pavlov, 6, 28049, Madrid, Spain.

This longitudinal study investigated the predictors of HIV-related resilience (HR) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among Spanish-speaking HIV-positive people. Perceived past resilience, internalised stigma, and coping strategies were hypothesised as possible predictors. Data were collected at two time points from 119 HIV-positive people. Path analyses with latent variables revealed that half of HR 8 months after diagnosis was predicted by rumination, emotional expression, positive thinking, internalised stigma, and perceived past resilience. The latter three, along with isolation, self-blame, thinking avoidance, and help seeking predicted some PTG dimensions 8 months after diagnosis. The results highlight the importance of internalised stigma associated with HIV infection and of the differential use of coping strategies, and point to the need for clinicians and policy makers to implement stigma reduction and appropriate coping strategies interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1870-yDOI Listing
November 2017

Social Support in Newly Diagnosed People living With HIV: Expectations and Satisfaction Along Time, Predictors, and Mental Health Correlates.

J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2017 Nov - Dec;28(6):849-861. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Social support usually decreases following HIV diagnosis, and decreased support is related to worsening mental health. We investigated the evolution of social support after HIV diagnosis and its relationship to anxiety, depression, and resilience, and sought to develop a social support prediction model. There were 119 newly diagnosed Spanish speakers who participated in this longitudinal study, completing measures of social support, internalized stigma, disclosure concerns, degree of disclosure, coping, anxiety, depression, and resilience. Bivariate associations and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results showed that the highest levels of support arose from friends, health care providers, and partners, and that social support decreased following diagnosis. Subsequent social support was negatively predicted by avoidance coping and positively by approach coping, steady partnership, and disclosure. It was significantly associated with decreased anxiety and depression and higher resilience. Interventions should seek to promote mental health in people living with HIV by increasing social support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jana.2017.06.007DOI Listing
December 2017

Posttraumatic growth inventory: factor structure in Spanish-speaking people living with HIV.

AIDS Care 2017 10 14;29(10):1320-1323. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

a Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Psychology Faculty , Universidad Autónoma de Madrid , Madrid , Spain.

This cross-sectional study analyzed the factorial structure of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) in a sample of 304 Spanish-speaking HIV-positive adults. Participants completed the PTGI and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out through structural equations modeling, with a Varimax rotation. Factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 were extracted, and items with loadings higher than .5 on a factor and lower than .4 on the rest were retained. Two confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed to test a hierarchical model and a bifactor model. Reliability analyses were conducted. EFA suggested a three-factor model keeping 11 of the original 21 items. The three factors that emerged were changes in philosophy of life, in the self and in interpersonal relationships. CFAs suggested that only the bifactor model fitted the data. The three factors as well as the global scale showed good reliability. The factor structure of PTGI's scores in our data is consistent with the three dimensions theorized by Tedeschi and Calhoun, which speaks in favor of the construct validity of this measure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2017.1291900DOI Listing
October 2017

Stigmas, symptom severity and perceived social support predict quality of life for PLHIV in urban Indian context.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2016 Nov 3;14(1):152. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 550 16th St, 3rd floor, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

Background: Multiple variables have been studied in relation to health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but research has not integrated the contributions of different variables in a single model that allows to compare them. This study, carried out with people living with HIV/AIDS in India, sought to develop a prediction model considering various predictors previously found to be related to HRQoL, namely sociodemographic factors, HIV symptoms, social support, stigmas and avoidant coping.

Methods: A sample of 961 HIV-positive persons from Bengaluru and Mumbai participated in this cross-sectional study, completing a sociodemographic questionnaire along with HRQoL, HIV symptoms, disclosure expectations, disclosure avoidance, social support and internalized, felt, vicarious and enacted stigma scales. Bivariate associations were obtained (correlations, ANOVAs and t tests) and a multiple regression analysis was performed.

Results: Results show that, when all variables are considered together, being married, widowed or deserted, symptom intensity, internalized stigma, disclosure avoidance and enacted stigma contribute negatively to predict HRQoL. On the other hand, being employed, good disclosure expectations and good social support contribute positively to predict HRQoL. Almost half of the variance in HRQoL was explained by this model.

Conclusions: Interventions seeking to increase HRQoL in people living with HIV/AIDS in India would benefit from addressing these aspects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-016-0556-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5094021PMC
November 2016

The factor structure of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory in parents of critically ill children.

Psicothema 2016 Nov;28(4):495-503

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.

Background: Posttraumatic growth (PTG) was conceptualized as consisting of changes in three broad dimensions; Self, interpersonal relationships, and philosophy of life. The aim of this study is to analyze the factor structure of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) in a sample of parents whose children had survived a critical hospitalization in order to consider the structural validity of the PTGI scores for this population and to report our understanding of PTG as a construct.

Methods: 143 parents completed the PTGI 6 months after their child’s discharge from pediatric intensive care. The PTGI scores’ factor structure was studied through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of different models supported in prior research, followed by an exploratory principal component analysis (PCA).

Results: Prior models tested through CFA did not provide an acceptable fit for our data. Through exploratory PCA, three components emerged that explained 73.41% of the variance; personal growth, interpersonal growth and transpersonal growth. Subsequent CFAs on this three-factor model showed that a bifactor model had the best fit.

Conclusion: Although the PTGI scores have shown slightly different factor structures among diverse populations, the three dimensions initially theorized appear to be robust, which supports the structural validity of its scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2016.162DOI Listing
November 2016

Coping assessment from the perspective of the person-situation interaction: Development and validation of the Situated Coping Questionnaire for Adults (SCQA).

Psicothema 2016 Nov;28(4):479-486

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.

Background: Although coping strategies are considered to contribute to resilience to adversity, their use is not stable, but varies depending on the specific adversity. However, to date, most of the questionnaires assessing coping do not consider its situational character. The objective of this study is to develop and validate the Situated Coping Questionnaire for Adults (SCQA), which assesses coping in the face of five different kinds of adverse contexts to take into account its situational dimension.

Methods: A total of 430 Spanish adults (256 from the general population, 77 people suffering from cancer or HIV, and 97 parents of children with cancer or developmental problems) completed the SCQA and two resilience questionnaires (the Brief Resilience Scale and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale) for validation purposes.

Results: Confirmatory factor analyses showed the superiority of the person-situation model; the situation influences the degree to which people use specific coping strategies; however, coping is also stable to some extent. Regression analyses showed that coping strategies contribute to predict resilience, supporting the validity of the SCQA. The questionnaire and its sub-scales showed adequate reliability.

Conclusion: The SCQA is deemed a reliable and valid means of situated coping assessment for use in several populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2016.19DOI Listing
November 2016
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