Publications by authors named "Heinrich Bachmann"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

1α,25(OH)D-glycosides from leaves extract induce myoblasts differentiation through p38 MAPK and AKT activation.

Biol Open 2018 May 14;7(5). Epub 2018 May 14.

Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas y Biomédicas del Sur (INBIOSUR), Universidad Nacional del Sur-CONICET, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina

We have previously shown that leaf extract (SGE) increases VDR protein levels and promotes myoblast differentiation. Here, we investigated whether p38 MAPK and AKT are involved in SGE actions. Cell-cycle studies showed that SGE prompted a peak of S-phase followed by an arrest in the G0/G1-phase through p38 MAPK. Time course studies showed that p38 MAPK and AKT phosphorylation were statistically increased by SGE (10 nM) or synthetic 1α,25(OH)D (1 nM) treatment. Furthermore, p38 MAPK and AKT inhibitors, SB203580 and LY294002 respectively, suppressed myoblasts fusion induced by SGE or synthetic 1α,25(OH)D We have also studied differentiation genes by qRT-PCR. mRNA increased significantly by SGE (24-72 h) or 1α,25(OH)D (24 h) treatment. mRNA expression of also increased upon SGE or 1α,25(OH)D treatment. Finally, mRNA expression, a late differentiation marker, was increased significantly by both compounds at 72 h compared to control. Taken together, these results suggest that SGE, as synthetic 1α,25(OH)D, promotes myotube formation through p38 MAPK and AKT activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.033670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992525PMC
May 2018

Effects of a sustained release formulation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-glycosides for milk fever prevention on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcium and phosphorus in dairy cows.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017 10 23;173:301-307. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Institute for Animal Nutrition, Ludwig Maximilians University München, D-85764 Oberschleissheim, Germany. Electronic address:

Milk fever (MF) is a metabolic disease in dairy cows around parturition. The clinical lead sign is muscular paresis leading in severe cases to paralysis of the affected animal. Multiparturient animals of high performing dairy breeds are most likely to be affected and have a high probability of recurrence. An acute drop in blood calcium levels causes the disease when the demand for calcium at the onset of lactation exceeds the ability to replete blood calcium levels through mobilization from bone and intestinal uptake. With the understanding of the underlying mechanism, calcium supply management and vitamin D supplementation became prime candidates for MF prevention and therapy. Several strategies have been developed for MF prevention. Application of the active form of Vitamin D, 1,25(OH)D, was found to prevent MF effectively. In order to prevent a delayed hypocalcemia, which was occasionally seen after stopping the treatment with 1,25(OH)D a new approach was chosen by applying Solanum glaucophyllum extract (SGE), which contains 1,25(OH)D-glycosides, as instant-release (irSGE) in combination with slow-release (srSGE) tablets. In a first study, non-lactating cows were treated with a single bolus of either synthetic 1,25(OH)D, irSGE, or srSGE and the results were compared to a control group without treatment. Blood serum levels of 1,25(OH)D (1,25D), calcium (Ca), phosphate (P) and magnesium (Mg) were followed for 11days and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Calcium and phosphate excretion in urine were determined during 15days. While serum concentration of 1,25(OH)D was back to pre-treatment level in the irSGE, srSGE and 1,25(OH)D treated group within 3days, calcium and phosphate levels remained elevated for up to 9days. AUC of serum 1,25(OH)D was 2.89 (1,25D), 3.13 (irSGE) and 4.21 (srSGE) times higher than control. Serum calcium levels were 1.07 (for 1.25D); 1.08 (for irSGE) and 1.12 (for srSGE) times higher than control. Serum phosphate levels were 1.20 (for 1,25D); 1.30 (for irSGE) and 1.41 (for srSGE) times higher than control, with p<0.05. In a second field study calving cows treated with one bolus containing ir- and sr- tablets of SGE were compared to an untreated control group and to a group treated with 4 boli of commercial calcium salts. As a result, calcium serum levels increased (+19% compared to baseline) around calving after treatment with the single bolus of SGE. The single bolus of SGE lead also to an increase of serum phosphate (+31% compared to baseline). These calcium and phosphate increases were statistically significant (p<0.001) 0-24h after calving compared to the control group and to the group treated with calcium salts. The sample size of the study was too small to draw a conclusion on the effect on MF prevention. In conclusion, application of a single bolus of a SGE extract lead to an increase of serum calcium and phosphate for up to 9days and may thus have the potential to prevent a hypocalcemia and -phosphatemia, an important cause for clinical milk fever.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.03.020DOI Listing
October 2017

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-glycoside of herbal origin exhibits delayed release pharmacokinetics when compared to its synthetic counterpart.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2013 Jul 26;136:333-6. Epub 2012 Sep 26.

Herbonis AG, Gellertstrasse 33, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland.

Vitamin D requires two metabolic steps to become biologically active. In a first step 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is formed, which acts as storage form. After a tightly controlled step in kidney the active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is formed. Because kidney is the relevant metabolic organ for this conversion, 1,25(OH)2D3 needs to be supplemented in patients with kidney malfunction or kidney failure. Synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 (calcitriol) has been available as a drug for decades. Due to its high potency and its kinetic profile (fast absorption and rapid elimination) its therapeutic windows has proven to be relatively narrow. A natural form of the active metabolite was identified in a few plants, such as Solanum glaucophyllum (SG) and suggested as alternative for animal and human health. An extract of a SG variety bred for high and uniform level of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 was chemically characterized. Among the typical pharmaceutically inactive plant components (carbohydrates 54.3%, protein 24.9%, minerals 17.1% and water 4.1%) high levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and a unique flavonoid content was found (1.11mg total quercetin/g extract) consisting exclusively of the quercetin glycosides hyperoside, isoquercetin, rutin and apinosylrutin. The molecular distribution of glycosyl moieties in 1,25(OH)2D3 extracted from SG as determined by gel permeation chromatography was found to be 1-10 hexose units per aglycone. 1,25(OH)2D3-1-β-glucopyranoside was identified in the SG extract, while a di- and triglycoside have been identified in SG by other groups. The pharmacokinetic properties of synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 and glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 extracted from SG were compared in male rats. When compared to synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3, SG-derived 1,25(OH)2D3 exhibited delayed absorption and elimination characteristics, resulting in delayed Tmax (6-12h vs. 1h) and increased T½ (approximately 30h vs. 23h). This putative modified release pattern may be attributed to the glycosylation of herbal 1,25(OH)2D3 because de-glycosylation by ubiquitous intestinal enzymes prior to intestinal uptake of the aglycone appears to be the rate limiting step. In effect, 1,25(OH)2D3 of herbal origin behaves like a precursor of calcitriol, resulting in a wider therapeutic window and thus better pharmacological tolerance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop.'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2012.09.016DOI Listing
July 2013

Transcriptomics does not show adverse effects of beta-carotene in A/J mice exposed to smoke for 2 weeks.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2007 Sep 18;465(2):336-46. Epub 2007 Jul 18.

DSM Nutritional Products, Human Nutrition and Health, PO Box 3255, Building 241/421, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

Beta-carotene (betaC) supplementation in smokers was unexpectedly associated with increased incidence of lung cancer versus smoking alone. We performed a study in A/J mice to explore possible betaC/cigarette smoke (CS) interactions potentially influencing lung cancer risk in smokers. A/J mice received a diet containing 120 or 600 ppm betaC for six weeks, and exposed to mainstream CS (140 mg total suspended particulates/m(3)) during the last two weeks. Lung transcriptomics analysis revealed that CS induced drug metabolism, oxidative stress, extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, inflammation markers, and apoptosis. betaC reduced CS-induced inflammation markers and ECM degradation. betaC modulated the CS effect on apoptosis without a clear pro- or anti-apoptotic trend. betaC alone induced only minor changes of gene expression. In conclusion, betaC/CS interactions caused gene regulations in lungs. CS was the main effector. The gene regulations overall did not indicate that betaC exacerbated CS effects. Dose-dependency of betaC effects was minor and not detectable by genome-wide data mining.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2007.06.034DOI Listing
September 2007

beta-carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform mRNA expression patterns do not influence lung adenoma multiplicity in the NNK-initiated A/J mouse model.

Nutr Cancer 2006 ;54(2):252-62

DSM Nutritional Products Ltd, Research and Development, Human Nutrition and Health, Basel, Switzerland.

A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations of beta-carotene plasma levels or intake with decreased lung cancer risk. However, intervention studies in smokers reported increased lung tumor rates after high long-term beta-carotene supplementation. For insight into these conflicting results, we studied the influence of beta-carotene on tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung cancer development in the A/J-mouse using 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitro samino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) as the initiator and lung adenoma multiplicity as the functional endpoint. Gene regulation of the putative tumor suppressor RARbeta in mouse lung was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for its relevance in predicting the endpoint of lung cancer. A/J-mice achieved plasma beta-carotene levels of up to 3 micromol/L within 4 wk and up to 6 micromol/L after 6 mo of supplementation on a diet modified to enhance beta-carotene absorption. Despite high lung beta-carotene concentrations of up to 6 micromol/kg, tumor multiplicity was not significantly affected by the beta-carotene treatment, either in carcinogen-initiated or non-initiated mice, and was unrelated to beta-carotene dose and the time point of treatment during cancer formation. Tumor multiplicity did not correlate with beta-carotene plasma levels in NNK-treated animals. All RARbeta isoforms were significantly suppressed in the lungs of NNK- and NNK plus high dose beta-carotene-treated animals. However, the number of tumors per mouse did not correlate with the RARbeta-isoform expression levels. beta-carotene alone after 3 mo of supplementation mildly but significantly increased levels of RARbeta1, beta2, and beta4. This increase persisted for 6 mo for RARbeta2 and beta4. In summary, we found no effect of beta-carotene on tumor formation in the NNK-initiated A/J-mouse lung cancer model with respect to dose or time point of treatment. beta-Carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform gene expression levels were not predictive for the number of lung tumors but were indicative of intact beta-carotene metabolism and persistent sensitivity to retinoic acid in the mice. Down-regulation of RARbeta in NNK-induced adenoma-bearing lungs was similar to that observed in human lung cancer and further confirms the A/J-mouse as a valuable model for lung carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327914nc5402_12DOI Listing
December 2006

Beta-carotene interaction with NNK in the AJ-mouse model: effects on cell proliferation, tumor formation and retinoic acid responsive genes.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2005 May 27;1740(2):179-88. Epub 2005 Jan 27.

Build. 221/106, DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., R and D, Human Nutrition and Health P.O. Box 3255, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

We studied the influence of beta-carotene on the tobacco smoke carcinogen 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumor development in the A/J-mouse model. The normally low beta-carotene absorption was facilitated with a diet enriched in fat and bile salt, resulting in plasma and lung tissue levels similar to humans. beta-Carotene enhanced NNK-induced early bronchial cell proliferation, however, this effect was not predictive for later tumor development. Tumor multiplicity was not significantly affected by beta-carotene, neither in carcinogen-initiated nor in uninitiated mice, and regardless of dose and time point of supplementation during tumor development. RARbeta isoform and CYP26 gene expression levels analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR were weakly, but significantly, inversely correlated and showed evidence for altered retinoid signaling and catabolism in the lungs of NNK-initiated, beta-carotene supplemented mice. However, this interaction did not translate into enhanced tumor multiplicity. These results indicate that impaired retinoid signaling is not likely a key factor in lung tumorigenesis in this mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2005.01.005DOI Listing
May 2005

Feedback regulation of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase by retinoic acid in rats and chickens.

J Nutr 2002 Dec;132(12):3616-22

Roche Vitamins, Human Nutrition and Health, Carotenoid Group, CH-4070 Basel, Switzerland.

beta,beta-Carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (formerly termed beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase, EC 1.13.11.21) catalyzes the conversion of provitamin A carotenoids to retinal in vertebrate tissues. In the present study, we investigated whether preformed vitamin A or beta-carotene and its direct metabolites can regulate the enzyme activity in vivo. We found dose-dependent decreases in intestinal beta,beta-carotene monooxygenase activity after oral administration to rats of retinyl acetate (up to -79%), beta-carotene (up to -79%), apo-8'-carotenal (up to -56%), all-trans retinoic acid (up to -88%), and 9-cis retinoic acid (up to -67%). Liver beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (betaCMOOX) activity was not affected. Apo-12'carotenal and the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha antagonist Ro 41-5253 significantly increased the intestinal enzyme activity by 55 and 94%, respectively. When beta-carotene was administered to rats pretreated with the two cytochrome P(450) (CYP) inducers, pentobarbital and naphthoflavone, the intestinal betaCMOOX activity increased by 39%. In a transcriptional study in chickens, treatment with retinoic acid resulted in low expression of the intestinal betaCMOOX. Our data suggest that retinoids and carotenoids might regulate betaCMOOX expression by a transcriptional feedback mechanism via interaction with members of the RAR family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.12.3616DOI Listing
December 2002