Publications by authors named "Heiko M Reutter"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Currarino syndrome: a comprehensive genetic review of a rare congenital disorder.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Apr 9;16(1):167. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

Background: The triad of a presacral mass, sacral agenesis and an anorectal anomaly constitutes the rare Currarino syndrome (CS), which is caused by dorsal-ventral patterning defects during embryonic development. The major causative CS gene is MNX1, encoding a homeobox protein.

Main Body: In the majority of patients, CS occurs as an autosomal dominant trait; however, a female predominance observed, implies that CS may underlie an additional mode(s) of inheritance. Often, the diagnosis of CS is established solely by clinical findings, impacting a detailed analysis of the disease. Our combined data, evaluating more than 60 studies reporting patients with CS-associated mutations, revealed a slightly higher incidence rate in females with a female-to-male ratio of 1.39:1. Overall, MNX1 mutation analysis was successful in only 57.4% of all CS patients investigated, with no mutation detected in 7.7% of the familial and 68% of the sporadic patients. Our studies failed to detect the presence of an expressed MNX1 isoform that might explain at least some of these mutation-negative cases.

Conclusion: Aside from MNX1, other genes or regulatory regions may contribute to CS and we discuss several cytogenetic studies and whole-exome sequencing data that have implicated further loci/genes in its etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01799-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034116PMC
April 2021

Mutations of the Transcriptional Corepressor ZMYM2 Cause Syndromic Urinary Tract Malformations.

Authors:
Dervla M Connaughton Rufeng Dai Danielle J Owen Jonathan Marquez Nina Mann Adda L Graham-Paquin Makiko Nakayama Etienne Coyaud Estelle M N Laurent Jonathan R St-Germain Lot Snijders Blok Arianna Vino Verena Klämbt Konstantin Deutsch Chen-Han Wilfred Wu Caroline M Kolvenbach Franziska Kause Isabel Ottlewski Ronen Schneider Thomas M Kitzler Amar J Majmundar Florian Buerger Ana C Onuchic-Whitford Mao Youying Amy Kolb Daanya Salmanullah Evan Chen Amelie T van der Ven Jia Rao Hadas Ityel Steve Seltzsam Johanna M Rieke Jing Chen Asaf Vivante Daw-Yang Hwang Stefan Kohl Gabriel C Dworschak Tobias Hermle Mariëlle Alders Tobias Bartolomaeus Stuart B Bauer Michelle A Baum Eva H Brilstra Thomas D Challman Jacob Zyskind Carrie E Costin Katrina M Dipple Floor A Duijkers Marcia Ferguson David R Fitzpatrick Roger Fick Ian A Glass Peter J Hulick Antonie D Kline Ilona Krey Selvin Kumar Weining Lu Elysa J Marco Ingrid M Wentzensen Heather C Mefford Konrad Platzer Inna S Povolotskaya Juliann M Savatt Natalia V Shcherbakova Prabha Senguttuvan Audrey E Squire Deborah R Stein Isabelle Thiffault Victoria Y Voinova Michael J G Somers Michael A Ferguson Avram Z Traum Ghaleb H Daouk Ankana Daga Nancy M Rodig Paulien A Terhal Ellen van Binsbergen Loai A Eid Velibor Tasic Hila Milo Rasouly Tze Y Lim Dina F Ahram Ali G Gharavi Heiko M Reutter Heidi L Rehm Daniel G MacArthur Monkol Lek Kristen M Laricchia Richard P Lifton Hong Xu Shrikant M Mane Simone Sanna-Cherchi Andrew D Sharrocks Brian Raught Simon E Fisher Maxime Bouchard Mustafa K Khokha Shirlee Shril Friedhelm Hildebrandt

Am J Hum Genet 2020 10 4;107(4):727-742. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) constitute one of the most frequent birth defects and represent the most common cause of chronic kidney disease in the first three decades of life. Despite the discovery of dozens of monogenic causes of CAKUT, most pathogenic pathways remain elusive. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 551 individuals with CAKUT and identified a heterozygous de novo stop-gain variant in ZMYM2 in two different families with CAKUT. Through collaboration, we identified in total 14 different heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in ZMYM2 in 15 unrelated families. Most mutations occurred de novo, indicating possible interference with reproductive function. Human disease features are replicated in X. tropicalis larvae with morpholino knockdowns, in which expression of truncated ZMYM2 proteins, based on individual mutations, failed to rescue renal and craniofacial defects. Moreover, heterozygous Zmym2-deficient mice recapitulated features of CAKUT with high penetrance. The ZMYM2 protein is a component of a transcriptional corepressor complex recently linked to the silencing of developmentally regulated endogenous retrovirus elements. Using protein-protein interaction assays, we show that ZMYM2 interacts with additional epigenetic silencing complexes, as well as confirming that it binds to FOXP1, a transcription factor that has also been linked to CAKUT. In summary, our findings establish that loss-of-function mutations of ZMYM2, and potentially that of other proteins in its interactome, as causes of human CAKUT, offering new routes for studying the pathogenesis of the disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.08.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536580PMC
October 2020

A Genetics-First Approach Revealed Monogenic Disorders in Patients With ARM and VACTERL Anomalies.

Front Pediatr 2020 23;8:310. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

The VATER/VACTERL association (VACTERL) is defined as the non-random occurrence of the following congenital anomalies: Vertebral, Anal, Cardiac, Tracheal-Esophageal, Renal, and Limb anomalies. As no unequivocal candidate gene has been identified yet, patients are diagnosed phenotypically. The aims of this study were to identify patients with monogenic disorders using a genetics-first approach, and to study whether variants in candidate genes are involved in the etiology of VACTERL or the individual features of VACTERL: Anorectal malformation (ARM) or esophageal atresia with or without trachea-esophageal fistula (EA/TEF). Using molecular inversion probes, a candidate gene panel of 56 genes was sequenced in three patient groups: VACTERL ( = 211), ARM ( = 204), and EA/TEF ( = 95). Loss-of-function (LoF) and additional likely pathogenic missense variants, were prioritized and validated using Sanger sequencing. Validated variants were tested for segregation and patients were clinically re-evaluated. In 7 out of the 510 patients (1.4%), pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified in , and , genes that are associated with Townes-Brocks, Duane-radial-ray, and Opitz-G/BBB syndrome. These syndromes always include ARM or EA/TEF, in combination with at least two other VACTERL features. We did not identify LoF variants in the remaining candidate genes. None of the other candidate genes were identified as novel unequivocal disease genes for VACTERL. However, a genetics-first approach allowed refinement of the clinical diagnosis in seven patients, in whom an alternative molecular-based diagnosis was found with important implications for the counseling of the families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324789PMC
June 2020

Treatment Strategies and Outcome of the Exstrophy-Epispadias Complex in Germany: Data From the German CURE-Net.

Front Pediatr 2020 19;8:174. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Pediatric Urology, Clinic St. Hedwig, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

To evaluate the impact of reconstructive strategies and post-operative management on short- and long-term surgical outcome and complications of classical bladder exstrophy (CBE) patients' comprehensive data of the multicenter German-wide Network for Congenital Uro-Rectal malformations (CURE-Net) were analyzed. Descriptive analyses were performed between 34 prospectively collected CBE patients born since 2009, median 3 months old [interquartile range (IQR), 2-4 months], and 113 cross-sectional patients, median 12 years old (IQR, 6-21 years). The majority of included individuals were males (67%). Sixty-eight percent of the prospectively observed and 53% of the cross-sectional patients were reconstructed using a staged approach ( = 0.17). Although prospectively observed patients were operated on at a younger age, the post-operative management did not significantly change in the years before and after 2009. Solely, in prospectively observed patients, peridural catheters were used significantly more often ( = 0.017). Blood transfusions were significantly more frequent in males ( = 0.002). Only half of all CBE individuals underwent inguinal hernia repair. Cross-sectional patients after single-stage reconstructions showed more direct post-operative complications such as upper urinary tract dilatations ( = 0.0021) or urinary tract infections ( = 0.023), but not more frequent renal function impairment compared to patients after the staged approach ( = 0.42). Continence outcomes were not significantly different between the concepts ( = 0.51). Self-reported continence data showed that the majority of the included CBE patients was intermittent or continuous incontinent. Furthermore, subsequent consecutive augmentations and catheterizable stomata did not significantly differ between the two operative approaches. Urinary diversions were only reported after the staged concept. In this German multicenter study, a trend toward the staged concept was observed. While single-stage approaches tended to have initially more complications such as renal dilatation or urinary tract infections, additional surgery such as augmentations and stomata appeared to be similar after staged and single-stage reconstructions in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248227PMC
May 2020

Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Causative Mutations in Families with Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 09 24;29(9):2348-2361. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts;

Background: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most prevalent cause of kidney disease in the first three decades of life. Previous gene panel studies showed monogenic causation in up to 12% of patients with CAKUT.

Methods: We applied whole-exome sequencing to analyze the genotypes of individuals from 232 families with CAKUT, evaluating for mutations in single genes known to cause human CAKUT and genes known to cause CAKUT in mice. In consanguineous or multiplex families, we additionally performed a search for novel monogenic causes of CAKUT.

Results: In 29 families (13%), we detected a causative mutation in a known gene for isolated or syndromic CAKUT that sufficiently explained the patient's CAKUT phenotype. In three families (1%), we detected a mutation in a gene reported to cause a phenocopy of CAKUT. In 15 of 155 families with isolated CAKUT, we detected deleterious mutations in syndromic CAKUT genes. Our additional search for novel monogenic causes of CAKUT in consanguineous and multiplex families revealed a potential single, novel monogenic CAKUT gene in 19 of 232 families (8%).

Conclusions: We identified monogenic mutations in a known human CAKUT gene or CAKUT phenocopy gene as the cause of disease in 14% of the CAKUT families in this study. Whole-exome sequencing provides an etiologic diagnosis in a high fraction of patients with CAKUT and will provide a new basis for the mechanistic understanding of CAKUT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2017121265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6115658PMC
September 2018

Circulating microRNAs are associated with Pulmonary Hypertension and Development of Chronic Lung Disease in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

Sci Rep 2018 Jul 16;8(1):10735. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, Centre for Pediatrics, University Hospital Bonn, Adenauerallee 119, 53113, Bonn, Germany.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) contributes to high mortality in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). A better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the pathology in CDH might allow the identification of prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. We report the results from an expression profiling of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in direct post-pulmonary blood flow of 18 CDH newborns. Seven miRNAs differentially expressed in children that either died or developed chronic lung disease (CLD) up to 28 days after birth, compared to those who survived without developing CLD during this period, were identified. Target gene and pathway analyses indicate that these miRNAs functions include regulation of the cell cycle, inflammation and morphogenesis, by targeting molecules responsive to growth factors, cytokines and cellular stressors. Furthermore, we identified hub molecules by constructing a protein-protein interaction network of shared targets, and ranked the relative importance of the identified miRNAs. Our results suggest that dysregulations in miRNAs let-7b-5p, -7c-5p, miR-1307-3p, -185-3p, -8084, -331-3p and -210-3p may be detrimental for the development and function of the lungs and pulmonary vasculature, compromise cardiac function and contribute to the development of CLD in CDH. Further investigation of the biomarker and therapeutic potential of these circulating miRNAs is encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29153-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048121PMC
July 2018

Loss of Function of GALNT2 Lowers High-Density Lipoproteins in Humans, Nonhuman Primates, and Rodents.

Cell Metab 2016 08;24(2):234-45

Department of Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Human genetics studies have implicated GALNT2, encoding GalNAc-T2, as a regulator of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism, but the mechanisms relating GALNT2 to HDL-C remain unclear. We investigated the impact of homozygous GALNT2 deficiency on HDL-C in humans and mammalian models. We identified two humans homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in GALNT2 who demonstrated low HDL-C. We also found that GALNT2 loss of function in mice, rats, and nonhuman primates decreased HDL-C. O-glycoproteomics studies of a human GALNT2-deficient subject validated ANGPTL3 and ApoC-III as GalNAc-T2 targets. Additional glycoproteomics in rodents identified targets influencing HDL-C, including phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). GALNT2 deficiency reduced plasma PLTP activity in humans and rodents, and in mice this was rescued by reconstitution of hepatic Galnt2. We also found that GALNT2 GWAS SNPs associated with reduced HDL-C also correlate with lower hepatic GALNT2 expression. These results posit GALNT2 as a direct modulator of HDL metabolism across mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2016.07.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5663192PMC
August 2016

More than fetal urine: enteral uptake of amniotic fluid as a major predictor for fetal growth during late gestation.

Eur J Pediatr 2016 Jun 16;175(6):825-31. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Department of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, Children's Hospital, University of Bonn, Adenauerallee 119, 53113, Bonn, Germany.

Unlabelled: The purpose of our study was to investigate the importance of amniotic fluid (AF) for fetal growth during late gestation using esophageal atresia (EA) patients as a model. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared the z-scores adapted for birth weights (BW z-scores) for each of 517 European newborns with congenital pre-gastric intestinal atresia, i.e., EA, to a European reference population. To account for the influence of the intestinal atresia on fetal growth per se, we compared adapted birth weights for each of 504 European newborns with post colonic intestinal atresia (anorectal malformation (ARM) with atresia of the anus) to the same European reference population. Analysis of the complete cohort showed (i) a significantly higher rate of small for gestational age newborns among EA compared to ARM newborns (p < 0.001) and (ii) significantly lower BW z-scores among EA compared to ARM newborns (p < 0.001). BW z-scores of EA newborns were significantly lower in term compared to preterm newborns with an inverse correlation with gestational age (GA) (Spearman correlation coefficient, r = -0.185, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Enteral uptake of AF seems to play a pivotal role in fetal growth during late gestation.

What Is Known: • Peak velocity of fetal weight gain occurs at 33 weeks of gestation and continues until birth. During this period, fetal growth is mainly characterized by cellular hypertrophy. • Amniotic fluid (AF) comprises large amounts of hormones and growth regulators. What is New: • A significantly higher rate of small for gestational age and lower birth weights and z-scores are observed among newborn infants with congenital pre-gastric intestinal atresia. • These findings suggest that enteral uptake of AF is a major predictor for fetal growth during late gestation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-016-2713-yDOI Listing
June 2016

Targeted sequencing of 96 renal developmental microRNAs in 1213 individuals from 980 families with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2016 08 29;31(8):1280-3. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, USA.

Background: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause of chronic kidney diseases in children and young adults, accounting for ∼50% of cases. These anomalies represent maldevelopment of the genitourinary system and can be genetically explained in only 10-16% of cases by mutations or by copy number variations in protein coding sequences. Knock-out mouse models, lacking components of the microRNA (miRNA) processing machinery (i.e. Dicer, Drosha, Dgcr8), exhibit kidney malformations resembling human CAKUT.

Methods: Given the Dicer-null mouse phenotype, which implicates a central role for miRNAs gene regulation during kidney development, we hypothesized that miRNAs expressed during kidney development may cause CAKUT in humans if mutated. To evaluate this possibility we carried out Next-Generation sequencing of 96 stem-loop regions of 73 renal developmental miRNA genes in 1248 individuals with non-syndromic CAKUT from 980 families.

Results: We sequenced 96 stem-loop regions encoded by 73 miRNA genes that are expressed during kidney development in humans, mice and rats. Overall, we identified in 31/1213 individuals from 26 families with 17 different single nucleotide variants. Two variants did not segregate with the disease and hence were not causative. Thirteen variants were likely benign variants because they occurred in control populations and/or they affected nucleotides of weak evolutionary conservation. Two out of 1213 unrelated individuals had potentially pathogenic variants with unknown biologic relevance affecting miRNAs MIR19B1 and MIR99A.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that mutations affecting mature microRNAs in individuals with CAKUT are rare and thus most likely not a common cause of CAKUT in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfv447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967727PMC
August 2016

Mutations in TBX18 Cause Dominant Urinary Tract Malformations via Transcriptional Dysregulation of Ureter Development.

Am J Hum Genet 2015 Aug 30;97(2):291-301. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Electronic address:

Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause of chronic kidney disease in the first three decades of life. Identification of single-gene mutations that cause CAKUT permits the first insights into related disease mechanisms. However, for most cases the underlying defect remains elusive. We identified a kindred with an autosomal-dominant form of CAKUT with predominant ureteropelvic junction obstruction. By whole exome sequencing, we identified a heterozygous truncating mutation (c.1010delG) of T-Box transcription factor 18 (TBX18) in seven affected members of the large kindred. A screen of additional families with CAKUT identified three families harboring two heterozygous TBX18 mutations (c.1570C>T and c.487A>G). TBX18 is essential for developmental specification of the ureteric mesenchyme and ureteric smooth muscle cells. We found that all three TBX18 altered proteins still dimerized with the wild-type protein but had prolonged protein half life and exhibited reduced transcriptional repression activity compared to wild-type TBX18. The p.Lys163Glu substitution altered an amino acid residue critical for TBX18-DNA interaction, resulting in impaired TBX18-DNA binding. These data indicate that dominant-negative TBX18 mutations cause human CAKUT by interference with TBX18 transcriptional repression, thus implicating ureter smooth muscle cell development in the pathogenesis of human CAKUT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4862256PMC
August 2015

Mutations of the SLIT2-ROBO2 pathway genes SLIT2 and SRGAP1 confer risk for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

Hum Genet 2015 Aug 31;134(8):905-16. Epub 2015 May 31.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for 40-50% of chronic kidney disease that manifests in the first two decades of life. Thus far, 31 monogenic causes of isolated CAKUT have been described, explaining ~12% of cases. To identify additional CAKUT-causing genes, we performed whole-exome sequencing followed by a genetic burden analysis in 26 genetically unsolved families with CAKUT. We identified two heterozygous mutations in SRGAP1 in 2 unrelated families. SRGAP1 is a small GTPase-activating protein in the SLIT2-ROBO2 signaling pathway, which is essential for development of the metanephric kidney. We then examined the pathway-derived candidate gene SLIT2 for mutations in cohort of 749 individuals with CAKUT and we identified 3 unrelated individuals with heterozygous mutations. The clinical phenotypes of individuals with mutations in SLIT2 or SRGAP1 were cystic dysplastic kidneys, unilateral renal agenesis, and duplicated collecting system. We show that SRGAP1 is expressed in early mouse nephrogenic mesenchyme and that it is coexpressed with ROBO2 in SIX2-positive nephron progenitor cells of the cap mesenchyme in developing rat kidney. We demonstrate that the newly identified mutations in SRGAP1 lead to an augmented inhibition of RAC1 in cultured human embryonic kidney cells and that the SLIT2 mutations compromise the ability of the SLIT2 ligand to inhibit cell migration. Thus, we report on two novel candidate genes for causing monogenic isolated CAKUT in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-015-1570-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4497857PMC
August 2015

Scimitar syndrome in a case with VACTERL association.

Cardiol Young 2015 Mar 6;25(3):606-9. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

3Department of Pediatric Cardiology,Children's Hospital,University Hospital of Bonn,Bonn,Germany.

VACTERL association and Scimitar syndrome are rare congenital diseases. In this study, we report on a neonate with prenatal suspicion of VACTERL association and small left-sided cardiac structures, which, only on postnatal angiography, could be revealed to be part of a Scimitar syndrome. As this is the second reported case of VACTERL association and Scimitar syndrome, the presence of Scimitar syndrome should be considered in the prenatal and postnatal evaluation of VACTERL association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951114000924DOI Listing
March 2015

Mild recessive mutations in six Fraser syndrome-related genes cause isolated congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2014 Sep 3;25(9):1917-22. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for approximately 40% of children with ESRD in the United States. Hitherto, mutations in 23 genes have been described as causing autosomal dominant isolated CAKUT in humans. However, >90% of cases of isolated CAKUT still remain without a molecular diagnosis. Here, we hypothesized that genes mutated in recessive mouse models with the specific CAKUT phenotype of unilateral renal agenesis may also be mutated in humans with isolated CAKUT. We applied next-generation sequencing technology for targeted exon sequencing of 12 recessive murine candidate genes in 574 individuals with isolated CAKUT from 590 families. In 15 of 590 families, we identified recessive mutations in the genes FRAS1, FREM2, GRIP1, FREM1, ITGA8, and GREM1, all of which function in the interaction of the ureteric bud and the metanephric mesenchyme. We show that isolated CAKUT may be caused partially by mutations in recessive genes. Our results also indicate that biallelic missense mutations in the Fraser/MOTA/BNAR spectrum genes cause isolated CAKUT, whereas truncating mutations are found in the multiorgan form of Fraser syndrome. The newly identified recessive biallelic mutations in these six genes represent the molecular cause of isolated CAKUT in 2.5% of the 590 affected families in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2013101103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4147986PMC
September 2014

Mutations in 12 known dominant disease-causing genes clarify many congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

Kidney Int 2014 Jun 15;85(6):1429-33. Epub 2014 Jan 15.

1] Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, USA.

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for approximately half of children with chronic kidney disease. CAKUT can be caused by monogenic mutations; however, data are lacking on their frequency. Genetic diagnosis has been hampered by genetic heterogeneity and lack of genotype-phenotype correlation. To determine the percentage of cases with CAKUT that can be explained by mutations in known CAKUT genes, we analyzed the coding exons of the 17 known dominant CAKUT-causing genes in a cohort of 749 individuals from 650 families with CAKUT. The most common phenotypes in this CAKUT cohort were vesicoureteral reflux in 288 patients, renal hypodysplasia in 120 patients, and unilateral renal agenesis in 90 patients. We identified 37 different heterozygous mutations (33 novel) in 12 of the 17 known genes in 47 patients from 41 of the 650 families (6.3%). These mutations include (number of families): BMP7 (1), CDC5L (1), CHD1L (5), EYA1 (3), GATA3 (2), HNF1B (6), PAX2 (5), RET (3), ROBO2 (4), SALL1 (9), SIX2 (1), and SIX5 (1). Furthermore, several mutations previously reported to be disease-causing are most likely benign variants. Thus, in a large cohort over 6% of families with isolated CAKUT are caused by a mutation in 12 of 17 dominant CAKUT genes. Our report represents one of the most in-depth diagnostic studies of monogenic causes of isolated CAKUT in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2013.508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4040148PMC
June 2014

Whole-exome resequencing reveals recessive mutations in TRAP1 in individuals with CAKUT and VACTERL association.

Kidney Int 2014 Jun 23;85(6):1310-7. Epub 2013 Oct 23.

1] Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, USA.

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for approximately half of children with chronic kidney disease and they are the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease in children in the US. However, its genetic etiology remains mostly elusive. VACTERL association is a rare disorder that involves congenital abnormalities in multiple organs including the kidney and urinary tract in up to 60% of the cases. By homozygosity mapping and whole-exome resequencing combined with high-throughput mutation analysis by array-based multiplex PCR and next-generation sequencing, we identified recessive mutations in the gene TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) in two families with isolated CAKUT and three families with VACTERL association. TRAP1 is a heat-shock protein 90-related mitochondrial chaperone possibly involved in antiapoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. Trap1 is expressed in renal epithelia of developing mouse kidney E13.5 and in the kidney of adult rats, most prominently in proximal tubules and in thick medullary ascending limbs of Henle's loop. Thus, we identified mutations in TRAP1 as highly likely causing CAKUT or VACTERL association with CAKUT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2013.417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3997628PMC
June 2014

VATER/VACTERL association: identification of seven new twin pairs, a systematic review of the literature, and a classical twin analysis.

Clin Dysmorphol 2012 Oct;21(4):191-5

Institute of Human Genetics.

The VATER/VACTERL association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. The identification of 14 twin pairs with an initial diagnosis of VATER/VACTERL association at our clinical centers led to the performance of a classical twin study. This involved a thorough evaluation of these 14 twin pairs and a further 55 twin pairs identified from a systematic review of the literature. The zygosity, concordance, and malformation status of all 69 twin pairs were evaluated. Twenty-four twin pairs fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in a comparison of the concordance rates between monozygous (MZ) and dizygous (DZ) twin pairs. The pairwise concordance rates were 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4-42%] for MZ and 18% (95% CI 5-48%) for DZ twin pairs (P=0.53). The probandwise concordance rates were 27% (95% CI 11-52%) for MZ and 31% (95% CI 13-58%) for DZ twin pairs (P=0.40). Although based on a limited number of twin pairs, the findings of the present study are consistent with the low number of familial cases reported to date, and suggest that the role of inherited genetic factors in the majority of VATER/VACTERL cases is limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCD.0b013e328358243cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4126840PMC
October 2012

Mapping the NPHP-JBTS-MKS protein network reveals ciliopathy disease genes and pathways.

Cell 2011 May;145(4):513-28

Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Nephronophthisis (NPHP), Joubert (JBTS), and Meckel-Gruber (MKS) syndromes are autosomal-recessive ciliopathies presenting with cystic kidneys, retinal degeneration, and cerebellar/neural tube malformation. Whether defects in kidney, retinal, or neural disease primarily involve ciliary, Hedgehog, or cell polarity pathways remains unclear. Using high-confidence proteomics, we identified 850 interactors copurifying with nine NPHP/JBTS/MKS proteins and discovered three connected modules: "NPHP1-4-8" functioning at the apical surface, "NPHP5-6" at centrosomes, and "MKS" linked to Hedgehog signaling. Assays for ciliogenesis and epithelial morphogenesis in 3D renal cultures link renal cystic disease to apical organization defects, whereas ciliary and Hedgehog pathway defects lead to retinal or neural deficits. Using 38 interactors as candidates, linkage and sequencing analysis of 250 patients identified ATXN10 and TCTN2 as new NPHP-JBTS genes, and our Tctn2 mouse knockout shows neural tube and Hedgehog signaling defects. Our study further illustrates the power of linking proteomic networks and human genetics to uncover critical disease pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2011.04.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383065PMC
May 2011

Gender-associated differences in the psychosocial and developmental outcome in patients affected with the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex.

BJU Int 2006 Feb;97(2):349-53

Zentrum für Kinderheilkunde, Universitätsklinikim Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Objective: To identify problems in the long-term psychosocial and developmental outcome specific to patients with the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), using a self-developed semi-structured questionnaire, as there are various techniques of reconstruction to repair BEEC but to date neither patients nor surgeons have a clear answer about which type gives the most acceptable long-term results.

Patients And Methods: Increasingly many patients with BEEC reach adulthood and wish to have sexual relationships and families. To date, no studies have used disease-specific psychological instruments to measure the psychosocial status of patients with BEEC. Thus we contacted 208 patients with BEEC, and 122 were enrolled, covering the complete spectrum of the BEEC. The data assessed included the surgical reconstruction, subjective assessment of continence, developmental milestones, school performance and career, overall satisfaction in life, disease-specific fears and partnership experiences in patients aged >18 years. We compared affected females and males to assess gender-associated differences in quality of life.

Results: Affected females had more close friendships, fewer disadvantages in relation to healthy female peers and more partnerships than the males. Family planning seemed to be less of a problem in affected females. There were no gender differences in the adjustments within school and professional career, which was very good in general.

Conclusion: Future studies are needed to assess the disease-specific anxieties, considering gender-specific differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2005.05910.xDOI Listing
February 2006