Publications by authors named "Heike Zimdahl"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Challenges in tackling energy expenditure as obesity therapy: From preclinical models to clinical application.

Mol Metab 2021 Apr 18;51:101237. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Cardio Metabolic Diseases Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Biberach, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: A chronic imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure results in excess fat storage. The obesity often caused by this overweight is detrimental to the health of millions of people. Understanding both sides of the energy balance equation and their counter-regulatory mechanisms is critical to the development of effective therapies to treat this epidemic.

Scope Of Review: Behaviors surrounding ingestion have been reviewed extensively. This review focuses more specifically on energy expenditure regarding bodyweight control, with a particular emphasis on the organs and attractive metabolic processes known to reduce bodyweight. Moreover, previous and current attempts at anti-obesity strategies focusing on energy expenditure are highlighted. Precise measurements of energy expenditure, which consist of cellular, animal, and human models, as well as measurements of their translatability, are required to provide the most effective therapies.

Major Conclusions: A precise understanding of the components surrounding energy expenditure, including tailored approaches based on genetic, biomarker, or physical characteristics, must be integrated into future anti-obesity treatments. Further comprehensive investigations are required to define suitable treatments, especially because the complex nature of the human perspective remains poorly understood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2021.101237DOI Listing
April 2021

Influence of common polymorphisms in the SLC5A2 gene on metabolic traits in subjects at increased risk of diabetes and on response to empagliflozin treatment in patients with diabetes.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2017 04;27(4):135-142

aBoehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach bGerman Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) cInstitute for Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases, Helmholtz Centre Munich dDepartment of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Vascular Disease, Nephrology, and Clinical Chemistry eInterfaculty Centre for Pharmacogenomics and Pharma Research, University of Tuebingen fInstitute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen gInstitute of Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Centre Munich, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg hBoehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelheim, Germany iEli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, USA.

Objective: Inhibition of the renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is a novel concept in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In this study, we first assessed whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SGLT2-encoding gene SLC5A2 affect diabetes-related metabolic traits in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes and, second, whether these have pharmacogenetic relevance by interfering with the response to empagliflozin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Patients And Methods: Samples from a metabolically well-phenotyped cross-sectional study population (total N=2600) at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and pooled pharmacogenetic samples from patients from four phase III trials of empagliflozin (in total: 603 receiving empagliflozin, 305 receiving placebo) were genotyped for five common SNPs (minor allele frequencies ≥5%) present in the SLC5A2 gene locus.

Results: In the cross-sectional study, none of the SLC5A2 SNPs significantly influenced metabolic traits such as body fat, insulin sensitivity/resistance, insulin release, HbA1c, plasma glucose, or systolic blood pressure when multiple testing was taken into account (all P≥0.0083). Further, no relevant effect on response to treatment with empagliflozin on HbA1c, fasting glucose, weight, or systolic blood pressure was observed for the SNPs tested in the pharmacogenetic study.

Conclusion: Common genetic variants in the SLC5A2 gene neither affects diabetes-related metabolic traits nor have a clinically relevant impact on response to treatment with the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FPC.0000000000000268DOI Listing
April 2017

Urinary Exosomal miRNA Signature in Type II Diabetic Nephropathy Patients.

PLoS One 2016 1;11(3):e0150154. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Translational Medicine & Clinical Pharmacology, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., 900 Ridgebury Road, Ridgefield, Connecticut 06877-0368, United States of America.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA species which are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. miRNAs are present in urine in a remarkably stable form packaged in extracellular vesicles, predominantly exosomes. In the present study, urinary exosomal miRNA profiling was conducted in urinary exosomes obtained from 8 healthy controls (C), 8 patients with type II diabetes (T2D) and 8 patients with type II diabetic nephropathy (DN) using Agilent´s miRNA microarrays. In total, the expression of 16 miRNA species was deregulated (>2-fold) in DN patients compared to healthy donors and T2D patients: the expression of 14 miRNAs (miR-320c, miR-6068, miR-1234-5p, miR-6133, miR-4270, miR-4739, miR-371b-5p, miR-638, miR-572, miR-1227-5p, miR-6126, miR-1915-5p, miR-4778-5p and miR-2861) was up-regulated whereas the expression of 2 miRNAs (miR-30d-5p and miR-30e-5p) was down-regulated. Most of the deregulated miRNAs are involved in progression of renal diseases. Deregulation of urinary exosomal miRNAs occurred in micro-albuminuric DN patients but not in normo-albuminuric DN patients. We used qRT-PCR based analysis of the most strongly up-regulated miRNAs in urinary exosomes from DN patients, miRNAs miR-320c and miR-6068. The correlation of miRNA expression and micro-albuminuria levels could be replicated in a confirmation cohort. In conclusion, urinary exosomal miRNA content is altered in type II diabetic patients with DN. Deregulated miR-320c, which might have an impact on the TGF-β-signaling pathway via targeting thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) shows promise as a novel candidate marker for disease progression in type II DN that should be evaluated in future studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0150154PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4773074PMC
July 2016

Influence of TCF7L2 gene variants on the therapeutic response to the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin.

Diabetologia 2014 Sep 7;57(9):1869-75. Epub 2014 Jun 7.

Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Development, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Birkendorfer Straße 65, 88397, Biberach/Riss, Germany,

Aims/hypothesis: Individuals carrying variants of the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2) are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. These metabolic genetic risk factors have been linked to diminished pancreatic islet-cell responsiveness to incretins, thus pharmacological interventions aimed at amplifying endogenous incretin biology may be affected. However, clinical evidence from randomised controlled trials so far is lacking. We investigated the influence of TCF7L2 risk alleles on the response to treatment with the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor linagliptin from four 24 week, phase III, placebo-controlled trials.

Methods: Pharmacogenomic samples and clinical data were available from 961 patients with type 2 diabetes. Whole-blood DNA samples were genotyped for TCF7L2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in conjunction with assessments of 24 week changes in HbA1c.

Results: Linagliptin lowered HbA1c meaningfully in all three genotypes of rs7903146 (non-risk variant carriers CC [n = 356]: -0.82% [-9.0 mmol/mol], p < 0.0001; heterozygous CT [n = 264]: -0.77% [-8.4 mmol/mol], p < 0.0001; homozygous risk variant carriers TT [n = 73]: -0.57% [-6.2 mmol/mol], p < 0.0006). No significant treatment differences were seen between CC and CT patients, although HbA1c response was reduced in TT compared with CC patients (~0.26% [~2.8 mmol/mol], p = 0.0182).

Conclusions/interpretation: Linagliptin significantly improved hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes both with and without the TCF7L2 gene diabetes risk alleles. However, differences in treatment response were observed, indicating that diabetes susceptibility genes may be an important contributor to the inter-individual variability of treatment response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-014-3276-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4119242PMC
September 2014

Identification of renal Cd36 as a determinant of blood pressure and risk for hypertension.

Nat Genet 2008 Aug 29;40(8):952-4. Epub 2008 Jun 29.

Institute of Physiology and Center for Applied Genomics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague, Czech Republic.

To identify renally expressed genes that influence risk for hypertension, we integrated expression quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of the kidney with genome-wide correlation analysis of renal expression profiles and blood pressure in recombinant inbred strains derived from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). This strategy, together with renal transplantation studies in SHR progenitor, transgenic and congenic strains, identified deficient renal expression of Cd36 encoding fatty acid translocase as a genetically determined risk factor for spontaneous hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.164DOI Listing
August 2008

SNP and haplotype mapping for genetic analysis in the rat.

Nat Genet 2008 May;40(5):560-6

Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rossle-Strae 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany.

The laboratory rat is one of the most extensively studied model organisms. Inbred laboratory rat strains originated from limited Rattus norvegicus founder populations, and the inherited genetic variation provides an excellent resource for the correlation of genotype to phenotype. Here, we report a survey of genetic variation based on almost 3 million newly identified SNPs. We obtained accurate and complete genotypes for a subset of 20,238 SNPs across 167 distinct inbred rat strains, two rat recombinant inbred panels and an F2 intercross. Using 81% of these SNPs, we constructed high-density genetic maps, creating a large dataset of fully characterized SNPs for disease gene mapping. Our data characterize the population structure and illustrate the degree of linkage disequilibrium. We provide a detailed SNP map and demonstrate its utility for mapping of quantitative trait loci. This community resource is openly available and augments the genetic tools for this workhorse of physiological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915293PMC
May 2008

Integrated transcriptional profiling and linkage analysis for identification of genes underlying disease.

Nat Genet 2005 Mar 13;37(3):243-53. Epub 2005 Feb 13.

Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch 13125, Germany.

Integration of genome-wide expression profiling with linkage analysis is a new approach to identifying genes underlying complex traits. We applied this approach to the regulation of gene expression in the BXH/HXB panel of rat recombinant inbred strains, one of the largest available rodent recombinant inbred panels and a leading resource for genetic analysis of the highly prevalent metabolic syndrome. In two tissues important to the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, we mapped cis- and trans-regulatory control elements for expression of thousands of genes across the genome. Many of the most highly linked expression quantitative trait loci are regulated in cis, are inherited essentially as monogenic traits and are good candidate genes for previously mapped physiological quantitative trait loci in the rat. By comparative mapping we generated a data set of 73 candidate genes for hypertension that merit testing in human populations. Mining of this publicly available data set is expected to lead to new insights into the genes and regulatory pathways underlying the extensive range of metabolic and cardiovascular disease phenotypes that segregate in these recombinant inbred strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng1522DOI Listing
March 2005

Effect of Add1 gene transfer on blood pressure in reciprocal congenic strains of Milan rats.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004 Nov;324(2):562-8

Prassis-Sigma Tau Research Institute, Settimo Milanese, Milan, Italy.

Genetic variants of alpha adducin (ADD1) taken alone or in interaction with those of beta (ADD2) and gamma (ADD3) subunits have been associated with primary hypertension in humans and in Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats. In this study, we report the dissection of the individual contribution of each rat Add gene to blood pressure, by congenic substitution mapping. Congenic strains were developed by introgressing Add1, Add2, and Add3 genes (and chr14, chr4, and chr1 associated segments) of MHS in the Milan normotensive rat (MNS) genetic background (MNS.H-Add1, MNS.H-Add2, and MNS.H-Add3) and vice versa (MHS.N-Add1, MHS.N-Add2, and MHS.N-Add3). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of MNS.H-Add1 rats was significantly higher (+10 mmHg) than that of MNS, whereas SBP of MHS.N-Add1 was significantly lower (-10 mmHg) than that of MHS. The differences account for 43% of the blood pressure differences between MHS and MNS. In contrast, SBPs of Add2 and Add3 congenic strains were not different from those of the correspondent recipient parental strain. The fine mapping of chr14 congenic segment supports the identity of blood pressure QTL with Add1 gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.09.079DOI Listing
November 2004

Integrated and sequence-ordered BAC- and YAC-based physical maps for the rat genome.

Genome Res 2004 Apr;14(4):766-79

Genome Sciences Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, Canada V5Z 4E6.

As part of the effort to sequence the genome of Rattus norvegicus, we constructed a physical map comprised of fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the CHORI-230 BAC library. These BAC clones provide approximately 13-fold redundant coverage of the genome and have been assembled into 376 fingerprint contigs. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) map was also constructed and aligned with the BAC map via fingerprinted BAC and P1 artificial chromosome clones (PACs) sharing interspersed repetitive sequence markers with the YAC-based physical map. We have annotated 95% of the fingerprint map clones in contigs with coordinates on the version 3.1 rat genome sequence assembly, using BAC-end sequences and in silico mapping methods. These coordinates have allowed anchoring 358 of the 376 fingerprint map contigs onto the sequence assembly. Of these, 324 contigs are anchored to rat genome sequences localized to chromosomes, and 34 contigs are anchored to unlocalized portions of the rat sequence assembly. The remaining 18 contigs, containing 54 clones, still require placement. The fingerprint map is a high-resolution integrative data resource that provides genome-ordered associations among BAC, YAC, and PAC clones and the assembled sequence of the rat genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.2336604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC383324PMC
April 2004

Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution.

Nature 2004 Apr;428(6982):493-521

Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. http://www.hgsc.bcm.tmc.edu

The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90% of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete mammalian genome to be deciphered, and three-way comparisons with the human and mouse genomes resolve details of mammalian evolution. This first comprehensive analysis includes genes and proteins and their relation to human disease, repeated sequences, comparative genome-wide studies of mammalian orthologous chromosomal regions and rearrangement breakpoints, reconstruction of ancestral karyotypes and the events leading to existing species, rates of variation, and lineage-specific and lineage-independent evolutionary events such as expansion of gene families, orthology relations and protein evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature02426DOI Listing
April 2004

Applications of interspersed repeat sequence polymerase chain reaction.

Methods Mol Biol 2004 ;255:113-29

Experimental Genetics of Cardiovascular Diseases, Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-752-1:113DOI Listing
May 2004

The role of Wnk4 in polygenic hypertension: a candidate gene analysis on rat chromosome 10.

Hypertension 2003 Apr 17;41(4):938-42. Epub 2003 Mar 17.

Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), Robert-Rössle-Str. 10, 13092 Berlin, Germany.

Linkage analyses in experimental crosses of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats have strongly suggested the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing blood pressure and ACE levels on rat chromosome 10, which have been confirmed in multiple independent studies. Analysis of the orthologous region on human chromosome 17 also revealed significant linkage to blood pressure in several populations. Wnk4, a gene previously identified to cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, a rare mendelian form of arterial hypertension, is located on human chromosome 17. The hypothesis has been advanced that molecular variants of this gene might contribute to common polygenic forms of hypertension, since Wnk4 is located in a region of conserved synteny that demonstrates an overlap between quantitative trait loci for primary hypertension in humans and rats. In this report, we describe the confirmation of the blood pressure QTL on rat chromosome 10 by congenic approaches, spanning the Wnk4 locus. Comparative analysis of the complete coding sequence of Wnk4 in SHRSP and WKY strains revealed no mutation and demonstrated high conservation between rat and human proteins. Furthermore, comparison of mRNA levels in the kidney showed no differences between SHRSP and WKY. Additionally, we excluded a secondary effect of blood pressure on the transcriptional regulation of Wnk4. Our results fail to support a material contribution of Wnk4 to blood pressure regulation in this model of polygenic hypertension. Thus, Wnk4 is likely not to represent the underlying disease gene for the QTL captured in chromosome 10 congenic animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000063147.92433.7DDOI Listing
April 2003

Conserved synteny in rat and mouse for a blood pressure QTL on human chromosome 17.

Hypertension 2002 Jun;39(6):1050-2

Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

Evidence for blood pressure quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on rat chromosome 10 has been found in multiple independent studies. Analysis of the homologous region on human chromosome 17 revealed significant linkage to blood pressure. The critical segment on human chromosome 17 spans a large interval containing the genes Itga2b, Gfap, and Itgb3. Therefore, findings in the rat may help to refine the position of blood pressure-regulating loci, assuming a common molecular cause across species. However, it has recently been suggested that the gene order in human, rat, and mouse is not conserved in this region, leaving uncertainty about the overlap of the blood pressure- regulating region between human chromosome 17 and rat chromosome 10. We have performed a detailed comparative analysis among human, mouse, and rat, defining the segment in question, by obtaining gene structure information in silico and by radiation hybrid mapping. It is of interest that this region also contains Wnk4, a gene previously identified to cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type II and human hypertension. Our results definitively show that the conserved synteny extends among human chromosome 17, rat chromosome 10, and mouse chromosome 11, demonstrating an overlap between previously localized blood pressure QTLs in humans and rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.hyp.0000018909.50074.45DOI Listing
June 2002