Publications by authors named "Heidrun Boztug"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Transfer and loss of allergen-specific responses via stem cell transplantation: A prospective observational study.

Allergy 2020 09 23;75(9):2243-2253. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Currently, no estimates can be made on the impact of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on allergy transfer or cure of the disease. By using component-resolved diagnosis, we prospectively investigated 50 donor-recipient pairs undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. This allowed calculating the rate of transfer or maintenance of allergen-specific responses in the context of stem cell transplantation.

Methods: Allergen-specific IgE and IgG to 156 allergens was measured pretransplantation in 50 donors and recipients and at 6, 12 and 24 months in recipients post-transplantation by allergen microarray. Based on a mixed effects model, we determined risks of transfer of allergen-specific IgE or IgG responses 24 months post-transplantation.

Results: After undergoing stem cell transplantation, 94% of allergen-specific IgE responses were lost. Two years post-transplantation, recipients' allergen-specific IgE was significantly linked to the pretransplantation donor or recipient status. The estimated risk to transfer and maintain individual IgE responses to allergens by stem cell transplantation was 1.7% and 2.3%, respectively. Allergen-specific IgG, which served as a surrogate marker of maintaining protective IgG responses, was highly associated with the donor's (31.6%) or the recipient's (28%) pretransplantation response.

Conclusion: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation profoundly reduces allergen-specific IgE responses but also comes with a considerable risk to transfer allergen-specific immune responses. These findings facilitate clinical decision-making regarding allergic diseases in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In addition, it provides prospective data to estimate the risk of transmitting allergen-specific responses via hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14278DOI Listing
September 2020

Phospho-Profiling Linking Biology and Clinics in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Hemasphere 2020 Feb 16;4(1):e312. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

CCRI, Children's Cancer Research Institute, St. Anna Kinderkrebsforschung, Vienna, Austria.

Aberrant activation of key signaling-molecules is a hallmark of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and may have prognostic and therapeutic implications. AML summarizes several disease entities with a variety of genetic subtypes. A comprehensive model spanning from signal activation patterns in major genetic subtypes of pediatric AML (pedAML) to outcome prediction and pre-clinical response to signaling inhibitors has not yet been provided. We established a high-throughput flow-cytometry based method to assess activation of hallmark phospho-proteins (phospho-flow) in 166 bone-marrow derived pedAML samples under basal and cytokine stimulated conditions. We correlated levels of activated phospho-proteins at diagnosis with relapse incidence in intermediate (IR) and high risk (HR) subtypes. In parallel, we screened a set of signaling inhibitors for their efficacy against primary AML blasts in a flow-cytometry based ex vivo cytotoxicity assay and validated the results in a murine xenograft model. Certain phospho-signal patterns differ between genetic subtypes of pedAML. Some are consistently seen through all AML subtypes such as pSTAT5. In IR/HR subtypes high levels of GM-CSF stimulated pSTAT5 and low levels of unstimulated pJNK correlated with increased relapse risk overall. Combination of GM-CSF/pSTAT5 and basal/pJNK separated three risk groups among IR/HR subtypes. Out of 10 tested signaling inhibitors, midostaurin most effectively affected AML blasts and simultaneously blocked phosphorylation of multiple proteins, including STAT5. In a mouse xenograft model of -rearranged pedAML, midostaurin significantly prolonged disease latency. Our study demonstrates the applicability of phospho-flow for relapse-risk assessment in pedAML, whereas functional phenotype-driven ex vivo testing of signaling inhibitors may allow individualized therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000467PMC
February 2020

Antibiotic prophylaxis with teicoplanin on alternate days reduces rate of viridans sepsis and febrile neutropenia in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Ann Hematol 2017 Jan 4;96(1):99-106. Epub 2016 Oct 4.

St. Anna Kinderspital and Children's Cancer Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 6, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Intensive chemotherapy directed against acute myeloid leukemia of childhood is followed by profound neutropenia and high risk for bacterial and fungal infections, including viridans group streptococci as a common cause for gram-positive septicemia. Few retrospective studies have shown the efficacy of various antibiotic prophylactic regimens in children. We retrospectively studied 50 pediatric patients treated on the AML-BFM 2004 protocol between 2005 and 2015 at St. Anna Children's Hospital and assessed the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the frequency of febrile neutropenia and bacterial sepsis. Fifty pediatric patients underwent 199 evaluable chemotherapy cycles. Viridans sepsis occurred after none of 98 cycles with prophylactic administration of teicoplanin/vancomycin in comparison to 12 cases of viridans sepsis among 79 cycles without systemic antibacterial prophylaxis (0 vs. 15 %, p < 0.0001). In addition, there were significantly fewer episodes of febrile neutropenia in the teicoplanin/vancomycin group (44 % vs. no prophylaxis 82 %, p < 0.0001). Severity of infection seemed to be worse when no antibiotic prophylaxis had been administered with a higher rate of intensive care unit treatment (0/98, 0 %, vs. 4/79, 5 %, p = 0.038). So far, no increase of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus isolates in surveillance cultures was noticed. Antibiotic prophylaxis with teicoplanin (or vancomycin) appears safe and feasible and resulted in eradication of viridans sepsis and decreased incidence of febrile neutropenia in pediatric AML patients. The possibility to administer teicoplanin on alternate days on an outpatient basis or at home could contribute to patient's quality of life and decrease health care costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-016-2833-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5225941PMC
January 2017

NF-κB1 Haploinsufficiency Causing Immunodeficiency and EBV-Driven Lymphoproliferation.

J Clin Immunol 2016 08 23;36(6):533-40. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

St. Anna Kinderspital, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: NF-κB signaling is critically important for regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. While activation of NF-κB has been implicated in malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma, loss-of-function mutations affecting different NF-κB pathway components have been shown to cause primary immunodeficiency disorders. Recently, haploinsufficiency of NF-κB1 has been described in three families with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).

Methods And Results: We studied a patient with recurrent respiratory infections and bacterial parapharyngeal abscess. Immunological investigations revealed normal total B- cell numbers, but hypogammaglobulinemia, decreased frequencies of class-switched B cells and impaired T-cell proliferation. Targeted next-generation sequencing using a custom-designed panel comprising all known PID genes (IUIS 2014 classification) and novel candidate genes identified a novel heterozygous frameshift mutation in the NFKB1 gene leading to a premature stop codon (c.491delG; p.G165A*31). We could show that the mutation leads to reduced phosphorylation of p105 upon stimulation, resulting in decreased protein levels of p50. The further disease course was mainly characterized by two episodes of severe EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease responsive to rituximab treatment. Due to disease severity, the patient is considered for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Interestingly, the father carries the same heterozygous NFKB1 mutation and also shows decreased frequencies of memory B cells but has a much milder clinical phenotype, in line with a considerable phenotypic disease heterogeneity.

Conclusions: Deficiency of NF-κB1 leads to immunodeficiency with a wider phenotypic spectrum of disease manifestation than previously appreciated, including EBV lymphoproliferative diseases as a hitherto unrecognized feature of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-016-0306-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4940442PMC
August 2016

European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Analysis of Treosulfan Conditioning Before Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children and Adolescents With Hematological Malignancies.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016 Jan 23;63(1):139-48. Epub 2015 Sep 23.

St. Anna Kinderspital and Childrens Cancer Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Standard myeloablative conditioning regimens for children with hematological malignancies undergoing allogeneic HSCT are based mainly on total body irradiation or busulfan. Their serious short- and long-term side effects warranted the exploration of less toxic alternatives. Treosulfan is increasingly used for adults and children before HSCT due to its potent immunosuppressive and cytotoxic effects combined with low organ toxicity.

Procedure: To further investigate the role of treosulfan conditioning in children, the EBMT Pediatric diseases working party performed a retrospective analysis of 193 children with hematological malignancies (ALL n = 71, AML n = 47, MDS/MPS n = 40, other leukemia/lymphoma n = 25) undergoing allogeneic HSCT following treosulfan between January 2005 and July 2010.

Results: Early regimen-related toxicity was low and mainly gastrointestinal. Veno-occlusive disease and neurological toxicity were rare. There was no association of toxicity with type of disease or treosulfan dose. High-grade early toxicity was not higher in infants or patients undergoing second or later transplantation. Treatment related mortality was low at 14%. Three-year event-free survival was 45 ± 4% and not significantly influenced by number of transplants, however it appeared to be significantly better for infants (P = 0.022). When compared to treosulfan plus fludarabine, the combination of treosulfan, fludarabine and an alkylator (either thiotepa or melphalan) resulted in significantly better overall survival (OS, P = 0.048) and a trend toward better EFS.

Conclusions: Treosulfan based conditioning is a safe and effective approach for children with hematological malignancies, including and importantly for infants and those patients undergoing second or later transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25764DOI Listing
January 2016

Treosulfan-based conditioning regimens for allogeneic HSCT in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Ann Hematol 2015 Feb 19;94(2):297-306. Epub 2014 Sep 19.

St. Anna Kinderspital and Children's Cancer Research Institute, Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 6, 1090, Vienna, Austria,

Standard myeloablative conditioning regimens for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia are based on total body irradiation (TBI). However, TBI causes profound short-term and long-term side effects, provoking the necessity for alternative regimens. Treosulfan combines a potent immunosuppressive and antileukaemic effect with myeloablative activity and low toxicity profile. We retrospectively studied toxicity and outcome of 71 paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) following treosulfan-based conditioning aiming to identify risk factors for treatment failure and dose-depending outcome differences. Early regimen-related toxicity was low. No case of veno-occlusive disease was reported. There was no association of toxicity with age or number of HSCT. Event-free survival (EFS) of infants was significantly better compared to older children. Overall survival (OS) at 3 years was 51 % and not significantly influenced by number of HSCT (first HSCT 54 %, ≥second HSCT 44 %, p = 0.71). In multivariate analysis, OS and EFS were significantly worse for patients transplanted without complete remission (p = 0.04 and 0.004). Treatment-related mortality was low at 14 %. We conclude that treosulfan-based conditioning is a safe and efficacious approach for paediatric ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-014-2196-8DOI Listing
February 2015

No impact of total or myeloid Cd34+ cell numbers on neutrophil engraftment and transplantation-related mortality after allogeneic pediatric bone marrow transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 May 31;20(5):676-83. Epub 2014 Jan 31.

Children's Cancer Research Institute, St. Anna Kinderkrebsforschung, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Although the influence of transplanted bone marrow (BM) CD34+ cells on neutrophil engraftment (NE) and transplantation outcomes has been discussed controversially, thresholds between 2 and 4 × 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells are commonly accepted. This has substantial consequences for a donor in terms of BM volume to be collected, which frequently covers up to 15 to 20 mL/kg. As the BM CD34+ compartment contains varying fractions of CD34+/CD19+ B lymphoid progenitors, we tested the hypothesis that the infused CD34+/CD45dim/CD19-/CD10- myeloid stem cells might reliably predict NE in 94 children who received BM from 37 HLA-identical sibling donors (MSD) and 57 matched unrelated donors after myeloablative conditioning. The grafts contained a median of 3.6 × 10(6)/kg total CD34+ cells, which consisted of a median of 73% myeloid CD34+ cells and 27% B lymphoid progenitors. Grafts from donors <15 years old yielded significantly lower myeloid fractions compared with grafts from older donors (P < .001). All patients achieved sustained NE after median 20 (range, 11 to 40) days. By multivariate analysis, neither the number of total CD34+ cells (P = .605) nor of myeloid CD34+ cells (P = .981) correlated with NE, whereas transplantation from MSD (hazard ratio [HR] 3.51; P = .019) and the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (HR 2.24; P = .002) remained independent factors associated with earlier NE. Furthermore, neither total nor myeloid CD34+ cell quantities were associated with incidences of severe infections before NE (P = .271 and P = .132) or transplantation-related mortality (TRM) at day +100 (P = .294 and P = .490). Taking into account that the number of transplanted total CD34+ or myeloid CD34+ cells does not seem to have a relevant impact on time to NE, sepsis rates, or TRM, the need of certain threshold cell numbers should be revisited, at least for pediatric MSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.01.026DOI Listing
May 2014

Development of treatment and clinical results in childhood AML in Austria (1993-2013).

Memo 2014 1;7(1):63-74. Epub 2014 Mar 1.

1St. Anna Kinderspital and Children's Cancer Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 6, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Background: Since the early 1990s, three consecutive pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) trials have been performed in Austria (AML-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) 93, AML-BFM 98, and AML-BFM 2004) in close cooperation with the international BFM study center. Herein, we review the pertinent patient characteristics, therapy, and outcome data.

Patients And Methods: From January 1993 to April 2013, 249 children and adolescents (193 protocol patients) diagnosed with AML were enrolled in the three BFM studies. Patients were mainly treated in one of five pediatric hematology/oncology centers distributed over Austria.

Results: Many characteristics and outcome parameters were not statistically different between the three trials. Almost similar proportions of patients were stratified into two risk groups: standard risk (SR) (approximately 37 % overall) and high-risk (HR) (61 %). rearrangements were found in 23 % of patients overall as the most frequent genetic aberration subtype. Complete remission (CR) was achieved by 84-95 % of patients. The most important type of event was leukemic relapse (5-year cumulative incidence 40 ± 8 %, 21 ± 5 %, and 39 ± 6 %;  = 0.058), with a trend to a higher rate specifically in SR patients of study AML-BFM 2004 compared with AML-BFM 98. Importantly, the frequency of death from causes other than relapse sequelae declined over the years (AML-BFM 93: 5/42 12 %, AML-BFM 98: 5/57 9 %, and AML-BFM 2004: 5/94 5 %). Altogether, event-free survival at 5 years varied insignificantly (48 ± 8 %, 61 ± 7 %, and 50 ± 6 %;  = 0.406). Nevertheless, survival (pSU) apparently improved from BFM 93 to subsequent studies, both overall (57 ± 8 %, 75 ± 6 %, and 62 ± 6 %;  = 0.046) and regarding the HR group (5-year-probability of survival (pSU) 40 ± 10 %, 66 ± 8 %, and 52 ± 8 %;  = 0.039).

Conclusion: Treatment of pediatric AML in Austria renders survival rates in the range of international best practice. However, unambiguous statistical comparison of treatment periods is eventually hampered by small numbers and inequalities of recruitment. Hence, only internationally collaborative trials will allow developing treatment further to achieve higher cure rates with fewer events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12254-014-0135-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102234PMC
March 2014

Diagnosis and treatment of adenovirus infection in immunocompromised patients.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2013 Oct 27;11(10):1017-28. Epub 2013 Sep 27.

St Anna Children's Hospital, Stem cell transplantation, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

In immunocompromised patients, human adenovirus (HAdV) infections can cause life-threatening multiorgan disease. This review summarizes the incidence and risk factors of invasive human adenovirus infections in immunocompromised patients as well as the recently developed standards for diagnostic methods and strategies according to the predominant risk factors in adults and children. Recommendations for preemptive and therapeutic treatment strategies and the outcome in different risk groups are presented. Novel therapeutic approaches including CMX001, a new orally bioavailable lipid conjugate of cidofovir and the transfer of adenovirus-specific donor T cells in the context of allogeneic stem cell transplantation are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14787210.2013.836964DOI Listing
October 2013

Blast cell deficiency of CD11a as a marker of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and transient myeloproliferative disease in children with and without Down syndrome.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2013 Nov-Dec;84(6):370-8. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Department of Pediatrics, St. Anna Kinderspital and Children's Cancer Research Institute, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: The classification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) FAB subtype M7 relies on immunophenotypic assessment. CD41 is expressed throughout all stages of maturation of megakaryocytes and has therefore been described as a specific blast cell marker in AML M7 as well as in transient myeloproliferative disease (TMD) of patients with Down syndrome (DS). However, technical difficulties underlie the need for new markers for these entities.

Methods: We evaluated the expression of human lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (CD11a) in a large cohort of pediatric AML and TMD patients (n = 91) of the Austrian AML-BFM 98 and 2004 studies.

Results: We found a consistent deficiency of CD11a as assessed by mean fluorescence intensity in all patients with non-DS AML M7 (n = 8) and M6 (n = 1), all cases of classical DS-AML (n = 12) as well as TMD (n = 15) that was statistically significant in comparison to non-DS AML M0-M5 patients (n = 55; P < 0.001, sensitivity 100%). Only three of 55 Non-DS M0-5 patients were CD11a deficient (specificity 95%). Monocytic leukemias (M4/5) and normal monocytes typically showed a high CD11a expression, FAB types M1/2 and normal neutrophils an intermediate expression level, while all M3 leukemias were rather low in CD11a expression.

Conclusions: We conclude, that deficiency of CD11a expression should be added to the diagnostic criteria of AML-M7, classical DS-AML and TMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.21082DOI Listing
May 2014

Stem cell transplantation after reduced-intensity conditioning for sickle cell disease.

Eur J Haematol 2013 Apr 26;90(4):308-12. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Department of Paediatrics, St. Anna Children's Hospital, Medical University, Kinderspitalgasse 6, Vienna, Austria.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is still associated with substantial morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Disease-related mortality rises to 14% in adolescents and young adults. Overall and disease-free survival following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is 90% and 95%, respectively. To reduce transplant-associated late effects, the feasibility of a highly immunosuppressive reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen was explored in children with SCD and a matched sibling donor. Eight patients (median age, 9 yr) and symptomatic SCD were included. The conditioning regimen consisted of fludarabine, melphalan and either thiotepa or total lymphoid irradiation plus antithymocyte globuline or alemtuzumab. The graft was bone marrow in seven and cord blood in one case. The conditioning regimen was well tolerated and no severe infectious complications occurred. All patients displayed mixed chimaerism on day +28. After a median follow-up of 4 yr, 3/8 patients have mixed leucocyte chimaerism and 8/8 patients have 100% donor erythropoiesis. HSCT from matched sibling donors following a RIC regimen was well tolerated and resulted in cure in all patients studied. If confirmed in larger patient cohorts, these observations will have important implications for the indications of HSCT in children with SCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.12082DOI Listing
April 2013

B-cell deficiency and severe autoimmunity caused by deficiency of protein kinase C δ.

Blood 2013 Apr 14;121(16):3112-6. Epub 2013 Jan 14.

CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

Primary B-cell disorders comprise a heterogeneous group of inherited immunodeficiencies, often associated with autoimmunity causing significant morbidity. The underlying genetic etiology remains elusive in the majority of patients. In this study, we investigated a patient from a consanguineous family suffering from recurrent infections and severe lupuslike autoimmunity. Immunophenotyping revealed progressive decrease of CD19(+) B cells, a defective class switch indicated by low numbers of IgM- and IgG-memory B cells, as well as increased numbers of CD21(low) B cells. Combined homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a biallelic splice-site mutation in protein C kinase δ (PRKCD), causing the absence of the corresponding protein product. Consequently, phosphorylation of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate was decreased, and mRNA levels of nuclear factor interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-6 were increased. Our study uncovers human PRKCD deficiency as a novel cause of common variable immunodeficiency-like B-cell deficiency with severe autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2012-10-460741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3630826PMC
April 2013

Clinical and immunological correction of DOCK8 deficiency by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2012 Oct 16;29(7):585-94. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Department of Paediatrics, St Anna Kinderspital and Children's Cancer Research Institute, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency disorder characterized by an expanding clinical picture with typical features of recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections, atopic eczema, food allergies, chronic viral infections of the skin, and blood eosinophilia often accompanied by elevated serum IgE levels. The only definitive treatment option is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report a patient with early severe manifestation of DOCK8 deficiency, who underwent unrelated allogeneic HSCT at the age of 3 years following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen. The transplant course was complicated by pulmonary aspergilloma pretransplantation, adenovirus (ADV) reactivation, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis 4 weeks after transplantation. With antifungal and antiviral treatment the patient recovered. Seven months after transplantation the patient is in excellent clinical condition. Eczematous rash, chronic viral skin infections, and food allergies have subsided, associated with normalization of IgE levels and absolute numbers of eosinophils. Chimerism analysis shows stable full donor chimerism. DOCK8 deficiency can be successfully cured by allogeneic HSCT. This treatment option should be considered early after diagnosis, as opportunistic infections and malignancies that occur more frequently during the natural course of the disease are associated with higher morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08880018.2012.714844DOI Listing
October 2012

Costs and cost-effectiveness of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in children are predictable.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2012 Oct 5;18(10):1533-9. Epub 2012 Apr 5.

Department of Pediatrics, St Anna Children's Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The overall costs of pediatric stem cell transplantation (SCT), including donor search and costs during the first year post-SCT, were calculated in a cohort of 141 consecutive children undergoing SCT in a single institution. Costs were correlated with patient and transplantation characteristics and with a risk score for transplantation-related mortality. Cost-effectiveness was calculated based on the overall cost per surviving patient. Life-years gained were extrapolated from overall survival, and the costs per expected life-year gained were calculated. The overall median cost was €136,382 (175,815$), with a wide range, of €26,897 (34,679$) to €601,348 (775,343$). Increased costs were significantly associated with age, use of donors other than matched siblings, and advanced disease. There was a strong correlation of costs with a simple transplantation-related mortality risk score; median total costs were €89,550 (115,463$) for a score of 0, €127,349 (164,179$) for a score of 1, €156,578 (201,861$) for a score of 2, and €274,915 (354,499$) for a score of 3 (P < .001). Cost-effectiveness decreased with increasing transplantation-related mortality risk score; costs per survivor increased from €93,209 (120,200$) for a score of 0 to a maximum of €1,216,348 (1,568,579$) for a score of 3. Costs associated with pediatric SCT vary substantially; however, the combination of variables such as age, disease, and donor type is predictive of costs and cost-effectiveness. Costs per life-year gained are within the broadly accepted range in life-threatening hemato-oncologic diseases, even in the most cost-intensive patient cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.04.002DOI Listing
October 2012