Publications by authors named "Heidi V Connolly"

12 Publications

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Adenotonsillectomy for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea: how to predict those at risk for postoperative complications.

J Clin Sleep Med 2020 01 5;16(1):3-4. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.8150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053012PMC
January 2020

Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Ferrous Sulfate to Treat Insomnia in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 03 2;104:30-39. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Sleep Disorders Division, Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Background: Insomnia and low iron stores are common in children with autism spectrum disorders, and low iron stores have been associated with sleep disturbance.

Methods: We performed a randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral ferrous sulfate to treat insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorders and low normal ferritin levels. Twenty participants who met inclusion criteria and whose insomnia did not respond to sleep education were randomized to 3 mg/kg/day of ferrous sulfate (n = 9) or placebo (n = 11) for three months.

Results: Iron supplementation was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were reported. Iron supplementation improved iron status (+18.4 ng/mL active versus -1.6 ng/mL placebo, P = 0.044) but did not significantly improve the primary outcome measures of sleep onset latency (-11.0 minutes versus placebo, 95% confidence interval -28.4 to 6.4 minutes, P = 0.22) and wake time after sleep onset (-7.7 minutes versus placebo, 95% confidence interval -22.1 to 6.6 min, P = 0.29) as measured by actigraphy. Iron supplementation was associated with improvement in the overall severity score from the Sleep Clinical Global Impression Scale (-1.5 points versus placebo, P = 0.047). Changes in measures of daytime behavior did not differ between groups.

Conclusion: This trial demonstrated no improvement in primary outcome measures of insomnia in subjects treated with ferrous sulfate compared with placebo. Interpretation was limited by low enrollment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.07.015DOI Listing
March 2020

Severe obstructive sleep apnea in children with elevated blood pressure.

J Am Soc Hypertens 2018 03 3;12(3):204-210. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA. Electronic address:

The objective was to determine the prevalence of habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a cohort of children referred for elevated blood pressure (BP), and to determine the association between OSA and BP elevation, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. We performed a retrospective review of 446 consecutive new patients referred for elevated BP. One hundred four (23%) had habitual snoring. Patients with habitual snoring were more likely to be obese (86.5 vs. 55.6%, P < .001) and to have Medicaid insurance (52.4 vs. 36%, P = .004). Seventy-four patients had polysomnography, of which 57 (77%) had OSA; 21 (37%) had severe OSA. Severe OSA was associated with higher office systolic BP index after adjusting for body mass index, age, sex, and socioeconomic status (β = 0.07, P = .014). Fifty-two percent of patients with severe OSA had office systolic BP in the Stage 2 hypertension range. Children with habitual snoring or OSA were not at increased risk of receiving school services for a learning disability or receiving medications for inattention or mood problems. In summary, habitual snoring is common in children referred for elevated BP, and those with severe OSA are at higher risk of significantly increased BP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jash.2017.12.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5845834PMC
March 2018

The Pediatric Sleep Clinical Global Impressions Scale-A New Tool to Measure Pediatric Insomnia in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2016 06;37(5):370-6

*Sleep Disorders Division, Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; †Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY; ‡Department of Neurology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; §Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO; ‖Biostatistics Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objective: To pilot a clinician-based outcome measure that provides complementary information to objective measures and parent-based questionnaires for insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

Method: The authors developed a Pediatric Sleep Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI). Questions included (1) the child's ability to fall asleep and remain sleeping independently (i.e., apart from parents); (2) bedtime resistance; (3) sleep onset delay; (4) night awakening; (5) parental satisfaction with their child's current sleep patterns; (6) family functioning as affected by their child's current sleep patterns; and (7) clinician's overall concern with the child's sleep. After refining the instrument through the evaluation of vignettes by ASD and sleep experts, the authors piloted the Pediatric Sleep CGI in a 12-week randomized trial of iron supplementation in children with ASD. Clinicians completed Pediatric Sleep CGIs and structured sleep histories, parents completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and children wore actigraphy watches.

Results: In repeated measures models, the Pediatric Sleep CGI and CSHQ were correlated for sleep onset delay (r = .66, p < .001), night wakings (r = .40, p < .001), and total score (r = .29, p < .001). The CGI-S sleep onset delay and actigraphy sleep onset delay scores (r = .75, p = .0095) were also correlated. The overall CGI-S showed improvement with therapy (p = .047).

Conclusion: The Pediatric Sleep CGI shows promise in measuring clinician-rated outcomes in pediatric insomnia in children with ASD. Larger samples will be necessary to examine reliability, validity, and measure to change, as well as applicability to other populations with pediatric insomnia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0000000000000307DOI Listing
June 2016

Sleep Difficulties and Medications in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Registry Study.

Pediatrics 2016 02;137 Suppl 2:S98-S104

Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objectives: Sleep difficulties are common in children with autism spectrum disorders, with wide-ranging effects on the child's daytime behavior. We reviewed data within our Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network Registry to determine the prevalence of sleep difficulties and patterns of medication use.

Methods: Data from 1518 children ages 4 to 10 years were analyzed to determine the number of children documented to have sleep difficulties by parent-completed questionnaires and clinician-completed forms and how these findings related to the use of sleep medications.

Results: The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire total score was ≥41 (associated with clinically significant sleep problems in past research) in 71% of children. The prevalence of sleep diagnoses was less frequent (30% of children aged 4-10 years; P < .0001). Medications for sleep were prescribed in 46% of 4- to 10-year-olds given a sleep diagnosis. The most common medication used for sleep was melatonin followed by α-agonists, with a variety of other medications taken for sleep (anticonvulsants, antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines). Children taking medications for sleep had worse daytime behavior and pediatric quality of life than children not taking sleep medications.

Conclusions: Parent concerns about sleep may not be reflected in the information gathered during a clinic visit, supporting the need to develop screening practice pathways for sleep in autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, many medications taken for sleep have adverse effects, supporting the need for evidence-based interventions in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-2851HDOI Listing
February 2016

High prevalence of sleep disorders and associated comorbidities in a community sample of children with Down syndrome.

J Clin Sleep Med 2014 Apr 15;10(4):411-9. Epub 2014 Apr 15.

University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Department Public Health Sciences, Rochester, NY.

Study Objectives: Down syndrome (DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple comorbidities. Sleep disorders are common among children with DS and can cause significant distress for families. However, research is limited describing sleep problems and correlates in large population-based samples. Accordingly, we aimed to describe sleep behavior among children with DS and its relationship with medical conditions in this population.

Methods: We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study (2009-2011) of sleep disturbances in children and adolescents with DS 7 to 17 years of age (N = 107). We assessed sleep problems using caregiver report on two validated screening tools: the Childhood Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ). The prevalence of sleep problems was compared in children with and without important comorbidities using modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors.

Results: 65% of children screened positive on the CSHQ for significant sleep problems in the past month, but their parents often did not report sleeping difficulties in their children. On the PSQ, 46% screened positive for sleep related breathing problems and 21% screened positive for sleep related movement disorders. Children with asthma, autism, and a history of enlarged adenoids and tonsils had more current sleep problems than children without these comorbidities.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that sleep problems may be an important but under-recognized problem in children with DS. Sleep problems appear to be correlated with prevalent comorbidities, which may provide guidance to augment current practice guidelines to evaluate sleep problems in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.3618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3960384PMC
April 2014

Sleep-disordered breathing and behaviors of inner-city children with asthma.

Pediatrics 2009 Jul;124(1):218-25

Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

Objective: To explore the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and behavioral problems among inner-city children with asthma.

Methods: We examined data for 194 children (aged 4-10 years) who were enrolled in a school-based asthma intervention program (response rate: 72%). SDB was assessed by using the Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder Questionnaire that contains 3 subscales: snoring, sleepiness, and attention/hyperactivity. For the current study, we modified the Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder Questionnaire by removing the 6 attention/hyperactivity items. A sleep score of >0.33 was considered indicative of SDB. To assess behavior, caregivers completed the Behavior Problem Index (BPI), which includes 8 behavioral subdomains. We conducted bivariate analyses and multiple linear regression to determine the association of SDB with BPI scores.

Results: The majority of children (mean age: 8.2 years) were male (56%), black (66%), and insured by Medicaid (73%). Overall, 33% of the children experienced SDB. In bivariate analyses, children with SDB had significantly higher (worse) behavior scores compared with children without SDB on total BPI (13.7 vs 8.8) and the subdomains externalizing (9.4 vs 6.3), internalizing (4.4 vs 2.5), anxious/depressed (2.4 vs 1.3), headstrong (3.2 vs 2.1), antisocial (2.3 vs 1.7), hyperactive (3.0 vs 1.8), peer conflict (0.74 vs 0.43), and immature (2.0 vs 1.5). In multiple regression models adjusting for several important covariates, SDB remained significantly associated with total BPI scores and externalizing, internalizing, anxious/depressed, headstrong, and hyperactive behaviors. Results were consistent across SDB subscales (snoring, sleepiness).

Conclusions: We found that poor sleep was independently associated with behavior problems in a large proportion of urban children with asthma. Systematic screening for SDB in this high-risk population might help to identify children who would benefit from additional intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-2525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2704979PMC
July 2009

Sleep associated gas exchange abnormalities in children and adolescents with habitual snoring.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2009 Apr;44(4):364-72

University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.

Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of polysomnographically diagnosed OSAS and to describe the severity of sleep associated gas exchange abnormalities (SAGEA) in habitually snoring children. We hypothesized that there would be a high prevalence of OSAS in obese children with habitual snoring and that the most overweight children would have the most significant SAGEA.

Design: Retrospective chart review.

Measurements And Results: Nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) data from 114 children and adolescents referred for habitual snoring were examined. 74 of the subjects were male (65%), average age of 9.78 +/- 4.19 years, average AHI 13.51 +/- 20.25, mean BMI z-score 1.79 +/- 1.18. BMI z-scores correlated positively with severity of OSAS (P < 0.05) such that children with progressive degrees of obesity had more frequent respiratory events during sleep. Additionally, severity of sleeping hypercapnea as measured by percent of total sleep time with EtCO(2) values above 50 mm Hg was more severe with progressive degrees of obesity. Likewise, all measures of oxyhemoglobin desaturation were more severe with progressive degrees of obesity. Positive correlations between the severity of SAGEA and degree of obesity remained even after controlling for the severity of OSAS.

Conclusions: OSAS is highly prevalent in children referred to a pediatric sleep center with complaints of habitual snoring across a wide spectrum of weight categories. SAGEA increases with progressive obesity even when controlling for the severity of OSAS suggesting that obesity is an independent risk factor for SAGEA. Furthermore, because obese children frequently have SAGEA, capnography should be obtained during NPSG when possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.21012DOI Listing
April 2009

Symptoms of sleep apnea and polysomnography as predictors of poor quality of life in overweight children and adolescents.

J Pediatr Psychol 2008 Apr 11;33(3):269-78. Epub 2007 Dec 11.

School of Nursing, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave Box SON, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between quality of life (QOL) and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as well as objectively measured severity of OSA using polysomnography (PSG) in a cohort of overweight and at risk for overweight children and adolescents.

Methods: One hundred and fifty-one overweight subjects [90 males, average ages of 12.52, mean body mass index (BMI) Z-score of 2.27) and their parent/guardian completed surveys assessing QOL and symptoms of OSA syndrome. The subjects also underwent overnight PSG.

Results: Overweight patients reported poor QOL. Polysomnographic variables did not correlate with QOL. However, symptoms of OSA as reported on the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire significantly correlated with QOL from both the parent and the subject.

Conclusions: Overweight youth with symptoms of OSA have a lower QOL both by their report and parental report. Interestingly, objective measures of OSA did not correlate with QOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsm127DOI Listing
April 2008

Outcome of pulmonary function in Lemierre's disease-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2007 Apr;42(4):389-92

University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.

Pulmonary function in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) survivors typically returns to normal with the exception of a persistent reduction in carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DL(co)). Septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, (Lemierre's syndrome or postanginal sepsis) is a well-described, albeit uncommon cause of ARDS in which metastatic pulmonary thromboemboli precipitate respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. We describe convalescent pulmonary function in two survivors of Lemierre's disease-associated ARDS, suggesting that the subset of Lemierre's syndrome induced ARDS survivors have an excellent long-term pulmonary prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.20573DOI Listing
April 2007

Sleep and sedation in the pediatric intensive care unit.

Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2005 Sep;17(3):239-44

University of Rochester School of Nursing, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box SON, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Sleep is an important and necessary function of the human body. Somatic growth and cellular repair occur during sleep. Critically ill children have disturbed sleep while in the pediatric intensive care unit related both to the illness itself and to light, noise, and caregiver activities disrupting an environment conducive to sleep. Medications administered in the pediatric intensive care unit can also disrupt sleep. This article reviews what is known about sleep in the pediatric intensive care unit and the effects of common sedation medications on sleep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2005.04.005DOI Listing
September 2005

Duration of mechanical ventilation in life-threatening pediatric asthma: description of an acute asphyxial subgroup.

Pediatrics 2004 Sep;114(3):762-7

Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Strong Children's Research Center of the University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.

Objective: Acute asphyxial asthma (AAA) is well described in adult patients and is characterized by a sudden onset that may rapidly progress to a near-arrest state. Despite the initial severity of AAA, mechanical ventilation often restores gas exchange promptly, resulting in shorter durations of ventilation. We believe that AAA can occur in children and can lead to respiratory failure that requires mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, children with rapid-onset respiratory failure that requires intubation in the emergency department (ED) are more likely to have AAA and a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation than those intubated in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Methods: An 11-year retrospective chart review (1991-2002) was conducted of all children who were aged 2 through 18 years and had the primary diagnosis of status asthmaticus and required mechanical ventilation.

Results: During the study period, 33 (11.4%) of 290 PICU admissions for status asthmaticus required mechanical ventilation. Thirteen children presented with rapid respiratory failure en route, on arrival, or within 30 minutes of arrival to the ED versus 20 children who progressed to respiratory failure later in their ED course or in the PICU. Mean duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the children who presented with rapid respiratory failure versus those with progressive respiratory failure (29 +/- 43 hours vs 88 +/- 72 hours). Children with rapid respiratory failure had greater improvements in ventilation and oxygenation than those with progressive respiratory failure as measured by pre- and postintubation changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure, arterial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio, and alveolar-arterial gradient. According to site of intubation, 23 children required intubation in the ED, whereas 10 were intubated later in the PICU. Mean duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the ED group versus the PICU group (42 +/- 63 hours vs 118 +/- 46 hours). There were significantly greater improvements in ventilation and oxygenation in the ED group versus the PICU group as measured by pre- and postintubation changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure and arterial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio.

Conclusions: AAA occurs in children and shares characteristics seen in adult counterparts. Need for early intubation is a marker for AAA and may not represent a failure to maximize preintubation therapies. AAA represents a distinct form of life-threatening asthma and requires additional study in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-0294DOI Listing
September 2004