Publications by authors named "Heidi K Hansen"

4 Publications

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Biomonitoring of Danish school children and mothers including biomarkers of PBDE and glyphosate.

Rev Environ Health 2017 Sep;32(3):279-290

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Background: The Danish part of the large European Human biomonitoring pilot project Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) investigated the urine, hair and blood concentrations of 66 different environmental chemicals in a group of 145 Danish school children aged 6-11 years and their mothers from rural and urban areas in autumn 2011. Some - but not all - results were published; however, the concurrence of the chemicals has not been assessed.

Methods: The measured concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and glyphosate is assessed to complete the investigation of all 66 chemicals in DEMOCOPHES. The concentrations of PBDEs were measured in plasma samples of 143 mothers and 116 children. Glyphosate was measured in a subsample of 27 urine samples. Previously assessed chemicals were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) analyzed in blood samples, mercury analyzed in hair, and phthalate metabolites, parabens, phenols, cadmium, paracetamol and cotinine analyzed in urine samples. Differences in concentrations between mothers and children were assessed, and the associations between the concentrations of the different environmental chemicals. investigated by correlation analysis.

Results: PBDE47 was found in relatively high levels compared with previous Danish results in both mothers and children, with a significantly higher level in the children compared to their mothers. Glyphosate in concentrations around 1 ng/mL was detected in all 27 samples. The analyzed environmental exposures seem to follow a pattern where chemicals within the same classes are strongly correlated and where children and mothers are exposed to the same chemicals.

Conclusion: The correlations between the measured environmental chemicals indicate that a specific exposure pattern may exist, where people who are highly exposed to one class of environmental chemicals also may be highly exposed to certain other classes. As some of the compounds were measured in higher levels in children compared to mothers, increased focus also on the exposure in young children is recommended. For more detailed investigation of specific exposure sources more studies with increased power and detailed questionnaires should be developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2016-0067DOI Listing
September 2017

Temporally expressed PDGF and FGF-2 regulate embryonic coronary artery formation and growth.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008 Jul 17;28(7):1237-43. Epub 2008 Apr 17.

Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, The University of Iowa, 1-402 Bowen Science Building, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.

Objective: PDGF and FGF-2 are important regulators of vascular wall assembly. We tested the hypothesis that their embryonic temporal expression facilitates 2 specific events: (1) the endothelial invasion of the aortic root to form the coronary artery stems and (2) the subsequent growth and development of the arterial tree.

Methods And Results: Addition of FGF-2 and PDGF-BB proteins to embryonic quail heart explants stimulated a 3- and 7-fold increase, respectively, in tubulogenesis, whereas neutralizing antibodies to these growth factors attenuated tubulogenesis by 40%. Anti-FGF-2 and anti-PDGF neutralizing antibodies were then introduced in ovo via the vitelline vein at various embryonic (E) days. When injections occurred before coronary ostial formation, the embryos usually developed only 1 coronary artery or lacked coronary arteries. When 1 or both major coronary arteries formed: (1) their branches had a thinner tunica media, and (2) smooth muscle investment did not progress as far distally as in shams. Other anomalies included smaller diameter coronary artery stems in some hearts. Inhibition of VEGF via injections of aflibercept (VEGF-Trap, a VEGFR-1 and -2 chimera), previously shown to be essential for coronary stem formation, limited development of the coronary arteries even though introduced after formation of coronary ostia (at E9 or EI0).

Conclusions: Our data (1) document a role for FGF-2 and PDGF in the temporal regulation of coronary artery stem formation and growth of the coronary arterial tree and (2) reveal that VEGF expression is required for normal artery/arterial formation, even after coronary artery stem formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.108.166454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2748328PMC
July 2008

Vascular patterning of the quail coronary system during development.

Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 2006 Sep;288(9):989-99

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology and Cardiovascular Center, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Recent studies have provided insights into specific events that contribute to vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in the developing coronary vasculature. This study focused on the developmental progression of coronary vascularization beginning with tube formation and ending with the establishment of a coronary arterial tree. We used electron microscopy, histology of serial sections, and immunohistochemistry in order to provide a comprehensive view of coronary vessel formation during the embryonic and fetal periods of the quail heart, a species that has been used in a number of studies addressing myocardial vascularization. Our data reveal features of progenitor cells and blood islands, tubular formation, and the anatomical relationship of a transformed periarterial tubular network and sympathetic ganglia to the emergence and branching of the right and left coronary arteries. We have traced the pattern of coronary artery branching and documented its innervation. Finally, our data include the relationship of fibronectin, laminin, and apoptosis to coronary artery growth. Our findings bring together morphological events that occur over the embryonic and fetal periods and provide a baseline for studies into the mechanisms that regulate the various events that occur during these time periods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.a.20365DOI Listing
September 2006

VEGF family members regulate myocardial tubulogenesis and coronary artery formation in the embryo.

Circ Res 2006 Apr 9;98(7):947-53. Epub 2006 Mar 9.

Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Cardiovascular Center, Carver College of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

This study tested the hypothesis that coronary tubulogenesis and coronary artery formation require VEGF family members. Quail embryos were injected with soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors R1 (Flt-1), R2 (Flk-1), R3 (Flt-4), VEGF-Trap (a chimera of R1 and R2), or neutralizing antibodies to VEGF-A, VEGF-B, or fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. Our data document that tubulogenesis is temporally dependent on multiple VEGF family members, because the early stage of tubulogenesis was markedly inhibited by VEGF-Trap and to a lesser extent by soluble VEGFR-1. Some inhibition of tubulogenesis was documented when anti-FGF-2, but not anti-VEGF-A, antibodies were injected at embryonic day 6 (E6). Most importantly, we found that VEGF-Trap injected at either E6 or E7 prevented the formation of coronary arteries. Soluble VEGFR-1 and soluble VEGFR-2 modified the formation of coronary arteries, whereas soluble VEGFR-3 was without effect. Antibodies to VEGF-B, but not VEGF-A, had a strong inhibitory effect on coronary artery development. The absence of coronary artery stems, and thus a functional coronary circulation, in the embryos injected with VEGF-Trap caused an accumulation of erythrocytes in the subepicardium and muscular interventricular septum. Using retroviral cell tagging, we showed that some of the erythrocytes in blood islands and small vascular tubes were progeny of the proepicardium. Thus, another salient finding of this study is the first definitive documentation of proepicardially derived hemangioblasts, which can differentiate into erythrocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.RES.0000216974.75994.daDOI Listing
April 2006