Publications by authors named "Heidar Ali Abedi"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Self-care in Patient with Major Thalassemia: A Grounded Theory.

J Caring Sci 2017 Jun 1;6(2):127-139. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.

Self-care is the core concept of health care and may be considered as one's stabilization, and restoration as well as the improvement of his/her health and well-being. Looking at the process of Self-care from patients' perspective who suffer from thalassemia may assist the nurses and health care providers to facilitate the health process. Thus this study was conducted to discover the process of self-care in patients with major thalassemia. This qualitative study was conducted with grounded theory approach. 21 patients with major thalassemia from a Medical Research Center, supervised by Kerman Medical University, were selected through purposeful and theoretical sampling. Data were collected by unstructured interviews which lasted 30-60 minutes. These data were analyzed using the method of Corbin and Strauss. The main theme of "struggling to improve life quality" that included the sub-themes of "focus on needs of illness, "activating resources" and "restoring a new identity with thalassemia" were extracted from the data. This theme implies that participants endeavor to strengthen their self- efficacy via thalassemia. "Looking for strengthening self-efficacy in light of thalassemia" was the core theme in this study. Facilitating the process of self-care in patients with major thalassemia requires that they be helped so that their self-efficacy, influenced by real life conditions, might be strengthened in light of thalassemia. Increasing public awareness and social support may affect the recognition of individual, family and society.
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June 2017


J Ren Care 2016 Sep 26;42(3):162-71. Epub 2016 Jun 26.

Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery School, Shahr-e-kord University of Medical Sciences, Shahr-e-kord, Iran.

Background: Coping skills enable caregivers to establish and maintain supportive relationships with the haemodialysis patients they care for. These skills are very important in terms of social support, promotion of mental health and social and family relations. The aim of this study is to investigate the coping skills of Iranian family caregivers as they take care of patients undergoing haemodialysis.

Methods: Twenty participants were selected for the study through purposive sampling. The data gathering techniques used for the research were in-depth and unstructured interviews. The researchers used an inductive thematic analysis approach to analyse the data generated from the interviews.

Results: Four main themes emerged from the data: help-seeking skills, self-nurturing skills, time management skills and stress management skills.

Conclusion: The focus of attention was on the stress management coping skills of the caregivers of haemodialysis patients together with their ability to cope with complex problems. Healthcare providers, by taking into account these skills and strategies of empowerment, can help other caregivers of haemodialysis patients cope with their heavy care conditions and better define their purposes in caretaking.
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September 2016

Road Traffic Accident Victims' Experiences of Return to Normal Life: A Qualitative Study.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Apr 15;18(4):e29548. Epub 2016 Apr 15.

Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Road traffic accident (RTA) victims also suffer from different types of injuries and disabilities, which can affect their quality of life. They usually face with various physical, mental, and social problems. Most traffic accident victims had difficulty to return to normal life.

Objectives: This study aimed to understand the experiences of return to normal life in RTA victims.

Patients And Methods: This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted on 18 Iranian patients with disability in the upper or lower limbs caused by traffic accidents, who had passed a time between 3 months till 2 years. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Afterwards, the gathered data were analyzed through conventional content analysis.

Results: By analyzing 498 primary codes, four main categories, including supportive needs, adaptation to the new situation, seeking information, and transition from functional limitation, were extracted from traffic accident victims' experiences of reintegration to normal life.

Conclusions: The results of this study may help policy-makers to take steps toward health promotion and recovery of RTA victims. Considering the results of this study, it is a need for further research to investigate RTAs victims' needs for reintegration to home and community. Access to training and supportive facilities like strong therapeutic, nursing and social support, and the possibility to participate in self-care activities is essential for reintegration to community in RTA victims.
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April 2016

Care Instability in Nursing Homes; A Qualitative Study.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Feb 28;18(2):e21515. Epub 2016 Feb 28.

Department of Nursing Midwifery, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch, Khorasghan, IR Iran.

Background: The use of long-term care services has risen and this trend is expected to continue as the population reaches old age.

Objectives: This study was performed to assess the caring conditions in nursing homes.

Patients And Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative approach using conventional qualitative content analysis. The study was conducted on 23 Iranian participants including 14 elders and 9 caregivers. Data was collected with unstructured interviews and continued to the point of data saturation. Analysis of data was performed continually and concurrently with data collection through a comparative method.

Results: Three themes emerged from 595 open codes including care as unpleasant task, sustained care and insufficient resources. Ten subthemes indicated participants' experiences and understanding of caring conditions in a nursing home.

Conclusions: The prevailing given care was the routine one with a focus on physical aspects, although there was some psychological care given to the older people. The findings of this research are guidelines for managers and care planners in nursing homes who should pay attention to physical and psychological care needs of older people. In addition, it is important to pay close attention to the needs of caregivers and provision of instructions for treatment, supervision and education of caregivers and medical students to provide a better care.
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February 2016

Sense of coherence as a mediator of health-related quality of life dimensions in patients with breast cancer: a longitudinal study with prospective design.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2015 Dec 9;13:195. Epub 2015 Dec 9.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Alfred Nobels Alle' 23, Huddinge, 14183, Sweden.

Background: In our previous study, we found that the degree of sense of coherence (SOC) and baseline ratings of several dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were the most important predictors of HRQoL changes 6 months after the pre-diagnosis period of breast cancer. To find a way to explain these findings, the aim of this study was to explore the mediating effect of the SOC between ratings of HRQoL dimensions before final diagnosis, and ratings of the same dimensions at the 6 months follow up, within a sample of women with breast cancer.

Methods: A longitudinal study with a prospective design at baseline (T1) and 6 months later (T2) was conducted on 162 women with breast cancer. To measure HRQoL dimensions three different questionnaires, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-30, the SF-12 Health Survey version 2 and the Health Index were applied at T1 and T2 to cover both diagnostic-specific and generic dimensions. Measurement of the SOC as a mediator was done by the SOC-13 scale.

Results: Mediational analyses on eight significant pairs of HRQoL dimensions showed that the degree of SOC totally mediated variations of global quality of life (p < 0.001) as well as cognitive and social functioning (p <0.05) scores between T1 to T2. Changes in the scores of emotional functioning (p < 0.01), fatigue (p < 0.05), financial difficulties (p < 0.05), well-being (p < 0.001), and mental health component (p < 0.001) were partially mediated. The degree of SOC explained 16% to 45% of the variances in HRQoL dimensions at T2.

Conclusions: The mediating pathway of the SOC in the context of this study appears to be the key to understanding how a higher sense of coherence as an inner resource may serve as a protective psychological factor in the adaptation process of the patients. Clinicians might consider coherence-oriented structure of the SOC and the connection between the SOC and HRQoL data in intervention plans from the first visit onwards. It may assist the identification of women who are at greater risk for maladaptation to the breast cancer trajectory.
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December 2015

Perception From Barrier and Facilitator for Providing Early Rehabilitation Care for RTI Victims.

Trauma Mon 2015 Aug 1;20(3):e21621. Epub 2015 Aug 1.

Faculty of Trauma Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health problem and the most important cause of disability, morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early rehabilitation can play a significant role in minimizing complications, morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe perceptions of barriers precluding provision of early rehabilitation care for RTI victims.

Patients And Methods: A qualitative content analysis was carried out on 15 nurses with at least one year experience caring for RTI victims. The nurses were selected from various wards (emergency, orthopedic, neurosurgery, and clinic) of Sina and Imam Khomeini Hospitals via targeted sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and targeted sampling until data saturation. Data were analyzed and assessed.

Results: After continuous analysis and comparison of data, major causes precluding nurses from early rehabilitation of RTI patients were retrieved. These barriers included: (a) lack of insight, (b) lack of comprehensive care (c) excessive costs; facilitating factors included (d) training for cooperation and (e) support for coping.

Conclusions: The findings of this study show that the need for early rehabilitation in the hospital phase of care for RTI victims is needed. Knowledge about the barriers precluding nurses from early rehabiltiation of RTI patients and facilitators that can help health care workers and policy makers eliminate the barriers precluding early rehabilitation can help health care workers, especially nurses enable patients get over their disability and gain social and family support.
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August 2015

Health-related quality of life and the predictive role of sense of coherence, spirituality and religious coping in a sample of Iranian women with breast cancer: a prospective study with comparative design.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2015 Mar 28;13:40. Epub 2015 Mar 28.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Alfred Nobels Alle' 23, Huddinge, 14183, Sweden.

Background: There is disagreement among studies of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes in breast cancer patients over time. Reportedly, assessment of HRQoL prior to diagnosis may be crucial to provide a clear point of comparison for later measurements. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate changes in HRQoL, sense of coherence (SOC), spirituality and religious coping in a group of women with breast cancer from the pre-diagnosis phase to 6 months later in comparison with a control group, and (2) to explore the predictor role of SOC, spirituality, and religious coping within the breast cancer group at the 6-month follow-up.

Methods: A sample of women with breast cancer (n = 162) and a matched control group (n = 210) responded to the following instruments on both occasions: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, the SOC Scale, the Spiritual Perspective Scale and the Brief Religious Coping Scale. A series of General Linear Model (GLM) Repeated Measures was used to determine changes between the groups over time. Also, Multiple Linear Regression analyses were applied to each of the HRQoL dimensions, as dependent variable at the 6 months follow-up.

Results: Physical and role function, fatigue, and financial difficulties were rated worse by the women with breast cancer during the first 6 months in comparison to the controls, which was both a statistically (p < 0.001) and clinically significant difference. Women had better scores for global quality of life (p < 0.001), and emotional functioning (p < 0.01) during the same period of time. The degree of SOC (p < 0.01) and baseline ratings of several dimensions of HRQoL (p < 0.05) were the most important predictors of HRQoL changes.

Conclusions: Collecting HRQoL data before a final diagnosis of breast cancer is important to identify women at risk of deterioration in HRQoL during and after treatment. Special attention should be paid to physical and role functioning impairment, fatigue, and financial difficulties experienced by these women. These results underscore that the degree of SOC may be more important as a predictor for HRQoL changes in this sample than spirituality and religious coping.
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March 2015

Iranian women and care providers' perceptions of equitable prenatal care: A qualitative study.

Nurs Ethics 2016 Jun 23;23(4):465-77. Epub 2015 Mar 23.

Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Background: Equity as a basic human right builds the foundation of all areas of primary healthcare, especially prenatal care. However, it is unclear how pregnant women and their care providers perceive the equitable prenatal care.

Objective: This study aimed to explore Iranian women's and care providers' perceptions of equitable prenatal care.

Research Design: In this study, a qualitative approach was used. Individual in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of pregnant women and their care providers. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis method.

Participants And Research Context: A total of 10 pregnant women and 10 prenatal care providers recruited from six urban health centers across Ahvaz, a south western city in Iran, were participated in the study.

Ethical Considerations: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee affiliated to Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, confidentiality, and anonymity were considered.

Findings: Analysis of participants' interviews resulted in seven themes: guideline-based care, time-saving care, nondiscriminatory care, privacy-respecting care, affordable comprehensive care, effective client-provider relationships, and caregivers' competency.

Conclusion: The findings explain the broader and less discussed dimensions of equitable care that are valuable information for the realization of equity in care. Understanding and focusing on these dimensions will help health policy-makers in designing more equitable healthcare services for pregnant women.
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June 2016

Iranian family caregivers' challenges and issues in caring of multiple sclerosis patients: A descriptive explorative qualitative study.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2014 Jul;19(4):416-23

Member of Faculty in Medicine School, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: The broad spectrum of problems caused by multiple sclerosis (MS) imposes heavy responsibility to caregivers in caring of their patients. Therefore, they encounter many issues and challenges in this situation. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences and challenges of MS family caregivers.

Materials And Methods: A qualitative design, based on a thematic analysis approach, was used to reach the study aim. Data were collected and analyzed concurrently through in-depth unstructured interviews, field notes, and observations that were held with 23 participants (14 family caregivers and 9 MS patients) at two referral centers in Ahvaz, Iran.

Findings: THREE MAJOR THEMES WERE EXTRACTED FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSCRIPTS: "emotional exhaustion of caregivers," "uncertain atmosphere of caring," and "insularity care." The first theme consisted of three subthemes: "stressful atmosphere of caring," "conflict and animism," and "continuing distress affecting the caregiver." The second theme consisted of three subthemes: "unstable and complicacy of disease," "caring with trial and error," and "frequent hospitalization of patients," and the third theme consisted of two subthemes: "caring gap and disintegration" and "lack of sufficient support."

Conclusions: This study will be useful to healthcare system for managing the challenges of MS patients' family caregivers. Improving the conditions and performance of family caregivers is crucial in order to provide high-quality care to people with MS.
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July 2014

Using the hidden curriculum to teach professionalism in nursing students.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014 Mar 5;16(3):e15532. Epub 2014 Mar 5.

Department of Nursing, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, IR Iran.

Background: Professionalism in nursing is critical for creating credibility and a positive image.

Objectives: This study was carried out to explain the use of hidden curriculum in teaching professionalism in nursing students.

Materials And Methods: This qualitative study was conducted through purposeful sampling strategy by the participation of 32 nursing students. The data were collected by using semi-structured interviews, and this process was continued until achieving data saturation and themes' emergence. Content analysis method was used for data analysis.

Results: DATA ANALYSIS REVEALED THREE MAIN THEMES: Development of understanding the professionalism elements, Variety of influenceability strategies, and Influenceability to various resources. Each theme consisted of some subthemes.

Conclusions: The nursing students learnt the professionalism elements by different methods from different resources through the hidden curriculum. Therefore, exploration of the currently administered hidden curricula is suggested.
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March 2014

Living in a misty marsh: A qualitative study on the experiences of self-care suffering of patients with thalassemia.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2014 Feb;19(7 Suppl 1):S77-82

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.

Background: Thalassemia major is the most common hereditary anemia in Iran. Thalassemia major patients require lifelong care and suffer much pain during self-care. Knowledge of the nature, meaning, and impact of suffering from the perspective of patients is needed to determine which interventions are helpful. This study was designed to understand the experience of suffering in patients with thalassemia.

Materials And Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted with content analysis method. In the present study, 21 patients with thalassemia were selected by purposive sampling. The research was performed at Kerman Samen Alhojaj Medical Center, Iran, in 2013. Data collection method was conducting unstructured interviews using open-ended questions and field notes. In addition, data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and conventional approach.

Results: Data analysis resulted in the emergence of the four central categories of physical exhaustion, mental and spiritual restlessness, society's behaviors and beliefs, and surviving a hard life, which were the suffering themes of the patients.

Conclusions: Results showed that thalassemia in the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects is very stressful for patients. Moreover, culture plays an important role in the patients' experience of suffering. Results of this study can help nurses improve nursing care to alleviate suffering based on these experiences.
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February 2014

Incentives for self-management after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2014 Feb;19(7 Suppl 1):S64-70

Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.

Background: Chronic illnesses such as coronary heart disease are among the most prevalent and costly of all global health problems. Coronary heart disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, including Iran. One aspect of living with chronic illness is self-management which can reduce the impact of illness on daily life and maintain the quality of life. A qualitative understanding of how patients perceive the necessity of self-management is important for self-management support. The current study aims to determine patients' perception of the need for self-management following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.

Materials And Methods: We used a content analysis approach to conduct this qualitative study. Data were collected by interviews with 25 patients who underwent CABG surgery at least 1 year prior to the study. Purposeful, followed by theoretical sampling was used until data saturation. Data were analyzed by descriptive qualitative content analysis according to the Graneheim and Lundman approach.

Results: Participants had different perceptions regarding the need for self-management. Three themes, "reflective thinking," "information revision," and "beliefs influences," comprised the basis of forming patients' perceptions to the need for self-management.

Conclusions: Patients' perceptions vary regarding the need for self-management. The difference in perception should be the basis for training programs to guide CABG patients for successful self-management.
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February 2014

Power resources of older people in Iran.

Int J Older People Nurs 2013 Mar 27;8(1):71-9. Epub 2012 Jun 27.

Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery and The Persian Gulf Tropical and Infectious Disease Research Center Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Background: Maximising the client's power resources facilitates their ability to cope with chronic illness. Nurses must be well informed about power resources and feelings of empowerment among older people.

Aim: This article reports on a study exploring power resources in daily life from the perspective of older people in Iran.

Design: A qualitative content analysis study was conducted. The participants were selected from older community dwellers in Iran using in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand their experiences with power resources.

Results: Power in older people in Iran is represented by four dimensions: spiritual, intellectual, social and physical. Each power dimension can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic modes.

Conclusion: By maximising older people's power in intellectual, social and especially in spiritual resources, the effect of the loss of physical power, with its deteriorative or depressogenic effect on older people's sense of power and well-being can be compensated for. It is recommended that nurses should plan their interventions to enhance older people's power, especially their spiritual power.

Implications For Practice: Different models of empowering older people should be explored in Iranian nursing care delivery.
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March 2013

Situation of children's rights in Isfahan city.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2011 ;16(2):141-7

Member of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Taking care of children makes them happy, lively and healthy, and it makes the society healthy. Children's rights have been discussed for years and the United Nation General Assembly has two conventions to prevent children abuse, the Minimum Age Convention of 1973 and the Convention on the Rights of the Child on 1989 However, in spite of these international agreements, the statistics show that the cases of children abuse increased from 749 cases in 1960 to one million cases in 1995 in the Western countries Islamic republic of IRAN agreed this international agreement in 1993. This study investigated the nature, structure and process of children's right in the city of Isfahan.

Methods: The study is qualitative, using Content Analysis. The purpose of the study is to discover children's right nature, and to describe the existing condition. Sampling method was purposive (or judgmental) and continued until data collection was completed. Sample consisted of 43 children, parents and teachers or trainers. Data were collected by observing schools and other public communities and also by interviews which were recorded, transcribed, reviewed and coded in three steps using qualitative research methods, Thematic Analysis, to extract the main conception.

Results: The findings of observations and interviews classified in 260 codes and then joined together again to extract the main concepts and categories related to children's rights. This step lead to 12 categories and in the third step, four major categories including psychological and personality, physical, economic and cultural factors were extracted.

Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that parents, teachers and other significant figures in the children's life should receive education on the children's rights and needs in various fields to become capable of developing policies and plans in this regard.
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October 2012

Spiritual care in hospitalized patients.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2011 ;16(1):125-32

Assistant Professor, Department of Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Spiritual needs are among an individual's essential needs in all places and times. With his physical and spiritual dimensions and the mutual effect of these two dimensions, human has spiritual needs as well. These needs are an intrinsic need throughout the life; therefore, they will remain as a major element of holistic nursing care. One of the greatest challenges for nurses is to satisfy the patients' spiritual needs.

Methods: This is a qualitative study with hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Data were collected from 16 patients hospitalized in internal medicine-surgery wards and 6 nurses in the respective wards. Data were generated by open-ended interview and analyzed using Diekelmann's seven-stage method. Rigorousness of findings was confirmed by use of this method as well as team interpretation, and referring to the text and participants.

Results: In final interpretation of the findings, totally 10 sub-themes, three themes including formation of mutual relation with patient, encouraging the patient, and providing the necessary conditions for patient's connection with God, and one constitutive pattern, namely spiritual need of hospitalized patients.

Conclusions: Spiritual needs are those needs whose satisfaction causes the person's spiritual growth and make the person a social, hopeful individual who always thanks God. They include the need for communication with others, communication with God, and being hopeful. In this study, the three obtained themes are the spiritual needs whose satisfaction is possible in nursing system. Considering these spiritual aspects accelerates patient's treatment.
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November 2011

Women's experience of pain during childbirth.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2010 ;15(2):77-82

Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Labor pain is one of the most severe pains which has ever evaluated and its fear is one of the reasons women wouldn't go for natural delivery. Considering different factors which affect experiencing pain, this study aimed to explain women's experiences of pain during childbirth.

Methods: This was a qualitative phenomenological study. The study population was composed of 14 women in 6 weeks post-partum period of natural delivery. The data were collected by interview. The data were analyzed by Colaizzi's seven-stage method.

Results: AFTER ANALYZING THE INTERVIEWS, FOUR MAIN CATEGORIES WERE EXTRACTED: the nature of delivery pain, the related factors in labor pain, the results of labor pain, and the perception of caseworkers.

Conclusions: Assessing the women's experiences can be useful in giving better care. It helps understand the delivery pain phenomenon. Positive aspects of delivery pain must be strengthened and its negative aspects must be reduced as much as possible to create a suitable vision towards it.
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July 2011

Elderly self-management: a qualitative study.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2010 ;15(2):60-5

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences and The Persian Gulf Tropical and Infectious Disease Research Center, Bushehr, Iran.

Background: The population of elderly in Iran and in the world is increasing. It is predicted that the population of elderly reaches to 10 millions in Iran by the year 2019. Elders more than other age groups are at risk of chronic diseases and health problems; and elderly affects their self-management and makes them feel disabled. Since the knowledge of self-management for Iranian elderly is not well developed, this paper aimed to determine the concept of self-management for Iranian elders.

Methods: This was a qualitative study with grounded theory approach on Iranian elderly self-management. Data were collected through deep interviews with 26 participants in a period of one year and were analyzed using a Strauss Corbin analysis method.

Results: Self-management in the context of power means using different managing methods in dealing with daily life needs, especially in interactions with others in a way that accelerates affairs with efficiency and satisfaction. The main categories emerged from this qualitative study included: managing plans, managing life goals and policies, persuading the desired goals, managing self-care, directing others, coordinating and consulting with others.

Conclusions: The findings of this study provided a deep understanding of elderly perceptions of self-management in their lives. These findings can be a baseline for future researches on developing effective health interventions such as developing a nursing model for increasing the elderly self-management abilities in Iran. Such a model can provide a strong basis for nursing care.
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July 2011

Health index, sense of coherence scale, brief religious coping scale and spiritual perspective scale: psychometric properties.

J Adv Nurs 2010 Dec 16;66(12):2796-806. Epub 2010 Aug 16.

Nursing Division, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aim: This paper is a report of a study to translate one Swedish and three English instruments into the Persian language, and to estimate their validity and reliability.

Background: The Sense of Coherence Scale, Health Index, Brief Religious Coping Scale and Spiritual Perspective Scale are all well tested instruments for use in nursing research. Since there was no Persian translation of these instruments, they had to be translated and cross-culturally adapted for nursing research in the Iranian culture.

Method: After the translation process, sampling for psychometric tests was done. A sample of healthy Iranian people (n = 375) was selected to response to the instruments in 2006, at baseline and 1 month later.

Findings: Cronbach's alpha values and intra-class correlations were high (>0·70). Tests of criterion-related validity showed that six of the ten hypotheses were confirmed, and the four rejected hypotheses did not imply a threat to validity. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that sense of coherence was the strongest predictor of well-being (Health Index scores) both at baseline (= 0·52, P < 0·001) and 1 month later (= 0·58, P < 0·001).

Conclusion: There is a sound psychometric basis for using the Iranian versions of these instruments in nursing research with the Iranian population. The Sense of Coherence Scale proved to be as valid and reliable as in Western countries, which supports its cross-cultural applicability.
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December 2010

Comfort as a basic need in hospitalized patients in Iran: a hermeneutic phenomenology study.

J Adv Nurs 2009 Sep;65(9):1891-8

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Aim: This paper is a report of a study conducted to explore the comfort experiences of hospitalized patients during their admission to medical-surgical wards in an Iranian hospital.

Background: Comfort has various definitions, ranging from a basic human need, to a process, function or an outcome of nursing. As comfort is a substantive need throughout life in health and illness, providing comfort is a major function and challenge for holistic nursing care.

Method: This hermeneutic phenomenological study was conducted between July 2006 and April 2007 in six medical-surgical wards of one of a university hospital in Iran. Data were generated with 22 participants (16 hospitalized patients and six nurses), using in-depth interviews to capture their detailed experiences of comfort. Analysis based on the framework of Diekelmann enabled data interpretation and elaboration of shared themes.

Findings: One constitutive pattern, 'Comfort: a need of hospitalized patients' and four related themes - A friend in hospital, Relief of suffering within a calm environment, Seeking God, and Presence among family - were identified in the data.

Conclusion: These findings offer unique insight for planning and implementing appropriate clinical practices in Iran, especially in caring for Muslim patients. Two major implications are to: (1) consider comfort criteria during nursing assessment and planning of care during a patient's hospitalization and (2) note that Shiite people in particular are more comfortable and feel better when they are able to follow their religious principles.
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September 2009

Process evaluation of a community-based program for prevention and control of non-communicable disease in a developing country: The Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran.

BMC Public Health 2009 Feb 12;9:57. Epub 2009 Feb 12.

Process Evaluation Unit, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan,

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of mortality in Iran. A six-year, comprehensive, integrated community-based demonstration study entitled Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) conducted in Iran, and it started in 2000. Evaluation and monitoring are integrated parts of this quasi-experimental trial, and consists of process, as well as short and long-term impact evaluations. This paper presents the design of the "process evaluation" for IHHP, and the results pertaining to some interventional strategies that were implemented in workplaces

Methods: The process evaluation addresses the internal validity of IHHP by ascertaining the degree to which the program was implemented as intended. The IHHP process evaluation is a triangulated study conducted for all interventions at their respective venues. All interventional activities are monitored to determine why and how some are successful and sustainable, to identify mechanisms as well as barriers and facilitators of implementation.

Results: The results suggest that factory workers and managers are satisfied with the interventions. In the current study, success was mainly shaped by the organizational readiness and timing of the implementation. Integrating most of activities of the project to the existing ongoing activities of public health officers in worksites is suggested to be the most effective means of implementation of the health promoting activities in workplaces.

Conclusion: The results of our experience may help other developing countries to plan for similar interventions.
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February 2009

Evaluation of 'partnership care model' in the control of hypertension.

Int J Nurs Pract 2006 Jun;12(3):153-9

Medical Sciences Faculty, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran.

One of the shared common goals of World Hypertension League (WHL) and World Health Organization (WHO) is the control of hypertension. Despite many local and international interventions, the goal has not been achieved. This study evaluated an intervention based on the partnership care model to control hypertension in a rural population in the north of Iran. The results showed that the intervention was effective in decreasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure and in increasing the rate of controlled hypertensives (based on criteria of WHO/WHL). The intervention also had positive effects on health-related quality of life, body mass index, anxiety, high density lipoprotein level and compliance score. Based on these results, the partnership care model is effective in hypertension control and is recommended as a model to replace previous approaches in hypertension control.
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June 2006

Partnership caring: a theory of high blood pressure control in Iranian hypertensives.

Int J Nurs Pract 2002 Dec;8(6):324-9

Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran.

This study uses grounded theory methodology to generate a substantive theory that describes and explains the problem of high blood pressure control among Iranian patients. High blood pressure control is a major world health problem on which many studies have been carried out. Most of these studies have been done by quantitative research methods. The main purpose of this qualitative research was to determine the essential structure of high blood pressure control in an Iranian hypertensive population and to identify a theoretical explanation for this problem. Four interrelated concepts: 'non-compliance', 'lack of knowledge', 'lack of effective caring relationship', and 'necessity of partnership' were identified. Based on these processes, a partnership care theory was developed that provides an appropriate context for the active participation of patients, nurses and physicians in the control of hypertensive disease. This theory can be utilized in the control of hypertension as well as other chronic diseases.
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December 2002