Publications by authors named "Hee-Young Kim"

253 Publications

Zap70 Regulates TCR-Mediated Zip6 Activation at the Immunological Synapse.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:687367. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Laboratory of Autoimmunity and Inflammation (LAI), Department of Biomedical Sciences, BK21Plus Biomedical Science Project, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

The essential microelement zinc plays immunoregulatory roles its ability to influence signaling pathways. Zinc deficiency impairs overall immune function and resultantly increases susceptibility to infection. Thus, zinc is considered as an immune-boosting supplement for populations with hypozincemia at high-risk for infection. Besides its role as a structural cofactor of many proteins, zinc also acts as an intracellular messenger in immune cell signaling. T-cell activation instructs zinc influx from extracellular and subcellular sources through the Zip6 and Zip8 zinc transporters, respectively. Increased cytoplasmic zinc participates in the regulation of T-cell responses by modifying activation signaling. However, the mechanism underlying the activation-dependent movement of zinc ions by Zip transporters in T cells remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that Zip6, one of the most abundantly expressed Zip transporters in T cells, is mainly localized to lipid rafts in human T cells and is recruited into the immunological synapse in response to TCR stimulation. This was demonstrated through confocal imaging of the interaction between CD4 T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Further, immunoprecipitation assays show that TCR triggering induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Zip6, which has at least three putative tyrosine motifs in its long cytoplasmic region, and this phosphorylation is coupled with its physical interaction with Zap70. Silencing Zip6 reduces zinc influx from extracellular sources and suppresses T-cell responses, suggesting an interaction between Zip6-mediated zinc influx and TCR activation. These results provide new insights into the mechanism through which Zip6-mediated zinc influx occurs in a TCR activation-dependent manner in human CD4 T cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.687367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358678PMC
July 2021

Comparison of the effect of electromyogram activity during emergence on anesthetic depth monitoring between phase lag entropy and bispectral index: a prospective observational study.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Republic of Korea.

Background: The bispectral index (BIS) is the most widely used algorithm for measuring anesthetic depth. The BIS has been demonstrated as inaccurate when neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) are used. Compared with BIS, phase lag entropy (PLE), which measures the anesthetic depth based on a 4-channel EEG signal, is less affected by EMG. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of EMG activity during emergence on anesthetic depth monitoring between PLE and BIS.

Methods: Twenty five consecutive patients with physical status I-II of American Society of Anesthesiologists undergoing general anesthesia (age range, 20-60 years). The anesthesiologist attached the sensors of BIS and PLEM 100 on the patient's forehead. NMB reversal was performed by intravenously injecting sugammadex after confirmation of shallow NMB (TOF count 1-4) under neuromuscular monitoring. The BIS and PLE scores were recorded with neuromuscular monitoring at 1-min intervals for 5 min after administration of sugammadex.

Results: The BIS and BIS-EMG measured at 1 min after sugammadex injection were significantly higher at 1 min [51.650 (46.100, 62.225) (P<0.001); 28.500 (27.800, 31.075) (P=0.003)] than at 0 min. However, there was no between-time point difference in the PLE score and PLE-EMG (P=0.0843, P=0.329).

Conclusions: In general anesthesia using propofol-remifentanil, the BIS at 1 min after sugammadex reversal during emergence appears to be more affected by EMG activity than the PLE score. Therefore, immediately after sugammadex administration (within 1 min), it may be clinically useful to evaluate the consciousness status through the PLE score.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-847DOI Listing
July 2021

Acupuncture Modulates Intracranial Self-Stimulation of the Medial Forebrain Bundle in Rats.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 14;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu 42158, Korea.

Acupuncture affects the central nervous system via the regulation of neurotransmitter transmission. We previously showed that Shemen (HT7) acupoint stimulation decreased cocaine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Here, we used the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigm to evaluate whether HT stimulation regulates the brain reward function of rats. We found that HT stimulation triggered a rightward shift of the frequency-rate curve and elevated the ICSS thresholds. However, HT7 stimulation did not affect the threshold-lowering effects produced by cocaine. These results indicate that HT7 points only effectively regulates the ICSS thresholds of the medial forebrain bundle in drug-naïve rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304740PMC
July 2021

Role of Lateral Hypothalamus in Acupuncture Inhibition of Cocaine Psychomotor Activity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 1;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu 42158, Korea.

Acupuncture modulates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system; an area implicated in drug abuse. However, the mechanism by which peripheral sensory afferents, during acupuncture stimulation, modulate this system needs further investigation. The lateral hypothalamus (LH) has been implicated in reward processing and addictive behaviors. To investigate the role of the LH in mediating acupuncture effects, we evaluated the role of LH and spinohypothalamic neurons on cocaine-induced psychomotor activity and NAc DA release. Systemic injection of cocaine increased locomotor activity and 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which were attenuated by mechanical stimulation of needles inserted into HT7 but neither ST36 nor LI5. The acupuncture effects were blocked by chemical lesions of the LH or mimicked by activation of LH neurons. Single-unit extracellular recordings showed excitation of LH and spinohypothalamic neurons following acupuncture. Our results suggest that acupuncture recruits the LH to suppress the mesolimbic DA system and psychomotor responses following cocaine injection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198598PMC
June 2021

Comparison of catheter-over-needle and catheter-through-needle methods in ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block: A prospective, randomized controlled trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(26):e26519

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea.

Background: The catheter-through-needle (CTN) method involves the insertion of a catheter with an outer diameter smaller than the initial puncture hole. We investigated whether the catheter-over-needle (CON) method is more effective than the CTN method in local anesthetic leakage at the catheter insertion site and catheter dislodgement, and how it affects postoperative pain management.

Methods: Seventy patients scheduled to undergo continuous femoral nerve block for pain control following total knee arthroplasty were enrolled and randomized to receive a perineural catheterization with either the CTN method (group CTN) or CON method (group CON). After ultrasound-guided catheterization, the transparent securement dressing was attached. The study compared the CON and CTN methods in terms of leakage at the catheter insertion site, catheter dislodgement, and postoperative analgesic efficacy for 48 hours postoperatively.

Results: Leakage at the catheter insertion site was significantly lower in the group CON (P < .05), while catheter dislodgement was not significantly different between the groups. The other adverse events were not different between the groups. The procedure time was significantly shorter in group CON (P < .05). No significant intergroup differences were observed 48 hours postoperatively in the visual analog scales, the number of patients requiring additional analgesics, and the number of times a bolus dose was injected with an injection pump.

Conclusion: The CON method was able to shorten the procedure time while reducing the incidence of leakage at the catheter insertion site than the CTN method, and showed similar effects in postoperative pain management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257871PMC
July 2021

Prediction of endotracheal tube size using a printed three-dimensional airway model in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease: a prospective, single-center, single-group study.

Korean J Anesthesiol 2021 08 31;74(4):333-341. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Yangsan, Korea.

Background: To determine the correct size of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) for endotracheal intubation of pediatric patients, new methods have been investigated. Although the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been successful in the field of surgery, there are not many studies in the field of anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a 3D airway model for prediction of the correct ETT size, and compare the results with a conventional age-based formula in pediatric patients.

Methods: Thirty-five pediatric patients under six years of age who were scheduled for congenital heart surgery were enrolled. In the pre-anesthetic period, the patient's computed tomography (CT) images were converted to Standard Triangle Language (STL) files using the 3D conversion program. A Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) type 3D printer was used to print 3D airway models from the sub-glottis to the upper carina. ETT size was selected by inserting various sized cuffed-ETTs to a printed 3D airway model.

Results: The 3D method selected the correct ETT size in 21 out of 35 pediatric patients (60%), whereas the age-based formula selected the correct ETT size in 9 patients (26%).

Conclusions: Prediction of the correct size of ETTs using a printed 3D airway model demonstrated better results than the age-based formula. This suggests that the selection of ETT size using a printed 3D airway model may be feasible for helping minimize re-intubation attempts and complications in patients with congenital heart disease and/or those with an abnormal range of growth and development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4097/kja.21114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342841PMC
August 2021

Sauchinone Blocks Ethanol Withdrawal-Induced Anxiety but Spares Locomotor Sensitization: Involvement of Nitric Oxide in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 4;2021:6670212. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychopharmacology, Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar 161006, China.

Both the positive (manifested by locomotor sensitization) and negative (withdrawal symptoms) reinforcing effects of ethanol (EtOH) involve central nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Sauchinone (a bioactive lignan in ) has been shown to improve methamphetamine-induced behavioral and neurochemical changes via the NO signaling pathway. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of sauchinone on locomotor sensitization and anxiety during EtOH withdrawal (EtOHW). Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 1.5 g/kg/day of EtOH (20%, vol/vol) via intraperitoneal injection for 28 days, followed by a 3-day withdrawal. During withdrawal, the rats were given intragastric sauchinone (2.5, 7.5, or 25 mg/kg/day) once a day. EtOH locomotor sensitization was determined by challenging EtOHW rats with 0.75 g/kg EtOH, while EtOHW-induced anxiety was assessed using the elevated plus maze (EPM). None of the three doses of sauchinone affected EtOH locomotor sensitization. However, in the EPM, treatment of EtOHW rats with sauchinone at 7.5 or 25 mg/kg/day increased both the number of entries into and the time spent in the open arms. Moreover, the two doses of sauchinone inhibited the oversecretion of plasma corticosterone during EtOHW. In the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), EtOHW increased NO production, enhanced gene and protein expression of both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS), and also elevated protein levels of corticotropin-releasing factor, which were all inhibited by 25 mg/kg/day sauchinone. In an in vitro experiment, sauchinone (3, 10, and 30 M) inhibited HO-stimulated nNOS protein expression in neuronal PC12 cells. Finally, intra-BNST infusion of sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor, after sauchinone (25 mg/kg/day) administration, abolished its expected anxiolytic effect. Taken together, these results indicate that sauchinone attenuates anxiety-like behavior in rats during EtOHW but spares EtOH locomotor sensitization, and the anxiolytic effect is mediated via the NO signaling pathway in the BNST.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6670212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116157PMC
May 2021

Acupuncture reduces cocaine psychomotor responses by activating the rostromedial tegmental nucleus.

Addict Biol 2021 May 10:e13052. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, South Korea.

The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a GABAergic afferent to midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, has emerged as an integral player in both rewarding and nociceptive responses. While previous studies have demonstrated that acupuncture modulates DA transmission in the mesolimbic reward system originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and can reduce drug self-administration, the central links between peripheral acupuncture signals and brain reward systems are not well-characterized. Thus, we hypothesised that acupuncture would elicit inhibitory signals from RMTg neurons to brain reward systems. Acupuncture reduced acute cocaine-induced locomotor activity and DA release in a point-specific manner, which was blocked by optogenetic silencing or chemical lesion of the RMTg. The acupuncture effect was mimicked by chemical activation of the RMTg. Acupuncture activated RMTg GABA neurons. In addition, the inhibitory effects of acupuncture on acute cocaine-induced locomotor activity were prevented by electrolytic lesions of the lateral habenula (LHb) or fasciculus retroflexus (FR), areas known to project to the RMTg. These findings suggest that acupuncture recruits the RMTg to reduce the psychomotor responses enhanced by acute cocaine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.13052DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of Cooking and Processing Methods on Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Broccoli Florets.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Advanced Convergence Technology and Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea.

We investigated the effects of cooking (steaming and microwaving) and processing (freeze-drying and hot-air-drying) methods on the antioxidant activity of broccoli florets. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and alkyl free radical scavenging assays were employed to assess anti-oxidant potentials. The cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage induced by HO was studied using hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Anti-proliferative effects were assessed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. L-sulforaphane in broccoli extracts was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Steam and microwave treatments caused increases in total polyphenol content (TPC), whereas the total flavonoid content (TFC) decreased following steam treatment. A slight increase in TFC was observed in the microwaved samples. Extracts of all broccoli samples showed almost identical radical scavenging and cytoprotective effects. HPLC demonstrated that steamed (3 min)-freeze-dried (F-S3) and microwaved (2 min)-freeze-dried (F-M2) samples exhibited elevated levels of L-sulforaphane. In addition, the F-S3 and F-M2 extracts displayed strong anti-proliferative effects in MCF-7 cells, which correlated with L-sulforaphane content. As we observed no significant decrease in the antioxidant activity of broccoli florets, the cooking and processing methods and conditions studied here are recommended for broccoli.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143502PMC
April 2021

The impact of pretransplant hepatic encephalopathy, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scale on long-term survival following deceased donor liver transplantation: a retrospective study.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 19;10(5):5171-5180. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Republic of Korea.

Background: Liver transplantation (LT) has the incidence of 30-day mortality about 5-10%, Jo et al. reported that 30-day mortality and 1-year mortality for DDLT were 30%, and 39% respectively. It is not easy to create a model for predicting post-transplantation outcomes based on pretransplant variables. MELD does not take into account individual complications such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and research has shown that the greater the severity of pretransplant HE, the lower the survival rate after LT; the importance of monitoring for HE is therefore emphasized.

Methods: The medical records of adult patients who underwent deceased donor LT (DDLT) were retrospectively reviewed for analysis of the effect of HE on the long-term survival rate of post-transplant for more than 1 year.

Results: Presence of HE is not statistically associated to patient survival (P=0.062), but the hazard ratio is 1.954 (95% CI, 0.968, 3.943). In addition, the severe HE group significantly decreased survival compared to the non-HE group, and the cumulative 1- and 3-year overall survival rates were 80.9% and 78.7%, respectively, in non HE group, and 65.7% and 56.1%, respectively, in severe HE group (P=0.031).

Conclusions: Severe HE is a factor influencing the long-term survival over 3 years in the patients who underwent DDLT. Although prospective validation should be conducted to determine the prognostic value of HE severity, efforts could be made to reduce the severity of HE before DDLT, and consider severity of HE rather than MELD score in DDLT allocation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-21DOI Listing
May 2021

Bidirectional role of acupuncture in the treatment of drug addiction.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 07 8;126:382-397. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder, affecting people from all walks of life. Studies of acupuncture effects on drug addiction are intriguing in light of the fact that acupuncture can be used as a convenient therapeutic intervention for treating drug addiction by direct activation of brain pathway. The current review aims to discuss the neurobiological mechanisms underlying acupuncture's effectiveness in the treatment of drug addiction, on the basis of two different theories (the incentive sensitization theory and the opponent process theory) that have seemingly opposite view on the role of the mesolimbic reward pathways in mediating compulsive drug-seeking behavior. This review provides evidence that acupuncture may reduce relapse to drug-seeking behavior by regulating neurotransmitters involved in drug craving modulation via somatosensory afferent mechanisms. Also, acupuncture normalizes hyper-reactivity or hypoactivity of the mesolimbic dopamine system in these opposed processes in drug addiction, suggesting bidirectional role of acupuncture in regulation of drug addiction. This proposes that acupuncture may reduce drug craving by correcting both dysfunctions of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.04.004DOI Listing
July 2021

Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture Combined Treatment Attenuates Colitis in Rats.

Am J Chin Med 2021 6;49(4):965-982. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

College of Korean Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju, Jeollanam-do 58245, Korea.

This study aimed to verify the efficacy of a combined treatment of Jakyakgamcho-tang (JGT) and acupuncture (CV12, ST25, CV4) on colitis induced by dextrane sulfate sodium (DSS). Changes in immuno-mediated factors and metabolites were investigated. Colitis symptoms such as body weight loss and elevated disease activity index were alleviated by the combined treatment. Moreover, treatment with JGT and acupuncture restored the disturbed architecture of colon by suppressing inflammatory cytokine levels of IFN-[Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text] < 0.05), IL-5 ([Formula: see text] < 0.05), and IL-13 ([Formula: see text] < 0.0001) compared with the DSS group. Analysis of metabolic profiles of serum revealed that treatment groups were clearly separated from the DSS group, suggesting that JGT and acupuncture treatment altered serum metabolites. Furthermore, treatments caused opposite metabolite patterns for dimethylbenzimidazole, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol, proline, phosphate, glycolic acid, aspartic acid, tryptophan, phthalic acid, ornithine, and glutamic acid compared with the DSS group. The combined treatment group induced more effective metabolite patterns than the JGT group, implying that acupuncture treatment can restore metabolic changes caused by DSS induction. These results indicate that the simultaneous treatment of JGT administration and acupuncture procedure provides better management of the immune function and inflammatory expression of colitis than a single treatment. It is assumed that intestinal microbial control can be achieved by acupuncture stimulation as well as by taking herbal medicine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X21500464DOI Listing
April 2021

The Roles of Superoxide on At-Level Spinal Cord Injury Pain in Rats.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 6;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu 42158, Korea.

Background: In the present study, we examined superoxide-mediated excitatory nociceptive transmission on at-level neuropathic pain following spinal thoracic 10 contusion injury (SCI) in male Sprague Dawley rats.

Methods: Mechanical sensitivity at body trunk, neuronal firing activity, and expression of superoxide marker/ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs)/CamKII were measured in the T7/8 dorsal horn, respectively.

Results: Topical treatment of superoxide donor t-BOOH (0.4 mg/kg) increased neuronal firing rates and pCamKII expression in the naïve group, whereas superoxide scavenger Tempol (1 mg/kg) and non-specific ROS scavenger PBN (3 mg/kg) decreased firing rates in the SCI group (* < 0.05). SCI showed increases of iGluRs-mediated neuronal firing rates and pCamKII expression (* < 0.05); however, t-BOOH treatment did not show significant changes in the naïve group. The mechanical sensitivity at the body trunk in the SCI group (6.2 ± 0.5) was attenuated by CamKII inhibitor KN-93 (50 μg, 3.9 ± 0.4) or Tempol (1 mg, 4 ± 0.4) treatment (* < 0.05). In addition, the level of superoxide marker Dhet showed significant increase in SCI rats compared to the sham group (11.7 ± 1.7 vs. 6.6 ± 1.5, * < 0.05).

Conclusions: Superoxide and the pCamKII pathway contribute to chronic at-level neuropathic pain without involvement of iGluRs following SCI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961837PMC
March 2021

Early extubation after left ventricular assist device implantation in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a case report.

J Anesth 2021 06 29;35(3):455-458. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan Hospital, 20 Geumo-ro, Beomeo-ri, Mulgeumeup, Yangsan, 50612, Republic of Korea.

Management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cardiomyopathy is increasingly important for the survival of these patients. Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is an alternative treatment for refractory heart failure in DMD. A 20-year-old man with DMD and dilated cardiomyopathy underwent surgery for LVAD implantation. Respiratory failure may occur due to muscle weakness after surgery under general anesthesia in patients with DMD, and weaning from mechanical ventilation may be delayed or difficult. Considering the application of fast-track anesthesia (FTA), preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation which includes thoracic expansion exercise, air stacking exercise with manual resuscitation bag and manually assisted cough technique, hight-frequency chest wall oscillation, and mechanical insufflation-exsufflation was performed. We report on a patient with DMD in whom FTA and early extubation within 6 h after LVAD implantation was successfully performed without complications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00540-021-02925-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006882PMC
June 2021

Electroacupuncture at Neurogenic Spots in Referred Pain Areas Attenuates Hepatic Damages in Bile Duct-Ligated Rats.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 17;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu 42158, Korea.

Visceral pain frequently produces referred pain at somatic sites due to the convergence of somatic and visceral afferents. In skin overlying the referred pain, neurogenic spots characterized by hyperalgesia, tenderness and neurogenic inflammation are found. We investigated whether neurogenic inflammatory spots function as acupoints in the rat model of bile duct ligation-induced liver injury. The majority of neurogenic spots were found in the dorsal trunk overlying the referred pain and matched with locations of acupoints. The spots, as well as acupoints, showed high electrical conductance and enhanced expression of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Electroacupuncture at neurogenic spots reduced serum hepatocellular enzyme activities and histological patterns of acute liver injury in bile duct ligation (BDL) rats. The results suggest that the neurogenic spots have therapeutic effects as acupoints on hepatic injury in bile-duct ligated rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922595PMC
February 2021

Korean red ginseng suppresses 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced inflammation in the substantia nigra and colon.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 05 2;94:410-423. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Korean Medical Science, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, South Korea; Korean Medicine Research Center for Healthy Aging, Pusan National University, Yangsan, South Korea. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease involving dopaminergic neuronal death in the substantia nigra (SN); recent studies have shown that interactions between gut and brain play a critical role in the pathogenesis of PD. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) and the changes in gut microbiota were evaluated in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. Male nine-week-old C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 30 mg/kg of MPTP at 24-h intervals for 5 days. Two hours after the daily MPTP injection, the mice were orally administered 100 mg/kg of KRG, which continued for 7 days beyond the MPTP injections, for a total of 12 consecutive days. Eight days after the final KRG administration, the pole and rotarod tests were performed and brain and colon samples of the mice were collected. Dopaminergic neuronal death, activation of microglia and astrocytes, α-synuclein and expressions of inflammatory cytokines and disruption of tight junction were evaluated. In addition, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of mouse fecal samples was performed to investigate microbiome changes. KRG treatment prevented MPTP-induced behavioral impairment, dopaminergic neuronal death, activation of microglia and astrocytes in the nigrostriatal pathway, disruption of tight junction and the increase in α-synuclein, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α expression in the colon. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that MPTP altered the number of bacterial species and their relative abundances, which were partially suppressed by KRG treatment. Especially, KRG suppressed the abundance of the inflammation-related phylum Verrucomicrobia and genera Ruminococcus and Akkermansia (especially Akkermansia muciniphila), and elevated the abundance of Eubacterium, which produces the anti-inflammatory substances. These findings suggest that KRG prevents MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal death, activation of microglia and astrocytes, and accumulation of α-synuclein in the SN, and the regulation of inflammation-related factors in the colon may influence the effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2021.02.028DOI Listing
May 2021

Catechol enhances chemo‑ and radio‑sensitivity by targeting AMPK/Hippo signaling in pancreatic cancer cells.

Oncol Rep 2021 03 5;45(3):1133-1141. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Subtropical/Tropical Organism Gene Bank, Jeju National University, Jeju Special Self‑Governing Province 63243, Republic of Korea.

Overcoming chemo‑ and radio‑resistance is a major challenge in pancreatic cancer treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to discover novel therapeutic approaches to avoid chemo‑ and radio‑resistance in pancreatic cancer. Catechol is a phytochemical found in some fruits and vegetables. A few studies have reported on the potential anticancer effects of pure catechol. The present study aimed to explore the chemo‑ and radio‑sensitizing effects of catechol in Panc‑1 human pancreatic cancer cells. The effects of catechol on Panc‑1 cell proliferation, clonogenic survival, invasion, and migration were assessed using MTT, cell migration, and Transwell invasion assays. The chemo‑ and radio‑sensitizing effects of catechol on Panc‑1 cells were evaluated via MTT assay and flow cytometry. Western blotting was conducted to analyze the expression of proteins involved in several mechanisms induced by catechol in Panc‑1 cells, including growth inhibition, apoptosis, suppression of epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), and chemo‑ and radio‑sensitizing activities. The results indicated that catechol inhibited proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and suppressed cell migration, invasion, and EMT in Panc‑1 cells in a dose‑dependent manner. Catechol treatment also induced the phosphorylation of AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) with a concomitant reduction in the expression of Hippo signaling pathway components, including Yes‑associated protein, cysteine‑rich angiogenic inducer 61, and connective tissue growth factor. In addition, catechol enhanced the chemosensitivity of Panc‑1 cells to gemcitabine, a commonly used chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer treatment. A combination of catechol and radiation enhanced apoptosis and increased the expression of two radiation‑induced DNA damage markers, p‑ATM and p‑Chk2. Collectively, the present results demonstrated that catechol, a naturally occurring compound, could suppress the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells, reduce the expression of EMT‑related proteins, and enhance the chemo‑ and radio‑sensitivity of Panc‑1 cells by targeting AMPK/Hippo signaling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.7924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860010PMC
March 2021

Induction of the IL-1RII decoy receptor by NFAT/FOXP3 blocks IL-1β-dependent response of Th17 cells.

Elife 2021 Jan 28;10. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Laboratory of Autoimmunity and Inflammation (LAI), Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Derived from a common precursor cell, the balance between Th17 and Treg cells must be maintained within immune system to prevent autoimmune diseases. IL-1β-mediated IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling is essential for Th17-cell biology. Fine-tuning of IL-1R signaling is controlled by two receptors, IL-1RI and IL-RII, IL-1R accessory protein, and IL-1R antagonist. We demonstrate that the decoy receptor, IL-1RII, is important for regulating IL-17 responses in TCR-stimulated CD4 T cells expressing functional IL-1RI via limiting IL-1β responsiveness. IL-1RII expression is regulated by NFAT via its interaction with Foxp3. The NFAT/FOXP3 complex binds to the promoter and is critical for its transcription. Additionally, IL-1RII expression is dysregulated in CD4 T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, differential expression of IL-1Rs on activated CD4 T cells defines unique immunological features and a novel molecular mechanism underlies IL-1RII expression. These findings shed light on the modulatory effects of IL-1RII on Th17 responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.61841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872515PMC
January 2021

Activated Platelets Convert CD14CD16 Into CD14CD16 Monocytes With Enhanced FcγR-Mediated Phagocytosis and Skewed M2 Polarization.

Front Immunol 2020 7;11:611133. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Laboratory of Autoimmunity and Inflammation (LAI), Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Monocytes are important cellular effectors of innate immune defense. Human monocytes are heterogeneous and can be classified into three distinct subsets based on CD14 and CD16 expression. The expansion of intermediate CD14CD16 monocytes has been reported in chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the mechanism underlying induction of CD16 and its role in monocytes remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that activated platelets are important for induction of CD16 on classical CD14CD16 monocytes by soluble factors such as cytokines. Cytokine neutralization and signaling inhibition assays reveal that sequential involvement of plateletderived TGF-β and monocyte-derived IL-6 contribute to CD16 induction on CD14CD16 monocytes. Activated platelet-induced CD16 on monocytes participates in antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and its level is positively correlated with phagocytic activity. CD14CD16 monocytes treated with activated platelets preferentially differentiate into M2 macrophages, likely the M2c subset expressing CD163 and MerTK. Lastly, the amount of sCD62P, a marker of activated platelets, is significantly elevated in plasma of RA patients and positively correlates with clinical parameters of RA. Our findings suggest an important role of activated platelets in modulating phenotypical and functional features of human monocytes. This knowledge increases understanding of the immunological role of CD14CD16 cells in chronic inflammatory diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.611133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817612PMC
June 2021

Proper synaptic adhesion signaling in the control of neural circuit architecture and brain function.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 May 8;200:101983. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, 42988, South Korea. Electronic address:

Trans-synaptic cell-adhesion molecules are critical for governing various stages of synapse development and specifying neural circuit properties via the formation of multifarious signaling pathways. Recent studies have pinpointed the putative roles of trans-synaptic cell-adhesion molecules in mediating various cognitive functions. Here, we review the literature on the roles of a diverse group of central synaptic organizers, including neurexins (Nrxns), leukocyte common antigen-related receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs), and their associated binding proteins, in regulating properties of specific type of synapses and neural circuits. In addition, we highlight the findings that aberrant synaptic adhesion signaling leads to alterations in the structures, transmission, and plasticity of specific synapses across diverse brain areas. These results seem to suggest that proper trans-synaptic signaling pathways by Nrxns, LAR-RPTPs, and their interacting network is likely to constitute central molecular complexes that form the basis for cognitive functions, and that these complexes are heterogeneously and complexly disrupted in many neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2020.101983DOI Listing
May 2021

Anesthetic considerations for an adult with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome - A case report.

Anesth Pain Med (Seoul) 2020 Jan;15(1):120-123

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea.

Background: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) includes features such as growth restriction, mental retardation, congenital heart disease, convulsions as well as microcephaly and micrognathia. Thus, the anesthesiologists may have difficulties in airway management, neuromuscular relaxation, and in maintaining hemodynamic stability.

Case: A 24-year-old man with WHS underwent surgery for closed reduction and internal fixation of the right neck of femur. His face showed features typical of patients with WHS such as a prominent glabella, hypertelorism, micrognathia, low-set malformed ears, and a down-turned mouth. Since difficult airway management was expected, a video-assisted laryngoscope was used for successful intubation. The surgery terminated without any problems under total intravenous anesthesia.

Conclusions: A patient with WHS may have a variety of problems. Therefore, through careful evaluation of the airway, cardiovascular system, and cerebral nervous system and by making an appropriate anesthetic plan, anesthesiologists can perform a safe general anesthesia in patients with WHS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.17085/apm.2020.15.1.120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713862PMC
January 2020

Endoscopic vacuum therapy for cervical leakage following esophagectomy under monitored anesthesia care: a case report.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr 26;10(4):4906-4910. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Republic of Korea.

Although esophagectomy is a standard treatment for esophageal cancer, anastomotic leak after esophagectomy is a relatively common complication and its incidence is 10-25% for cervical anastomosis. Endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) is a feasible primary treatment of esophageal perforations and leaks. Currently, there are no anesthesia guidelines for EVT, however, it is usually performed under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, especially for cervical EVT. Here, we report a successful EVT under monitored anesthesia care (MAC) without any complication, which doesn't need to intubate the patient. A 64-year-old male with upper esophageal cancer underwent an Ivor-Lewis operation with cervical anastomosis. Vacuum assisted closure (VAC) was performed for cervical leak under general anesthesia, but there was no further improvement. Although EVT was attempted under sedation with midazolam in an endoscopy room, the procedure was discontinued because of desaturation. Furthermore, the thoracic surgeon was concerned about the possibility of dyspnea and hypoxia even after the procedure. EVT was scheduled under MAC at the request of a thoracic surgeon and medical doctor, as EVT was expected to lead to patient discomfort and difficult airway. EVT was performed successfully with no respiratory depression or patient movement using target controlled infusion with 2% propofol and remifentanil. The patient was discharged on the 78th POD without any other complications. EVT for cervical leak after esophagectomy can be successfully performed with MAC, and understanding the general condition of the patient, cooperation with the patient and the surgeon, and providing continuous oxygen supply to the patient are necessary for a successful procedure under MAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-1394DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of radioactive iodine treatment on cardiovascular disease in thyroid cancer patients: a nationwide cohort study.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Oct;8(19):1235

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment is a standard treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer (TC). However, its adverse effects on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have not been clearly elucidated.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study based on the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (2002-2015), we analyzed 4,845 patients with TC with a median follow-up of 66 months. We evaluated and compared the risk of CVD between patients treated with and without RAI therapy. The primary CVD outcome was defined as a composite of ischemic stroke (IS), ischemic heart disease (IHD), hemorrhagic stroke (HS), or heart failure (HF).

Results: Overall, 2,533 patients (52.3%) received RAI treatment with a median cumulative dosage of 103 mCi [interquartile range (IQR), 40-162 mCi]. The incidence of the primary CVD outcome in patients who did not receive RAI therapy and those who did was 17.32 [95% confidence interval (CI), 15.07-19.90] and 13.96 (95% CI, 12.17-16.01) per 1,000 person-years, respectively, indicating an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.71-1.07) after multivariate adjustments for variable confounding factors. The risks of IS (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.51-1.34), IHD (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.71-1.13), HS (HR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.49-2.09), and HF (HR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.49-1.63) were comparable between the patients who received RAI therapy and those who did not. There was no cumulative dose-dependent risk for CVD in TC patients who received RAI treatment.

Conclusions: RAI treatment is a prevalent and crucial treatment for TC, and has been used in more than half of TC patients in Korea from 2004 to 2015. This study found no significant between-group difference for the CVD risk in patients with TC who received RAI treatment and those who did not, giving further evidence to allay concerns related to the adverse effects of RAI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-5222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607121PMC
October 2020

Korean Red Ginseng Regulates Intestinal Tight Junction and Inflammation in the Colon of a Parkinson's Disease Mouse Model.

J Med Food 2020 Dec 29;23(12):1231-1237. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Korean Medical Science, School of Korean Medicine; Yangsan, Korea.

Recent studies have determined that gastrointestinal function contributes to the control of Parkinson's disease (PD). Gastrointestinal dysfunction results in a leaky intestinal barrier, inducing inflammation in the gut. Korean red ginseng (KRG) is widely used for the treatment of numerous afflictions, including inflammation and neurodegenerative disease. We investigated changes in the intestinal tight junctions and proinflammatory cytokines in the colon, and alpha-synuclein (aSyn) in the colon and the substantia nigra (SN) of a PD mouse model. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally administered 30 mg/kg of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) once a day for 5 days, and orally given 100 mg/kg of KRG for 12 consecutive days. Alterations in the levels of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) in the colon, and the expressions of aSyn and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the colon and the SN were evaluated. Oral administration of KRG significantly prevents the MPTP-induced motor dysfunction, and suppresses the MPTP-induced disruption of occludin and ZO-1, and suppresses the increase in TNF- and IL-1 in the colon of mice. In addition, KRG prevents accumulation of aSyn and TH in the colon and the SN. These results suggest that KRG has the potential to prevent MPTP-induced leaky gut barrier, inflammation, and accumulation of aSyn.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2019.4640DOI Listing
December 2020

Patients with epiglottic collapse showed less severe obstructive sleep apnea and good response to treatment other than continuous positive airway pressure: a case-control study of 224 patients.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 03;17(3):413-419

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.

Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze patients with epiglottic collapse, especially their clinical characteristics related to obstructive sleep apnea and phenotype labeling using drug-induced sleep endoscopy.

Methods: An age-sex matched case-control study was conducted to compare the clinical characteristics of patients with epiglottic collapse (Epi group) and patients without epiglottic collapse (non-Epi group). All patients underwent drug-induced sleep endoscopy January, 2015, to March, 2019, in a tertiary hospital for suspected sleep apnea symptoms. Demographic factors, underlying disease, overnight polysomnography, and their phenotype labeling using drug-induced sleep endoscopy were analyzed.

Results: There was no difference in age, sex, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, and coronary artery disease. However, the body mass index was significantly lower in patients in the Epi group (P < .001). Additionally, the apnea-hypopnea index was lower (P = .001), and the lowest oxygen saturation was significantly higher in the Epi group (P = .042). The phenotype labeling on drug-induced sleep endoscopy showed that the prevalence of velum concentric collapse and oropharyngeal lateral wall collapse was lower, and that of tongue-base collapse was higher in the Epi group. Multilevel obstructions were more common in the Epi group. However, the Epi group showed a good response to mandibular advancement or positional therapy.

Conclusions: Although there was no difference in the underlying characteristics and self-reported symptom scores between the groups, the patients with epiglottic collapse showed significantly lower body mass index and obstructive sleep apnea severity. Additionally, patients with epiglottic collapse were expected to respond well to oral devices or positional therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.8904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927331PMC
March 2021

Indoxyl Sulfate-Mediated Metabolic Alteration of Transcriptome Signatures in Monocytes of Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD).

Toxins (Basel) 2020 09 28;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea.

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the final stage of chronic kidney disease, which is increasingly prevalent worldwide and is associated with the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a major uremic toxin, plays a key role in the pathology of CVD via adverse effects in endothelial and immune cells. Thus, there is a need for a transcriptomic overview of IS responsive genes in immune cells of ESRD patients. Here, we investigated IS-mediated alterations in gene expression in monocytes from ESRD patients. Transcriptomic analysis of ESRD patient-derived monocytes and IS-stimulated monocytes from healthy controls was performed, followed by analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and gene ontology (GO). We found that 148 upregulated and 139 downregulated genes were shared between ESRD patient-derived and IS-stimulated monocytes. Interaction network analysis using STRING and ClueGo suggests that mainly metabolic pathways, such as the pentose phosphate pathway, are modified by IS in ESRD patient-derived monocytes. These findings were confirmed in IS-stimulated monocytes by the increased mRNA expression of genes including G6PD, PGD, and TALDO1. Our data suggest that IS causes alteration of metabolic pathways in monocytes of ESRD patients and, thus, these altered genes may be therapeutic targets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601745PMC
September 2020

The role of substance P in acupuncture signal transduction and effects.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 01 18;91:683-694. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu 42158, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Acupuncture has been used to treat a wide variety of diseases, disorders, and conditions for more than 2500 years. While the anatomical structures of acupuncture points (or acupoints) are largely unknown, our previous studies have suggested that many acupoints can be identified as cutaneous neurogenic inflammatory spots (neurogenic spots or Neuro-Sps), arising from the release of neuropeptides from activated small diameter sensory afferents at topographically distinct body surfaces due to the convergence of visceral and somatic afferents. In turn, the neuropeptides released during neurogenic inflammation may play important roles in the effects of acupuncture as well as the formation of active acupoints. Thus, the present study has focused on the role of substance P (SP) in acupuncture signal transduction and effects.

Methods: Neuro-Sps were detected by using in vivo fluorescence imaging after intravenous injection of Evans blue dye (EBD) and compared with traditional acupoints. Stimulatory effects of the Neuro-Sps were examined in a rat model of immobilization-induced hypertension (IMH). The roles of increased SP in Neuro-Sps were also investigated by using immunohistochemistry, in vivo single-fiber peripheral nerve recordings, and in vivo midbrain extracellular recordings.

Results: Neurogenic inflammation quickly appeared at acupoints on the wrist and was fully developed within 15 min in IMH model. The Neuro-Sps showed an increased release of SP from afferent nerve terminals. Mechanical stimulation of these Neuro-Sps increased cell excitability in the midbrain (rostral ventrolateral medulla) and alleviated the development of hypertension, which was blocked by the local injection of the SP receptor antagonist CP-99994 into Neuro-Sps prior to acupuncture and mimicked by the local injection of capsaicin. Single fiber recordings of peripheral nerves showed that increased SP into the Neuro-Sps elevated the sensitivity of A- and C-fibers in response to acupuncture stimulation. In addition, the discharge rates of spinal wide dynamic response (WDR) neurons significantly increased following SP or acupuncture treatment in Neuro-Sps in normal rats, but decreased following the injection of CP-99994 into Neuro-Sps in IMH rats.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that SP released during neurogenic inflammation enhances the responses of sensory afferents to the needling of acupoints and triggers acupuncture signaling to generate acupuncture effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.08.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749828PMC
January 2021

Endotracheal intubation using a three-dimensional printed airway model in a patient with Pierre Robin sequence and a history of tracheostomy -a case report.

Korean J Anesthesiol 2021 06 15;74(3):262-265. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea.

Background: Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) patients have an increased risk of difficult intubation due to anatomical airway abnormalities, and intubation simulation with a three-dimensional (3D) printed airway model before anesthesia may facilitate safe airway management.

Case: We describe the case of a 6.5-year-old boy with a history of PRS (a triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and airway obstruction), tracheostomy, and subglottic fibrosis who required general anesthesia. Preparation for this potentially difficult intubation included estimation of endotracheal tube size using a 3D printed airway model derived from 3D computed tomography of the airway, which enabled successful endotracheal intubation via video laryngoscopy.

Conclusions: If general anesthesia is necessary in patients with dysmorphic features such as PRS and there is a history of tracheal pathology, the possibility of difficult intubation should always be considered and simulation of endotracheal intubation using a 3D printed model of the airway can be helpful clinically in such situations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4097/kja.20430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175873PMC
June 2021

Enhanced spinal neuronal responses as a mechanism for increased number and size of active acupoints in visceral hyperalgesia.

Sci Rep 2020 06 25;10(1):10312. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, 42158, South Korea.

Acupuncture has been used to treat a variety of illness and involves the insertion and manipulation of needles into specific points on the body (termed "acupoints"). It has been suggested that acupoints are not merely discrete, static points, but can be dynamically changed according to the pathological state of internal organs. We investigated in a rat model of mustard oil (MO)-induced visceral hyperalgesia whether the number and size of acupoints were modified according to the severity of the colonic pain, and whether the changes were associated with enhanced activity of the spinal dorsal horn. In MO-treated rats, acupoints showing neurogenic inflammation (termed "neurogenic spots" or Neuro-Sps) were found both bilaterally and unilaterally on the leg. The number and size of these acupoints increased along with increasing doses of MO. Electroacupuncture of the acupoints generated analgesic effects on MO-induced visceral hypersensitivity. The MO-treated rats showed an increase in c-Fos expression in spinal dorsal horn neurons and displayed increased evoked activity and a prolonged after-discharge in spinal wide dynamic response (WDR) neurons in response to colorectal distension. Increased number and size of neurogenic inflammatory acupoints following MO treatment were reduced by inhibiting AMPA and NMDA receptors in the spinal cord. Our findings suggest that acupoints demonstrate increased number and size along with severity of visceral pain, which may be associated with enhanced neuronal responses in spinal dorsal horn neurons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67242-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316812PMC
June 2020

Prevalence of osteoporosis among North Korean women refugees living in South Korea: a comparative cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2020 06 11;10(6):e036230. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, The Republic of Korea

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis among North Korean women refugees when compared with South Korean women, who have identical genetic backgrounds but experience different environments.

Design: Comparative cross-sectional study.

Setting: North Korean Refugee Health in South Korea (NORNS) study in South Korea.

Participants: We evaluated 122 North Korean women who participated in NORNS study and 366 age-matched/menopausal status-matched South Korean women from the Korea University Medical Center (KUMC) health examination cohort. The median age of the NORNS participants was 46 years (IQR, 40-60 years) with 52 women (42.6%) being postmenopausal.

Results: Among the postmenopausal women, NORNS participants had a higher body mass index and number of pregnancies and lower physical activity than the KUMC participants. The overall prevalence of osteoporosis was 48% (25/52) and 17% (27/156) in NORNS and KUMC participants, respectively. The bone mineral density (BMD) values at the lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip were significantly lower in postmenopausal NORNS women than in the postmenopausal KUMC women. Old age, low body weight and late age of menarche were associated with low BMD among the postmenopausal North Korean refugees. In premenopausal participants, the NORNS women had lower body weight and physical activity than the KUMC women at baseline. All the NORNS women had normal Z-scores, although the BMD at the lumbar spine was significantly lower in NORNS women than in the KUMC women (0.952 vs 1.002 g/cm, p<0.001).

Conclusions: Osteoporosis is a prevalent health problem in postmenopausal North Korean women refugees living in South Korea. It is conceivable to prepare vigilant countermeasures for bone health deterioration in this growing population, especially for postmenopausal women. Further research is warranted to determine the cause of the differences between participants of the same ethnic group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295412PMC
June 2020
-->