Publications by authors named "Hee-Jin Kim"

1,161 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Independent effect of body mass index variation on amyloid-β positivity.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 22;14:924550. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea.

Objectives: The relationship of body mass index (BMI) changes and variability with amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition remained unclear, although there were growing evidence that BMI is associated with the risk of developing cognitive impairment or AD dementia. To determine whether BMI changes and BMI variability affected Aβ positivity, we investigated the association of BMI changes and BMI variability with Aβ positivity, as assessed by PET in a non-demented population.

Methods: We retrospectively recruited 1,035 non-demented participants ≥50 years of age who underwent Aβ PET and had at least three BMI measurements in the memory clinic at Samsung Medical Center. To investigate the association between BMI change and variability with Aβ deposition, we performed multivariable logistic regression. Further distinctive underlying features of BMI subgroups were examined by employing a cluster analysis model.

Results: Decreased (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.42) or increased BMI (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.11-2.32) was associated with a greater risk of Aβ positivity after controlling for age, sex, APOE e4 genotype, years of education, hypertension, diabetes, baseline BMI, and BMI variability. A greater BMI variability (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.07-2.80) was associated with a greater risk of Aβ positivity after controlling for age, sex, APOE e4 genotype, years of education, hypertension, diabetes, baseline BMI, and BMI change. We also identified BMI subgroups showing a greater risk of Aβ positivity.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that participants with BMI change, especially those with greater BMI variability, are more vulnerable to Aβ deposition regardless of baseline BMI. Furthermore, our results may contribute to the design of strategies to prevent Aβ deposition with respect to weight control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.924550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354132PMC
July 2022

Aripiprazole sensitizes head and neck cancer cells to ionizing radiation by enhancing the production of reactive oxygen species.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2022 Aug;10(4):e00989

Radiation Therapeutics Development Team, Division of Radiation Cancer Science, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, South Korea.

Drug repositioning is an alternative process for drug development in cancer. Specifically, it is a strategy for the discovery of new antitumor drugs by screening previously approved clinical drugs. On the basis of this strategy, aripiprazole, an antipsychotic drug, was found to have anticancer activity. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effects of aripiprazole on head and neck cancer cells at sublethal doses of ionizing radiation (IR) in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with aripiprazole suppressed the growth of head and neck cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as evidenced by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Intriguingly, aripiprazole significantly enhanced the sensitivity of these cells to the IC dose of IR. The combination of aripiprazole with IR synergistically increased annexin and propidium iodide double-positive and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cell populations, and induced cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase-3 expression, indicating the induction of apoptosis in these cells. Aripiprazole and IR-induced apoptosis were accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species and was almost completely suppressed by the addition of the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine. Finally, aripiprazole greatly sensitized xenograft tumors to IR at doses that did not affect tumor growth. Taken together, these results suggest that aripiprazole could be considered a potent radiosensitizer for head and neck cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9337216PMC
August 2022

Effective Prevention and Management Tools for Metabolic Syndrome Based on Digital Health-Based Lifestyle Interventions Using Healthcare Devices.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Jul 16;12(7). Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju 26426, Korea.

Digital health-based lifestyle interventions (e.g., mobile applications, short messaging service, wearable devices, social media, and interactive websites) are widely used to manage metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to confirm the utility of self-care for prevention or management of MetS. We recruited 106 participants with one or more MetS risk factors from December 2019 to September 2020. Participants were provided five healthcare devices and applications. Characteristics were compared at baseline and follow-up to examine changes in risk factors, engagement, persistence, and physical activity (analyzed through device use frequency and lifestyle interventions performed). Participants with 1-2 MetS risk factors showed statistically significant reductions in waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP). Participants with ≥3 MetS risk factors showed statistically significant reductions in risk factors including weight, body mass index, WC, BP, and fasting blood sugar (FBS). The prevention and improvement groups used more healthcare devices than the other groups. Smartwatch was the most frequently used device (5 times/week), and physical activity logged more than 7000 steps/week. WC, BP, and FBS of the improvement group were reduced by more than 40%. Based on engagement, persistence, and physical activity, digital health-based lifestyle interventions could be helpful for MetS prevention and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12071730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9324676PMC
July 2022

Positional deformation of the parotid gland: Application to minimally invasive procedures.

Clin Anat 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, South Korea.

Anatomical studies of the parotid gland are important for mid- and lower face filler, botulinum toxin, and thread lifting procedures. The purpose of this study was to observe the topographic anatomy of the parotid gland using cadaveric dissections. The superficial lobe of the parotid gland was studied in 30 hemisected heads. Reference lines were made on the lateral aspect of the face. A reference line (the line connecting the mandibular angle to the upper margin of the zygomatic arch, along the posterior border of the ramus) was divided into four sections (P1, P2, P3, and P4). The superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior borders of the parotid gland were measured using the reference lines and sections. Using these measurements, we categorized the superficial lobe of the parotid gland into two types: type Ia, pistol-shaped; Ib, pistol-shaped with an accessory lobe; and type II, oval-shaped. The superior border of the parotid gland started just below the inferior margin of the zygomatic arch. The parotid gland covered the posterior part of the masseter muscle near P1 and P2, but at P3 and below P3, the tail of the parotid gland was located posterior to the ramus and covered the anterior part of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The topographic anatomy of the parotid gland serves as a reliable reference for esthetic procedures in the lower face and neck region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.23941DOI Listing
July 2022

Decreased visual acuity is related to thinner cortex in cognitively normal adults: cross-sectional, single-center cohort study.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2022 07 25;14(1):99. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06351, Republic of Korea.

Background: Decreased visual acuity (VA) is reported to be a risk factor for dementia. However, the association between VA and cortical thickness has not been established. We investigated the association between VA and cortical thickness in cognitively normal adults.

Method: We conducted a cross-sectional, single-center cohort study with cognitively normal adults (aged ≥ 45) who received medical screening examinations at the Health Promotion Center at Samsung Medical Center. Subjects were categorized as bad (VA ≤ 20/40), fair (20/40 < VA ≤ 20/25), and good (VA > 20/25) VA group by using corrected VA in the Snellen system. Using 3D volumetric brain MRI, cortical thickness was calculated using the Euclidean distance between the linked vertices of the inner and outer surfaces. We analyzed the association between VA and cortical thickness after controlling for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, intracranial volume, and education level.

Results: A total of 2756 subjects were analyzed in this study. Compared to the good VA group, the bad VA group showed overall thinner cortex (p = 0.015), especially in the parietal (p = 0.018) and occipital (p = 0.011) lobes. Topographical color maps of vertex-wise analysis also showed that the bad VA group showed a thinner cortex in the parieto-temporo-occipital area. These results were more robust in younger adults (aged 45 to 65) as decreased VA was associated with thinner cortex in more widespread regions in the parieto-temporo-occipital area.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that a thinner cortex in the visual processing area of the brain is related to decreased visual stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-022-01045-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9310451PMC
July 2022

Novel Anatomical Proposal for Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection Targeting Lateral Canthal Rhytids.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 Jul 6;14(7). Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Botulinum neurotoxin injections near the lateral canthal rhytids are commonly used in cosmetic settings; however, there is a lack of thorough anatomical knowledge, and an effective way to treat them with accumulating knowledge is needed. The anatomical characteristics concerning the injection of botulinum neurotoxin into the orbicularis oculi muscle were evaluated in this review. Current knowledge on the identification of botulinum neurotoxin injection points from recent anatomical research was assessed. The lateral canthal lines are involved with the orbicularis oculi muscle and nearby anatomical structures, and the injection points can be more precisely defined. The best possible injection sites were provided, and the injection procedure was described. This review proposes evidence for injection sites associated with the surface anatomy of the orbicularis oculi muscles to enhance the effectiveness of easing lateral canthal rhytids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins14070462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9316553PMC
July 2022

Normal Aging Induces Changes in the Brain and Neurodegeneration Progress: Review of the Structural, Biochemical, Metabolic, Cellular, and Molecular Changes.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 30;14:931536. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Department of Neurology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Aging is accompanied by many changes in brain and contributes to progressive cognitive decline. In contrast to pathological changes in brain, normal aging brain changes have relatively mild but important changes in structural, biochemical and molecular level. Representatively, aging associated brain changes include atrophy of tissues, alteration in neurotransmitters and damage accumulation in cellular environment. These effects have causative link with age associated changes which ultimately results in cognitive decline. Although several evidences were found in normal aging changes of brain, it is not clearly integrated. Figuring out aging related changes in brain is important as aging is the process that everyone goes through, and comprehensive understanding may help to progress further studies. This review clarifies normal aging brain changes in an asymptotic and comprehensive manner, from a gross level to a microscopic and molecular level, and discusses potential approaches to seek the changes with cognitive decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.931536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9281621PMC
June 2022

Assessment of chicken thigh meat quality of Ross 308 broiler of animal welfare certified farm.

Anim Biosci 2022 Jun 30. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Department of Applied Animal Science, College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the difference in the thigh meat quality of Ross 308 broiler from conventional and welfare farms.

Methods: Thigh meat samples of Ross 308 broilers (age, 35 d; carcass weight, 1.1 kg) from conventional farm (RCF, n = 60) and animal welfare farms (RAWF, n = 60) were analyzed. Proximate composition, pH, color (lightness, redness, and yellowness), water-holding capacity (WHC), shear force, total aerobic bacteria (TAB), and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) were measured and the levels of bioactive compounds such as dipeptides (anserine and carnosine), creatine, creatinine, and their anti-oxidation activity were determined.

Results: RCF and RAWF did not differ significantly in their proximate composition, WHC, color, and creatine and carnosine levels. The pH value was significantly lower in RAWF than in RCF on day 7. The shear force value was significantly higher in RAWF than in RCF throughout the storage duration. TAB in RCF on day 9 were significantly higher than those in RAWF. VBN content of RAWF was significantly lower than that of RCF after 5 days of storage. Creatinine content was significantly higher in RAWF (3.50 mg/100 g) than in RCF (3.08 mg/100 g) on day 1. Along with higher carnosine and anserine contents of RAWF, it had significantly higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activities than those of RCF.

Conclusion: These results imply that the animal welfare farming system beneficially affects the overall oxidative stability of Ross 308 thigh meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.22.0044DOI Listing
June 2022

A Multinational, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Active Comparator, Phase III Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Donepezil Transdermal Patch in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease.

J Clin Neurol 2022 Jul;18(4):428-436

Department of Neurology, Konkuk University School of Medicine and Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Purpose: Oral administration of cholinesterase inhibitors is often associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects, and so developing an alternative administration route, such as transdermal, is urgently needed. The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the IPI-301 donepezil transdermal patch compared with donepezil tablets (control) in mild-to-moderate probable Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, two-arm parallel, multicenter trial included 399 patients, among whom 303 completed the trial. For randomization, the patients were stratified based on previous treatment and donepezil dose; patients in each stratum were randomized to the test and control groups at a 1:1 ratio.

Results: The difference between the control group and the IPI-301 group, quantified as the Hodges-Lehmann estimate of location shift, was 0.00 (95% confidence interval: -1.00 to 1.33), with an upper limit of less than 2.02. The change in Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) score differed significantly between the IPI-301 and control groups (=0.02). However, the changes in the full-itemized ADCS-ADL scores at week 24 did not differ significantly between the two groups. There were no differences between the two groups regarding the scores for the Clinician Interview-Based Impression of Change (=0.9097), Mini-Mental State Examination (=0.7018), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (=0.7656), or Clinical Dementia Rating (=0.9990). Adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory test results were comparable between the two groups.

Conclusions: IPI-301 was safe and efficacious in improving cognitive function in patients with mild-to-moderate AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3988/jcn.2022.18.4.428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9262446PMC
July 2022

Adipose-derived stem cells decolonize skin by enhancing phagocytic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the atopic rats.

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2022 Jul;26(4):287-295

Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Medical Science, Konyang University, Daejeon 35365, Korea.

() is known to induce apoptosis of host immune cells and impair phagocytic clearance, thereby being pivotal in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) exert therapeutic effects against inflammatory and immune diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether systemic administration of ASCs restores the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and decolonizes cutaneous under AD conditions. AD was induced by injecting capsaicin into neonatal rat pups. ASCs were extracted from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of naïve rats and administered to AD rats once a week for a month. Systemic administration of ASCs ameliorated AD-like symptoms, such as dermatitis scores, serum IgE, IFN-γ/IL-4 cell ratio, and skin colonization by in AD rats. Increased FasL mRNA and annexin V/7-AAD cells in the PBMCs obtained from AD rats were drastically reversed when co-cultured with ASCs. In contrast, both PBMCs and CD163 cells bearing fluorescent zymosan particles significantly increased in AD rats treated with ASCs. Additionally, the administration of ASCs led to an increase in the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, such as cathelicidin and β-defensin, in the skin of AD rats. Our results demonstrate that systemic administration of ASCs led to decolonization of by attenuating apoptosis of immune cells in addition to restoring phagocytic activity. This contributes to the improvement of skin conditions in AD rats. Therefore, administration of ASCs may be helpful in the treatment of patients with intractable AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2022.26.4.287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9247705PMC
July 2022

Guidelines for botulinum neurotoxin injection for facial contouring.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Summary: The hypertrophied temporalis and masseter muscles give a muscular shaped and bulky contour to the face. Botulinum neurotoxin injection methods are commonly used for facial contouring; however, adverse effects have been reported owing to a lack of delicate anatomical information. The anatomical considerations when injecting botulinum neurotoxin into the temporalis and masseter muscles have been reviewed in the present study. Current knowledge on the localization of the botulinum neurotoxin injection point with more recent anatomical dissection and modified Sihler's staining procedures was assessed. We found that for the muscles, the injection point can be more precisely demarcated. Optimal injection sites are presented for the temporalis and masseter muscles, and the injection technique has been suggested. We propose the optimal injection sites in relation to external anatomical landmarks for the frequently injected muscles of the face to facilitate the efficiency of botulinum neurotoxin injections. In addition, these guidelines would aid in more precise practice without the adverse effects of botulinum neurotoxin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000009444DOI Listing
June 2022

Ultrasonographic analyses of Crow's feet and novel guideline for botulinum toxin injection.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 Jun 18. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Crow's feet are bilateral orbital wrinkles formed by the orbital portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle, which is the target muscle for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection.

Objectives: This study's aim was to demonstrate a novel BoNT injection guideline by assessing muscle width, thickness, and dynamic features using ultrasonography.

Methods: Twenty healthy Korean volunteers (10 men, 10 women; mean age, 25.6) participated. The width, thickness, and dynamic movement of the orbicularis oculi muscle were measured using ultrasonography. Two volunteers were selected to receive BoNT injections. Injections were administered using a novel method with two curved reference lines passing a point 15 mm lateral to the lateral canthus (conventional injection) and a point 5 mm lateral to the lateral margin of the frontal process of zygomatic bone (additional injection).

Result: At the lateral canthus level, the distance between the lateral margin of the frontal process and the most lateral margin of the orbicularis oculi muscle was 12.5 ± 1.3 mm. The thickness of the orbicularis oculi muscle at the midpoint of the frontal process, the lateral marginal of the frontal process, and 5 mm lateral to the lateral marginal of the frontal process was 0.7 ± 0.3 mm, 1.1 ± 0.3 mm, and 1.2 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. The crow's feet of the two volunteers began to disappear from day 3 and completely disappeared on day 7 after the injection.

Conclusion: The novel injection technique based on the ultrasonographic anatomy resulted in improvements in the appearance of crow's feet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.15167DOI Listing
June 2022

Risk factors associated with tuberculosis recurrence in South Korea determined using a nationwide cohort study.

PLoS One 2022 16;17(6):e0268290. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Prevention of tuberculosis (TB) recurrence is an important issue in TB control. South Korea, a country with a high average income, has been challenged with an intermediate burden of TB. We aimed to estimate the TB recurrence rate after successful completion of the first anti-TB chemotherapy, and to identify the risk factors for the TB recurrence by focusing on co-morbidities and behavioral factors.

Methods: This is a population-based cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) database between 2002 and 2013. Newly diagnosed TB patients were identified using the classification of disease codes and prescription records. Final analytical subjects included people who successfully completed the first anti-TB chemotherapy. The primary outcome measure was recurrent TB 6-month after the first treatment completion. A set of associated risk factors, including demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, and health behavior factors were analyzed using Cox regression analysis.

Results: Among 5,446 TB patients, 2,226 (40.1%) completed the first anti-TB treatment. During the follow-up period, 150 (6.7%) patients had TB recurrence, and the crude recurrent rate was 22.6 per 1000 person-years. The majority of recurrence cases (89%) occurred within the first 2-year period. The major findings show that participants who are male (adjusted HR (aHR) = 1.81, at a 95% CI, range: 1.11-2.94), older in age (aHR = 1.07, at a 95% CI, range: 1.00-1.14), have a lower income (aHR = 1.96, at a 95% CI, range: 1.10-3.48) and who are underweight (aHR = 1.92, at a 95% CI, range 1.15-3.20) were at higher risks for TB recurrence.

Conclusion: People who have risk factors for recurrent TB need to improve treatment compliance through more effective TB management, and follow-up observation for one or two years after the treatment completion.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0268290PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9202932PMC
June 2022

Comparison of chicken breast quality characteristics and metabolites due to different rearing environments and refrigerated storage.

Poult Sci 2022 Jul 6;101(7):101953. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Center for Food and Bioconvergence, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Institute of Green Bio Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang 25354, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The objective of the present study was to compare the breast meat quality and metabolomic characteristics from broilers that were raised in conventional (conventional farm reared-broilers; CB, n = 20) and legally approved animal welfare farms (welfare farm reared-broilers; WB, n = 20) in aerobic cold storage (1, 3, 5, and 7 d). Compared to CB chickens, the WB chickens had a larger floor size as well as lower stocking density, atmospheric ammonia, and nipple-shared chicken counts. The results demonstrated significantly higher pH, L- and b-value, and lower shear force in CB compared to WB during cold storage. Using H NMR analysis, 25 compounds were identified in the chicken breast meat. Partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed based on the identified metabolites. The content of 15 metabolites (1 di-peptide, 9 free amino acids, 2 glycolytic potential-related products, 2 nucleotide-related products, and 1 organic acid) was significantly different due to the rearing environment (CB vs. WB). Among them, all free amino acids were higher in CB than in WB. Six free amino acids (glycine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, valine, and β-alanine) had variable importance in projection (VIP) score >1, regardless of the number of cold storage days. Therefore, these compounds in the breast meat may be used as potential markers to determine the rearing environment of broilers. Also, this result might be an indication of stress-related meat quality changes in broilers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2022.101953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9189219PMC
July 2022

Hyaluronic acid filler injection for deep nasolabial folds: A novel intraoral approach.

Clin Anat 2022 Sep 14;35(6):820-823. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, South Korea.

Hyaluronic acid filler injection is a minimally invasive procedure for facial rejuvenation that involves injecting filling materials to correct the volume or augment specific areas in the face. Deep nasolabial folds are a common concern in aging people. The simplest way to correct a deep nasolabial fold to rejuvenate the face is to inject Ristow's space with hyaluronic acid fillers. However, conventional injection methods, such as percutaneous injections using a needle, can cause severe complications, such as skin necrosis or blindness due to intravascular injections. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to introduce a safe technique for intraoral filler injections in deep nasolabial folds and review related anatomic features to evaluate the safety of this technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.23919DOI Listing
September 2022

Guidance to trigger point injection for treating myofascial pain syndrome: Intramuscular neural distribution of the quadratus lumborum.

Clin Anat 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, South Korea.

Postural habits and repetitive motion contribute toward the progress of myofascial pain by affecting overload on specific muscles, the quadratus lumborum (QL) muscle being the most frequently involved. The therapy of myofascial pain syndrome includes the release of myofascial pain syndrome using injective agents such as botulinum neurotoxin, lidocaine, steroids, and normal saline. However, an optimal injection point has not been established for the QL muscle. This study aimed to propose an optimal injection point for this muscle by studying its intramuscular neural distribution using the whole mount staining method. A modified Sihler's procedure was completed on 15 QL muscles to visualize the intramuscular arborization areas in terms of the inferior border of the 12th rib, the transverse processes of L1-L4, and the iliac crest. The intramuscular neural distribution of the QL had the densely arborized areas in the three lateral portions of L3-L4 and L4-L5 and the medial portion between L4 and L5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.23918DOI Listing
June 2022

Evaluating intramuscular neural distribution in the cricopharyngeus muscle for injecting botulinum toxin.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2022 May 29. Epub 2022 May 29.

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Center, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the area in the cricopharyngeus muscle (CPM) where botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) can be injected safely and effectively by evaluating neural distribution in the CPM.

Methods: Eleven specimens of the CPM were gathered from human cadavers. The anatomical relationship between the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCAM) and the CPM was evaluated. Myelinated nerve fibers in the CPM were stained using modified Sihler's method. The CPM was classified into five zones according to the area accessible within the CPM via transcutaneous and transluminal approaches for BoNT injection as follows: i) lateral area including upper area (zone 1) and lower area (zone 2); ii) posterolateral area including upper area (zone 3) and lower area (zone 4); and iii) posterior area (zone 5). Neural distribution originating from the pharyngeal plexus and the extralaryngeal branches of recurrent laryngeal nerve (EBRLN) within each classified zone in stained specimens was determined.

Results: Six specimens (12 lateral areas, 12 posterolateral areas, and 6 posterior areas) were suitable for evaluating neural distribution within the CPM. Zone 1 was adjacent to the PCAM the most in all specimens. Nerve endings originating from the EBRLN were observed on four sides of zone 2 (33.3%, 4/12 sides) in three specimens (3/6, 50%). Neural distribution originating from the pharyngeal plexus was found on ten sides (83.3%, 10/12 sides) of zone 3 in five specimens (83.3%, 5/6 specimens) and on nine sides (75.0%, 9/12 sides) of zone 4 in five specimens (83.3%, 5/6 specimens).

Conclusion: The posterolateral area (zone 3 and zone 4) is thought to be the most suitable area for alleviating the spasticity of CPM with a minimum dose of BoNT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2022.05.004DOI Listing
May 2022

Effects of Stocking Density on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Status, and Meat Quality of Finisher Broiler Chickens under High Temperature.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 Apr 28;11(5). Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Poultry Research Institute, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Pyeongchang 25342, Korea.

Environmental factors such as stocking density and high temperature can cause oxidative stress and negatively affect the physiological status and meat quality of broiler chickens. Here, we evaluated the effects of heat stress on the growth performance, antioxidant levels, and meat quality of broilers under different stocking densities. A total of 885 28-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were subjected to five treatments (16, 18, 21, 23, and 26 birds/m) and exposed to high temperatures (33 °C for 24 h) for 7 days. High stocking density (23 and 26 birds/m) resulted in significantly decreased body weight ( < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase activity in the blood ( < 0.05) and increased ( < 0.05) rectal temperature and corticosterone. Additionally, the concentrations of heat shock protein 70 and malondialdehyde in the liver were higher in the 26 birds/m group ( < 0.05). Similarly, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of breast meat increased linearly as the stocking density increased ( < 0.05). There was increased shear force in breast meat at low stocking density ( < 0.01). Thus, lower stocking density can relieve oxidative stress induced by high temperatures in broilers and improve the antioxidant capacity and quality of breast meat during hot seasons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9138006PMC
April 2022

Novel Anatomical Guidelines on Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection for Wrinkles in the Nose Region.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 05 15;14(5). Epub 2022 May 15.

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Botulinum neurotoxin injection surrounding the nose area is frequently used in aesthetic settings. However, there is a shortage of thorough anatomical understanding that makes it difficult to treat wrinkles in the nose area. In this study, the anatomical aspects concerning the injection of botulinum neurotoxin into the nasalis, procerus, and levator labii superioris alaeque muscles are assessed. In addition, the present knowledge on localizing the botulinum neurotoxin injection point from a newer anatomy study is assessed. It was observed that, for the line-associated muscles in the nose region, the injection point may be more precisely defined. The optimal injection sites are the nasalis, procerus, and levator labii superioris alaeque muscles, and the injection technique is advised. We advise the best possible injection sites in association with anatomical standards for commonly injected muscles to increase efficiency in the nose region by removing the wrinkles. Similarly, these suggestions support a more precise procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9144745PMC
May 2022

Intramuscular Innervation of the Supraspinatus Muscle Assessed Using Sihler's Staining: Potential Application in Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 04 28;14(5). Epub 2022 Apr 28.

BK21 FOUR Project, Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Despite the positive effects of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection into the neural arborized area, there is no anatomical evidence in the literature regarding the neural arborization of the supraspinatus muscle. The present study aimed to define the intramuscular neural arborized pattern of the supraspinatus muscle using the modified Sihler's staining method to facilitate the establishment of safe and effective injection sites in patients with myofascial pain in the supraspinatus muscle. Seventeen supraspinatus muscles from 15 embalmed cadavers were dissected. Precise suprascapular nerve entry locations were also observed. Intramuscular neural arborization was visualized by Sihler's staining. The supraspinatus muscle was divided into four portions named A, B, C, and D. The nerve entry points were observed in 88.2% (15 of 17 cases) of section B and 76.5% (13 of 17 cases) of section C of the supraspinatus muscle, respectively. The concentration of intramuscular neural arborization was highest in section B of the supraspinatus muscle, which was the center of the supraspinatus muscle. When the clinician performs a trigger point and a BoNT injection into the supraspinatus muscle, injection within the medial 25-75% of the supraspinatus muscle will lead to optimal results when using small amounts of BoNT and prevent undesirable paralysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9143847PMC
April 2022

Effect of Feeding Alfalfa and Concentrate on Meat Quality and Bioactive Compounds in Korean Native Black Goat Loin during Storage at 4°C.

Food Sci Anim Resour 2022 May 1;42(3):517-535. Epub 2022 May 1.

Department of Applied Animal Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding alfalfa: Concentrate at different ratios (8:2 or 2:8) to Korean native black goats (KNBG) for 90 days on meat quality and bioactive compound content. Feeding KNBG alfalfa and concentrate at different ratios did not impact meat pH, color, microorganism composition, volatile basic nitrogen levels, or lipid oxidation. The low alfalfa (KLA) group exhibited increased oleic acid and monosaturated fatty acid levels, both of which impact the palatability traits of meat. The abundance of bioactive compounds increased in the loin meat of the KLA group, leading to an increase in antioxidant activities. Our results suggest that feeding alfalfa and concentrate at a 2:8 ratio to KNBG can increase taste-related fatty acids and bioactive compounds in loin meat, relative to that achieved by feeding at an 8:2 ratio. Further investigation is required to evaluate the quality and the metabolites of bioactive compounds in KNBG meat and the effect of the different dietary ratios of forage and concentrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2022.e21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9108953PMC
May 2022

Choroid Plexus Volume and Permeability at Brain MRI within the Alzheimer Disease Clinical Spectrum.

Radiology 2022 May 17:212400. Epub 2022 May 17.

From the Departments of Radiology (J.D.C., W.J.M.) and Neurology (Y.M.), Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, 120-1 Neungdong-ro, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05030, Korea; Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (Y.M., W.J.M.); Department of Neurology, Hanyang University Hospital, Hanyang University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (H.J.K.); Department of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (Y.Y.); and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea (S.L.).

Background Mounting evidence suggests that the choroid plexus (CP) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD), but its imaging profile in cognitive impairment remains unclear. Purpose To evaluate CP volume, permeability, and susceptibility by using MRI in patients at various stages of cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods This retrospective study evaluated patients with cognitive symptoms who underwent 3.0-T MRI of the brain, including dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), between January 2013 and May 2020. CP volume was automatically segmented using three-dimensional T1-weighted sequences; the volume transfer constant (ie, ) and fractional plasma volume (ie, ) were determined using DCE MRI, and susceptibility was assessed using QSM. The effects of CP volume, expressed as the ratio to intracranial volume, on cognition were evaluated using multivariable linear regression adjusted for age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele status, and volumetric measures. Results A total of 532 patients with cognitive symptoms (mean age, 72 years ± 9 [SD]; 388 women) were included: 78 with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), 158 with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 149 with late MCI, and 147 with AD. Among these, 132 patients underwent DCE MRI and QSM. CP volume was greater in patients at more severe stages (ratio of intracranial volume × 10: 0.9 ± 0.3 for SCI, 1.0 ± 0.3 for early MCI, 1.1 ± 0.3 for late MCI, and 1.3 ± 0.4 for AD; < .001). Lower ( = -0.19; = .03) and ( = -0.20; = .02) were negatively associated with CP volume; susceptibility was not ( = 0.15; = .10). CP volume was negatively associated with memory ( = -0.67; standard error of the mean [SEM], 0.21; = .01), executive function ( = -0.90; SEM, 0.31; = .01), and global cognition ( = -0.82; SEM, 0.32; = .01). Conclusion Among patients with cognitive symptoms, larger choroid plexus volume was associated with severity of cognitive impairment in the Alzheimer disease spectrum. Published under a CC BY 4.0 license. . See also the editorial by Chiang in this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.212400DOI Listing
May 2022

The radial artery running over the anatomical snuffbox: a case report.

Surg Radiol Anat 2022 May 16;44(5):659-663. Epub 2022 May 16.

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The radial artery, a terminal branch of the brachial artery, typically originates at the level of the radial neck. It runs under the cover of the brachioradialis muscle, descending along the lateral side of the forearm with paired accompanying veins and a superficial branch of the radial nerve. The radial artery rewinds around the lateral aspect of the wrist, passing beneath the tendons of the abductor pollicis, extensor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis brevis. Finally, it crossed the floor of the anatomical snuffbox.

Case Report: This case report presents an anatomical variant in which the radial artery runs over the radial fossa, that is, superficially of the tendons of the hand's abductor pollicis, extensor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis brevis muscles.

Conclusion: The variation described in this paper sheds light on the possible atypical topographical relationships of the radial artery with the neighboring anatomical structures in the wrist, which can be crucial during hand surgery procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-022-02944-5DOI Listing
May 2022

Effects of Dietary Thraustochytrid sp. and Other Omega-3 Sources on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Quality of Broilers.

Animals (Basel) 2022 May 2;12(9). Epub 2022 May 2.

K-AniWel Co., Ltd., Suwon 16672, Korea.

Background: Looking for alternative omega-3 sources in broiler nutrition, microalgae began to get attention. We suspected that might play a similar role as other omega-3 sources that have been used before.

Methods: 20 g/kg s powder (SP), salmon oil (SO), and flaxseed oil (FO) in each of the three treatment groups were supplemented in the basal diet (CON), and productive performance, carcass traits, and thigh meat quality of broilers were evaluated.

Results: There was a significantly higher weight gain in the SP treatment compared to the other groups, but no difference was found in feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values increased during storage in all the treatments but were significantly lower for SP than for SO and FO after 7 days of storage. Among the ω-3 fatty acids (FAs), α-linolenic acid increased the most in the FO treatment, eicosapentaenoic acid increased the most in the SO treatment, and docosahexaenoic acid increased the most in the SP treatment in thigh meat, reflecting the FA composition of the lipid source diets.

Conclusions: We suggested that all the dietary ω-3 FA sources could improve the FA composition of chicken meat and our results indicated the possibility to supplement broiler diets with 2% level of SP, SO, and FO as ω-3 FA sources to produce meat with a good nutritional quality for consumer's health benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani12091166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9105954PMC
May 2022

Effect of Providing Environmental Enrichment into Aviary House on the Welfare of Laying Hens.

Animals (Basel) 2022 May 2;12(9). Epub 2022 May 2.

Poultry Research Institute, Rural Development Administration National Institute of Animal Science, Pyeongchang 25342, Korea.

This study aimed to determine the effects of providing environmental enrichment materials-pumice stone and alfalfa hay-to laying hens in the aviary system. A total of 2196 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allotted to three treatment groups: (1) no enrichment (control; CON), (2) enrichment with pumice stone (PS), and (3) enrichment with alfalfa hay (HAY). Each treatment comprised four replicates of 183 hens each, and four of the same materials were provided per replicate. The experiment lasted for 26 weeks. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. As a result, the PS and HAY groups demonstrated increased egg production ( < 0.001). The HAY group showed a reduced rate of mislaid eggs ( < 0.01) and produced low egg weight and pale-yellow yolk ( < 0.05). Both enrichment materials decreased blood creatinine (CRE) or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the blood and resulted in a significantly lower corticosterone (CORT) level ( < 0.05). However, the feather condition scores for the laying hens were similar across all treatments ( > 0.05). In summary, although pumice stone and alfalfa hay are effective in alleviating stress and improving the production of laying hens, additional environmental improvement studies are needed to contribute to reducing pecking behaviors in poultry farming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani12091165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9103546PMC
May 2022

Per2 Expression Regulates the Spatial Working Memory of Mice through DRD1-PKA-CREB Signaling.

Mol Neurobiol 2022 Jul 4;59(7):4292-4303. Epub 2022 May 4.

School of Pharmacy, Jeonbuk National University, Badkje-daero 567, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do, 54896, Republic of Korea.

Several individuals worldwide show cognitive impairment due to various reasons, including a prolonged lifespan and an altered lifestyle. Various causes, such as broken circadian rhythms and dopamine-related factors, have been proposed to be involved in the development of cognitive impairment. However, the underlying pathways remain elusive. Humans with circadian misalignment often face cognitive impairments, and animals with mutations in circadian rhythm-related genes display impaired cognitive functions. To analyze this in detail, this study aimed to investigate the pathways potentially involved in cognitive impairment using Period2 (Per2) transgenic animals. Spatial working memory performance in Per2 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice was assessed using the Barnes maze and Y-maze. The dopamine-related protein expression levels in the hippocampus were measured by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Per2 KO mice exhibited impaired spatial working memory, and the expression levels of dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1), protein kinase A (PKA), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were higher in Per2 KO mice than in control mice. Additionally, DRD1 expression levels were inversely proportional to those of PER2. Thus, memory tests were again conducted after administration of the DRD1 antagonist SCH-23390. Per2 KO mice recovered from memory impairment, and the levels of PKA and CREB decreased after treatment. The effects of Aβ on memory in Per2 mice were also investigated, and we found the increased Aβ levels did not influence the memory performance of Per2 mice after SCH-23390 treatment. These results indicate that Per2 expression levels might influence spatial working memory performance via DRD1-PKA-CREB-dependent signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-022-02845-zDOI Listing
July 2022

Regulation of clock and clock-controlled genes during morphine reward and reinforcement: Involvement of the period 2 circadian clock.

J Psychopharmacol 2022 Jul 29;36(7):875-891. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Uimyung Research Institute for Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Morphine abuse is a devastating disorder that affects millions of people worldwide, and literature evidence indicates a relationship between opioid abuse and the circadian clock.

Aim: We explored morphine reward and reinforcement using mouse models with gene modifications (knockout (KO); overexpression (OE)).

Methods: Mice were exposed to various behavioral, electroencephalographic, pharmacological, and molecular tests to assess the effects of morphine and identify the underlying mechanisms with a focus on reward and reinforcement and the corresponding involvement of circadian and clock-controlled gene regulation.

Results: deletion enhances morphine-induced analgesia, locomotor sensitization, conditioned place preference (CPP), and self-administration (SA) in mice, whereas its overexpression attenuated these effects. In addition, reduced withdrawal was observed in Per2 KO mice, whereas an augmented withdrawal response was observed in Per2 OE mice. Moreover, naloxone and SCH 23390 blocked morphine CPP in Per2 KO and wild-type (WT) mice. The rewarding (CPP) and reinforcing effects (SA) observed in morphine-conditioned and morphine self-administered Per2 KO and WT mice were accompanied by activated μ-opioid and dopamine D1 receptors and TH in the mesolimbic (VTA/NAcc) system. Furthermore, genetic modifications of in mice innately altered some clock genes in response to morphine.

Conclusion: These findings improve our understanding of the role of in morphine-induced psychoactive effects. Our data and those obtained in previous studies indicate that targeting may have applicability in the treatment of substance abuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02698811221089040DOI Listing
July 2022

Genetics and genomics of bone marrow failure syndrome.

Blood Res 2022 Apr;57(S1):86-92

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) is a group of clinically heterogeneous disorders characterized by significant hematological cytopenias of one or more hematopoietic cell lineages and is associated with an increased risk of cancer. The genetic etiology of IBMFS includes germline mutations impacting several key biological processes, such as DNA repair, telomere biology, and ribosome biogenesis, which may cause four major syndromes: Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. Although the clinical features of some patients may be typical of a particular IBMFS, overlapping and atypical clinical manifestations and variable penetrance pose diagnostic challenges. Here, we review the clinical and genetic features of the major forms of IBMFS and discuss their molecular genetic diagnosis. Next-generation sequencing-based gene panel testing or whole exome sequencing will help elucidate the genetic causes and underlying mechanisms of this genetically heterogeneous group of diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5045/br.2022.2022056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9057661PMC
April 2022

Differentially Expressed Genes in -Overexpressing Mice Striatum May Underlie Their Lower Sensitivity to Methamphetamine Addiction-Like Behavior.

Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2022 May;30(3):238-245

Uimyung Research Institute for Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, Seoul 01795, Republic of Korea.

Previous reports have demonstrated that genetic mechanisms greatly mediate responses to drugs of abuse, including methamphetamine (METH). The circadian gene Period 2 () has been previously associated with differential responses towards METH in mice. While the behavioral consequences of eliminating have been illustrated previously, overexpression has not yet been comprehensively described; although, -overexpressing ( OE) mice previously showed reduced sensitivity towards METH-induced addiction-like behaviors. To further elucidate this distinct behavior of OE mice to METH, we identified possible candidate biomarkers by determining striatal differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in both drug-naïve and METH-treated OE mice relative to wild-type (WT), through RNA sequencing. Of the several DEGs in drug naïve OE mice, we identified six genes that were altered after repeated METH treatment in WT mice, but not in OE mice. These results, validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, could suggest that the identified DEGs might underlie the previously reported weaker METH-induced responses of OE mice compared to WT. Gene network analysis also revealed that , , and are possibly associated with through physical interactions and predicted correlations, and might potentially participate in addiction. Inhibiting the functional protein of prior to METH administration resulted in the partial reduction of METH-induced conditioned place preference in WT mice, supporting a possible involvement of in METH-induced reward. Although encouraging further investigations, our findings suggest that these DEGs, including , may play significant roles in the lower sensitivity of OE mice to METH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2021.184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9047490PMC
May 2022
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