Publications by authors named "Heba Omar"

37 Publications

Safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in the treatment of hepatitis C in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Endemic Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University, Cairo Tropical medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Department of Internal Medicine, Al-Azhar University Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo Department of community medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University Hepatogastroenterology Department, National Hepatology & Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Cairo Gastroenterology Department, Damietta Cardiology and Gastroenterology Center, Damietta Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, AGOZA Police Hospital, Cairo Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt Hepatology and gastroenterology department, national liver institute.Menoufia University, Egypt.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related decompensated cirrhosis is a severe life-threatening illness. The safety of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has opened a gate of hope for that subgroup of patients who were previously contraindicated for interferon therapy.

Objective: We aimed at the investigation of the safety and efficacy of different DAAs regimens in the treatment of HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis patients, to determine sustained virological response (SVR)12 rates and to analyze the factors associated with response.

Methods: A retrospective, single-center study including HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis patients who received DAAs. Demographic, laboratory and clinical data were analyzed. The SVR12 rate was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included the predictors of response, changes in the baseline model for end-stage liver disease and child-turcotte-pugh (CTP) scores, and fibroindices (APRI and fibrosis-4 index) at 12 weeks after treatment.

Results: In total, 145 eligible patients (141 with CTP class B and 4 with class C) were enrolled in this study. SVR12 was achieved by 88.06% (118/134) of efficacy population on different DAAs regimens, Treatment was discontinued in 11 patients because of severe side effects without any deaths. Younger age showed a significant positive association with SVR12.

Conclusions: DAAs can be used for the treatment of HCV-related decompensated liver disease, with acceptable SVR12 rates and safety profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000002287DOI Listing
September 2021

Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Oman: An analysis of 284 cases.

Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2020 Aug 5;20(3):e316-e322. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman.

Objectives: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver tumour worldwide and is increasing in incidence. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of HCC among Omani patients, along with its major risk factors, outcomes and the role of surveillance.

Methods: This retrospective case-series study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2015 at the three main tertiary care hospitals in Oman. All adult Omani patients diagnosed with HCC and visited these hospitals during the study period were included. Relevant data were collected from the patients' electronic medical records.

Results: A total of 284 HCC patients were included in the analysis. The mean age was 61.02 ± 11.41 years and 67.6% were male. The majority had liver cirrhosis (79.9%), with the most common aetiologies being chronic hepatitis C (46.5%) and B (43.2%). Only 13.7% of cases were detected by the HCC surveillance programme. Approximately half of the patients (48.5%) had a single liver lesion and 31.9% had a liver tumour of >5 cm in size. Approximately half (49.2%) had alpha-fetoprotein levels of ≥200 ng/mL. The majority (72.5%) were diagnosed using multiphase computed tomography alone. Less than half of the patients (48.9%) were offered one or more HCC treatment modalities.

Conclusion: The majority of Omani HCC patients were male and had cirrhosis due to viral hepatitis. In addition, few patients were identified by the national surveillance programme and presented with advanced disease precluding therapeutic or even palliative treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18295/squmj.2020.20.03.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574808PMC
August 2020

Prenatal delineation of a distinct lethal fetal syndrome caused by a homozygous truncating KIDINS220 variant.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 12 10;182(12):2867-2876. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Clinical Genetics Department, Human Genetics and Genome Research Division, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

Kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (KIDINS220) is a transmembrane protein playing integral role in growth mediating pathways in the nervous and cardiovascular systems. KIDINS220 heterozygous truncating variants that affect the protein's C-terminus have been associated with a phenotype, so far described only in few unrelated children, including spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity. More recently, a homozygous, more N-terminal truncating variant in KIDINS220 gene was suggested to be associated with enlarged cerebral ventricles and limb contractures in three fetuses from a consanguineous family. We confirm the latter finding by presenting the first detailed prenatal identification of a fetal phenotype associated with novel homozygous deleterious frameshift variant in KIDINS220 gene in a consanguineous healthy Egyptian couple. History of unexplained seven miscarriages and a similar stillbirth were recorded. Prenatal ultrasonography revealed limb contractions and ventriculomegaly; in addition to previously unreported cerebellar anomalies, cardiac anomalies and hydrops fetalis. These findings represent an expansion of clinical and molecular spectrum associated with KIDINS220 variants and broaden our understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships in lethal congenital contractures syndromes and associated severe abnormal embryological development. More generally, our study adds KIDINS220 to the rare group of genes which may cause disease by either of two distinct mutational mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61858DOI Listing
December 2020

Retreatment of chronic hepatitis C patients who failed previous therapy with directly acting antivirals: A multicenter study.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jul 20;96:367-370. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Aim Of The Study: The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different DAAs regimens in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) Egyptian patients who failed to achieve SVR after their treatment with SOF-based regimens.

Methods: This was a retrospective observational multicenter study that included CHC patients that failed to achieve cure on SOF-based regimens who were re-treated using different DAAs regimen and were allocated according to national guidelines for the treatment of hepatitis C. Primary outcome was to assess the SVR12 rate among prior non-responders after retreatment with a second course of DAAs.

Results: Our study included 172 patients who failed to achieve SVR after treatment with SOF-based treatment regimen [age: 51.2 ± 11.3, 58.7% men]. Included patients were retreated using SOF/DCV/RBV, SOF/ r/PAR /OMB /RBV, SOF/DCV/SIM, SOF/LDV ± RBV or SIM/SOF. SVR12 was successfully attained in 95.35% (164/172) of the included non-responders.

Conclusion: The current multicenter study proved the efficacy of various DAAs regimens issued by the National Committee for Control of Viral Hepatitis for retreatment of relapsed CHC Egyptian patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.04.022DOI Listing
July 2020

Fibro-indices versus liver stiffness for prediction of significant fibrosis in hepatitis B virus-infected Egyptian patients; a single-center experience.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Mar 7;14(3):221-227. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Hepatology and Endemic Medicine Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

: Liver fibrosis assessment is a key factor for disease management in hepatitis B virus (HBV). Several serum biomarkers have been introduced for noninvasive fibrosis assessment. This study aims to evaluate the validity of simple noninvasive indices, namely Fibrosis-4 score (FIB4), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI), Goteborg University Cirrhosis Index (GUCI), and fibrosis index in evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic HBV.: 226 patients with chronic HBV genotype D were included. FIB4, APRI, GUCI, and fibrosis index were performed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to predict ≥F2 fibrosis.: The mean age of patients was 39.00 years and 72.27% of patients were treatment naïve. Patients with ≥F2 hepatic fibrosis had significantly higher FIB-4 (1.58 ± 1.46 vs. 1.15 ± 1.09), APRI (0.68 ± 0.71 vs. 0.43 ± 0.37), GUCI score (0.75 ± 0.94 vs. 0.42 ± 0.29) and Fibrosis index (2.18 ± 0.84 vs. 1.84 ± 0.69). All studied indices were able to diagnose ≥F2 fibrosis. APRI had the highest area under the ROC (AUROC) of 0.67. Predictivity of all indices was higher in on-treatment vs naive patients.: FIB4, APRI, and GUCI scores are acceptable, noninvasive, and cheap simple indices that can be helpful on treatment follow-up of fibrosis regression in the setting of low socioeconomic conditions compared to the relatively expensive fibroscan modality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2020.1723415DOI Listing
March 2020

The ability of perfusion index to detect segmental ulnar nerve sparing after supraclavicular nerve block.

J Clin Monit Comput 2020 Dec 9;34(6):1185-1191. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, C01 Elsarayah Street, Elmanyal, Cairo, 11559, Egypt.

Supraclavicular nerve block (SCB) is a commonly used regional block for upper extremity surgery. The most common form of failure of SCB is ulnar segmental sparing. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of perfusion index (PI) in early detection of segmental sparing of the ulnar component of SCB. A prospective observational study included adult patients scheduled for surgery under ultrasound-guided SCB. PI was simultaneously measured at the index finger and little finger. PI was recorded every minute for the first 10 min after SCB. PI ratio was calculated at every measurement point as PI/baseline PI. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was calculated for the ability of PI ratio to detect segmental ulnar sparing with comparison of little finger readings to the index finger readings. Forty-nine patients were available for the final analysis. Nine patients (18%) had segmental ulnar sparing. PI ratio at the little finger showed excellent predictive ability for ulnar sparing starting from the fifth minute (AUROC 0.92 [0.8-0.98], cutoff value ≤ 1.71) and reached the highest value at the seventh minute (AUROC 0.96 [0.86-1], cutoff value ≤ 1.35), whereas PI ratio at the index finger showed poor predictive ability. When using the PI for evaluation of successful SCB, segmental ulnar sparing could be accurately detected when the PI was measured at the little finger and not at the index finger. An increase of 71% in PI at the little finger 5 min after SCB could accurately rule out ulnar sparing.Clinical trial identifier NCT03880201. Clinical trial registration https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03880201?term=NCT03880201&draw=2&rank=1 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10877-019-00443-4DOI Listing
December 2020

Comparative study between intrathecal dexmedetomidine and intrathecal magnesium sulfate for the prevention of post-spinal anaesthesia shivering in uroscopic surgery; (RCT).

BMC Anesthesiol 2019 10 24;19(1):190. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Anesthesia Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Hypothermia and shivering are common complications after spinal anaesthesia, especially after uroscopic procedures in which large amounts of cold intraluminal irrigation fluids are used. Magnesium sulfate and dexmedetomidine are the most effective adjuvants with the least side effects. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intrathecal dexmedetomidine versus intrathecal magnesium sulfate on the prevention of post-spinal anaesthesia shivering.

Methods: This prospective randomized, double-blinded controlled study included 105 patients who were scheduled for uroscopic surgery at the Kasr El-Aini Hospital. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups. Group C (n = 35) received 2.5 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (12.5 mg) + 0.5 ml of normal saline, Group M (n = 35) received 2.5 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (12.5 mg) + 25 mg of magnesium sulfate in 0.5 ml saline, and Group D (n = 35) received 2.5 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (12.5 mg) + 5 μg of dexmedetomidine in 0.5 ml saline. The primary outcomes were the incidence and intensity of shivering. The secondary outcomes were the incidence of hypothermia, sedation, the use of meperidine to control shivering and complications.

Results: Group C had significantly higher proportions of patients who developed shivering (21), developed grade IV shivering (20) and required meperidine (21) to treat shivering than group M (8,5,5) and group D (5,3,6), which were comparable to each other. The time between block administration and meperidine administration was similar among the three groups. Hypothermia did not occur in any of the patients. The three groups were comparable regarding the occurrence of nausea, vomiting, bradycardia and hypotension. All the patients in group C, 32 patients in group M and 33 patients in group D had a sedation score of 2. Three patients in group M and 2 patients in group D had a sedation score of 3.

Conclusions: Intrathecal injections of both dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate were effective in reducing the incidence of post-spinal anaesthesia shivering. Therefore, we encourage the use of magnesium sulfate, as it is more physiologically available, more readily available in most operating theatres and much less expensive than dexmedetomidine.

Trial Registration: Clinical trial registration ID: Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (PACTR) Trial Number PACTR201801003001727 ; January 2018, "retrospectively registered".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12871-019-0853-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6814123PMC
October 2019

A significant upsurge of body mass index in patients with chronic hepatitis C successfully treated with direct-acting antiviral regimens.

Turk J Gastroenterol 2019 08;30(8):708-713

Endemic Medicine and Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Cairo University School of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt.

Background/aims: There is less data regarding the changes in body mass index (BMI) after treating hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). This study aimed to assess the changes in BMI in chronic HCV patients treated with DAAs in Egypt and to explore other factors influencing this change.

Materials And Methods: The data of chronic HCV patients who received antiviral therapy with new DAAs in one of Egypt's specialized viral hepatitis treatment centers were retrospectively analyzed. In addition to the routine clinical and laboratory workup, changes in body weight during and after treatment were monitored and BMI was calculated. Viral load was measured at 12 weeks post-treatment to assess a sustained virological response. Patients with documented thyroid abnormalities, bariatric surgery, or ensuing special diets were excluded. BMI of >30 was taken as the cutoff for pa¬tients with obesity.

Results: The study included 162 patients with a mean age of 48.56±11.49 years, of whom 61.1% were males, 16% were treatment-experienced, 12% were diabetic, and 29% were obese. Treatment duration was 12 weeks in 84% of patients and 24 weeks in 16% of patients. There was a significant increase in BMI post-treatment as compared to pretreatment measures (28.68±5.35 vs 28.18±4.55) (p=0.03). BMI changes were constant regardless of cirrhosis or previous treatment experience.

Conclusion: Treatment of chronic HCV with DAAs was associated with increased body mass index. Further studies are needed to explore if this effect is secondary to treatment with DAAs or is an improvement in the liver function and lifestyle of treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tjg.2019.18514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699564PMC
August 2019

Egyptian liver library: An indexed database for liver disease evidence in Egypt.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2019 Jun 4;20(2):109-113. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Endemic Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

Liver diseases are among the most challenging health care problems worldwide. In Egypt, we established different care programs to combat liver diseases including schistosomiasis and viral hepatitides. A lot of research work addressing liver diseases in Egypt have been published with special focus on these two major fields. Other liver disease seems to be neglected although present and contributing to the liver disease burden in Egypt. In this report we reviewed the available evidence published from Egypt and elucidate areas of weakness and future research needs. Our search for Egyptian liver disease evidence retrieved 4683 articles, 67% of them were relevant to the topic. Out of the relevant articles; 1646/3265 (50.4%) were discussing clinical science, 1131 (34.7%) were discussing basic science and 488 (14.9%) were discussing both basic and clinical sciences. Cairo university (16.8%, n = 513) and Mansoura university (9.3%, n = 285) had the largest number of publications related to liver disease in Egypt respectively. The most commonly reported diseases were hepatitis C in 719/3361 articles (21.4%), parasitic liver infestations in 663 articles (19.7%), hepatocellular carcinoma in 544 articles (16.2%), liver fibrosis or cirrhosis in 537 articles (16%), and drug induced liver injury in 516 articles (15.4%). Most of the reviewed articles (36%) were discussing treatment of chronic liver diseases (n = 1201) followed by diagnostics (28%, n = 940), pathogenesis and pathophysiology (21%, n = 706). This review will direct attention to areas with less research like hepatitis B related liver disease, HIV/HCV co-infections, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to encourage future research in these topics. In conclusion; our results ring a bell inviting the development of a roadmap for liver research in Egypt targeting to put future policies to cover areas of weakness in liver research with an ultimate goal of tackling liver disease and its overwhelming socioeconomic burden in our developing country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2019.05.004DOI Listing
June 2019

High SVR rate following retreatment of non-sustained virological responders to sofosbuvir based anti-HCV therapies regardless of RAS testing: A real-life multicenter study.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Sep 23;13(9):907-914. Epub 2019 Jun 23.

Hepatology Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University , Shebeen EL Kom , Egypt.

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir/ribavirin (SOF/DCV/RBV) in treating non-sustained virological responders (non-SVR12) to prior sofosbuvir-based therapy, in absence of RAS testing in mass treatment, and determination of the optimal timing to start re-treatment. Real-life prospective observational study included prior non-responders to 24-weeks SOF-RBV (n = 679, 67%) or 12-weeks SOF- RBV- PEG (n = 335, 33%). Patients were re-treated with daily SOF/DCV/RBV for 12 (n = 270) or 24 weeks (n = 744). The primary efficacy endpoint was SVR12. The primary safety endpoints were reported adverse events (AEs) from baseline to SVR12 time point. We included 1,014 patients [age 52 ± 9 years, 58.48% men]. Cirrhosis was documented in 46.98% and 27.5% of SOF-RBV and SOF-RBV-PEG non-responders respectively. Overall, SVR12 was 90.6% [92.2% for 12 weeks therapy and 90.05% for 24 weeks therapy]. Mild AEs occurred in 5.13% (n=52) and 3.1% (n=32) discontinued treatment including eight on-treatment mortalities. Higher baseline FIB-4 and shorter interval before starting retreatment (<6 months) were independent predictors of non-SVR12 on multivariate regression analysis. SOF/DCV/RBV is an effective and safe treatment option for non-responders to prior sofosbuvir-based therapy. Six months interval before retreatment is optimal for achieving favorable SVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1629287DOI Listing
September 2019

DAAs therapy associated with improved hepatic fibrosis in HCV-GT4 patients co-infected with HIV.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Jul 13;13(7):693-698. Epub 2019 May 13.

a Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Faculty of Medicine , Cairo University , Giza , Egypt.

: The present work aimed at evaluation of the potential dynamic changes in hepatic fibrosis following treatment of chronic HCV using DAAs in patients coinfected with HIV. : In total, 50 HCV/HIV coinfected patients [age; 34.68 ± 10.38 years, 82% men] were included. For all included patients, liver stiffness measured using transient elastography as well as serum liver fibrosis scores; [fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score and the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI)] were calculated at baseline and at 12 and 24-weeks following 12 weeks therapy of HCV with once daily sofosbuvir 400 mg plus daclatasvir 60 mg. : Most of the included patients (70%, n = 35) were on anti-retroviral therapy. SVR24 was achieved by 93.48% of the patients. There was significant serial improvement in baseline liver stiffness measurement (LSM), FIB-4 and APRI among responders; [LSM: baseline, 7.05 ± 4.84 kPa vs. 5.66 ± 2.63 kPa at SVR24, p < 0.001], [FIB-4: baseline, 1.24 ± 1.08 vs. 0.93 ± 0.64 at SVR24, p 0.001) and (APRI: baseline, 0.725 ± 0.66 vs. 0.36 ± 0.19at SVR24, p 0.001) respectively. : Treatment of HCV patients coinfected with HIV using DAAs is associated with a rapid significant regression in hepatic fibrosis, as evaluated by FibroScan, FIB-4, and APRI scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1614441DOI Listing
July 2019

High success rates for the use of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir containing regimens in treatment of naïve and experienced chronic hepatitis C genotype 4: Real world results.

J Med Virol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction And Aims: Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 patient with fixed dose combination of ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir plus ribavirin (OBV/rPTV/RBV) has been proven efficacy and safety in many clinical trials. The current study reports the efficacy and safety of OBV/rPTV/RBV (for treatment-naïve), and OBV/rPTV/RBV/sofosbuvir (SOF) (for treatment-experienced), in chronic HCV genotype 4 patients in real life settings.

Methods: Prospective cohort study including all adult chronic HCV genotype 4 patients who were scheduled to receive OBV/rPTV/RBV ± SOF for 12 or 24 weeks in New Cairo Viral Hepatitis Treatment Center. The primary efficacy endpoint was a virologic response at posttreatment week 12 (SVR12). Changes in hematological parameters, liver biochemical profile and fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4), as well as clinical and laboratory adverse events (AEs) across follow up visits (week 4, end of treatment [EOT], and SVR12), were recorded.

Results: Our study included 325 patients (age; 47.63 ± 12.63 years, 55.38% [n = 180] men). Most of the included patients (89.85%, n = 292) were treatment naïve and only 7% (n = 23) had liver cirrhosis. Overall, SVR12 was attained by 98.44% (316 of 321) of the patients; 97.15% (307 of 316) of patients who received 12 weeks of OBV/rPTV/RBV ± SOF and 100% (9 of 9) of patients who received 24 weeks of OBV/rPTV/RBV as assessed by modified intention to treat analysis. There was a significant improvement of baseline alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hemoglobin, FIB-4 at SVR12 (P < 0.05). The most common reported AEs were anemia (n = 106), fatigue (n = 41) and elevated indirect bilirubin (n = 37).

Conclusion: OBV/rPTV/RBV (±SOF) is a highly effective therapy for chronic HCV patients in real life settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25478DOI Listing
April 2019

The clinical usefulness of elastography in the evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients: A biopsy-controlled study.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Aug;31(8):1010-1016

Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: We aimed at determination of the usefulness of elastography [acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) and FibroScan] for evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients.

Patients And Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study included 60 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients (mean age: 45 years) was carried out. All patients were subjected to lab works, liver biopsy, and measurement of liver stiffness by ARFI and FibroScan and steatosis by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). CAP measurements were adjusted for the presence of NAFLD and presence or absence of diabetes and according to BMI.

Results: Linear regression analysis showed that CAP is an independent predictor for significant hepatic steatosis (P<0.001). No significant difference was found in diagnostic accuracy between adjusted and nonadjusted CAP values for diagnosis of mild (>S1) or significant (>S2) hepatic steatosis (P=0.17 and 0.29 respectively). The median ARFI velocities for F1, F2, F3, and F4 were 0.92, 1.08, 1.07, and 2.58 m/s, respectively. Although there was an overall significant increase in ARFI values across the fibrosis grades (P<0.04), the difference in ARFI values was only significant between fibrosis grades F1 and F4 (P=0.02).

Conclusion: Elastography is a promising noninvasive tool for diagnosis and grading of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in patients with NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with good sensitivity and specificity, especially in moderate to marked grades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001365DOI Listing
August 2019

Ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir, ombitasvir plus ribavirin could improve eGFR in patients with renal impairment and HCV: an Egyptian cohort.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Jan 13;13(1):89-93. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

a Endemic Medicine and Hepato-gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine , Cairo University , Cairo , Egypt.

Background: The present study aimed at evaluation of changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stages 3-5 who were treated with 12 weeks of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir, ombitasvir plus ribavirin.

Methods: Changes in renal functions were compared across follow up time points (baseline, SVR4, and SVR8). Data on on-treatment adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, laboratory abnormalities, treatment discontinuation were collected.

Results: 171 patients were included (females 35%, mean age 53 years). 29 patients had liver cirrhosis. The most common etiologies of CKD were diabetes and/or hypertension (n = 67). All included patient reached the end of treatment (EOT) with no treatment discontinuations. The overall EOT response was 100%. 122/122 (100%) patients who reached 4 weeks post-treatment have achieved SVR4, and 80/80 (100%) have achieved SVR12. No reported SAEs. Ribavirin therapy was interrupted in 25% (43/171) of patients due to anemia; 16 patients required blood transfusions. The median eGFR improved from 33.5 (15) mL/min/1.73 m at baseline to 35 (36) mL/min/1.73 m2 at SVR8 (p = 0.0003).

Conclusions: The use of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir for treatment of HCV-infected patients with advanced renal disease was safe and effective, moreover, it was associated with significantly improved eGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1544070DOI Listing
January 2019

Hydrogen sulfide modulates SIRT1 and suppresses oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy.

Mol Cell Biochem 2019 Jul 18;457(1-2):1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Pathology Department, Kasr Al Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Kasr Al Ainy St., El Manial, 11562, Cairo, Egypt.

DN is recognized as not only a leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) but also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Novel therapeutic approaches to diabetic nephropathy (DN) are needed, or else, healthcare resources will be overwhelmed by the expected worldwide increase in associated cases of ESRD and CVD. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and advanced glycation end product (AGE) are implicated in the development of DN. Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is known for its antioxidant and antiapoptotic characteristics. Simultaneously diabetics have lower HS levels. Thus, it is worth investigating the use of HS in treatment of DN. To investigate the potential therapeutic role of HS in DN. Sixty male rats were divided into four groups: control, DN, DN+NaHS30 µmol/kg/day and DN+NaHS100 µmol/kg/day. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), kidney function tests, SIRT1 activity, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and expression of caspase3 and p53 in renal tissues were assessed. Kidney was examined histopathologically. DN rats had higher FBS, renal dysfunction, decreased SIRT1 and SOD activity levels, increased caspase3 and p53 relative expression and increased MDA in renal tissues. NaHS increased SIRT1 and reversed biochemical, apoptotic, oxidant and pathologic parameters characteristic of DN, with better results using a dose of 100 µmol/kg/day. HS has a protective role against DN through decreasing FBS, ROS, apoptosis and upregulating SIRT1, thus preserving renal cells from further damage caused by DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-019-03506-xDOI Listing
July 2019

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Adiponectin Gene and Risk of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 Jan 25;20(1):139-143. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Email:

Introduction: Adiponectin is anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor cytokine secreted exclusively from adipocytes. There is a growing evidence of association between adiponectin gene polymorphism and development of pancreatic cancer. The current study aimed at evaluation of the possible association between selected adiponectin gene polymorphism and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods: Prospective case-control study included 77 patients (29 women and 48 men) with biopsy-proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 97 healthy control. Blood samples from all included participants were genotyped for 3 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) of adiponectin genes (rs1501299C>A, rs266729C>G and rs2241766G>T) by PCR. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological data analyzed. Results: We demonstrated a significant association between the three studied SNPs (rs1501299, rs266729, and rs2241766) and increased risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (p<0.001). Furthermore, in clinical correlation analysis, Patients with rs2241766 polymorphism have a lower frequency of lymph node involvement (p 0.05). Smoking and older age were independent predictors of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: We provided evidence that variants in adiponectin gene might influence the development and progression of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.1.139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6485589PMC
January 2019

Role of dexamethasone in the para-vertebral block for pediatric patients undergoing aortic coarctation repair. randomized, double-blinded controlled study.

BMC Anesthesiol 2018 11 30;18(1):178. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Anesthesia , Surgical Intensive Care and Pain Management, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Surgery for aortic coarctation requires special care during anesthesia due to severe pain during the lateral thoracotomy incision, intraoperative hemodynamic instability and the need for large doses of intra- and postoperative analgesics and vasodilators. Additionally, the postoperative care of patients is very important.

Aims: We aimed to compare ultrasound-guided paravertebral block performed using bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine with dexamethasone in terms of the intra- and postoperative analgesic requirements and hemodynamics, postoperative complications and ICU stay.

Study Design: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded study.

Methods: Fifty patients aged four to 12 months scheduled for aortic coarctation surgery were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 25). Patients in group D (dexamethasone) received 0.5 mg/kg bupivacaine 0.25% mixed with 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone diluted with isotonic saline and those in group C (control) received 0.5 mg/kg bupivacaine 0.25% diluted with isotonic saline (total volume 15 ml in each group). Intraoperative fentanyl consumption and hemodynamics (heart rate, arterial blood pressure) at baseline, 1 min after induction, at skin incision, after 30 min, after clamping, after declamping and at the end of the surgery were recorded, along with the objective pain score (OPS) immediately postoperatively and at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h postoperatively and the time to the first request for pethidine. The intra- and postoperative vasodilator doses, time to extubation, ICU stay duration and postoperative complications were also recorded.

Results: The postoperative OPS was significantly lower at 12 and 24 h in group D than in group C. The time to the first request for analgesia was significantly longer in group D than in group C (3.9 ± 2.23 vs 8.6 ± 0.69). Additionally, the time to extubation was significantly shorter in group D.

Conclusion: The use of dexamethasone as an adjuvant in ultrasound-guided paravertebral block in paediatric patients undergoing surgery for aortic coarctation increased the duration of postoperative analgesia with a prolonged time to the first request for analgesics It was also associated with a decreased incidence of postoperative complications.

Trial Registration: Trial registration number: NCT03074773 . (Prospectively registered). The initial registration date was 9/3/2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12871-018-0637-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267033PMC
November 2018

Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine gene variants: Impact on susceptibility and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Aug 9;34(8):1424-1431. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Tropical Medicine Department, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a glycoprotein involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, which regulates cell growth. It could be involved in hepatic fibrogenesis related to chronic inflammations, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) angiogenesis, and tumor progression. We aimed to study the expressions of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SPARC gene and their impact on susceptibility and survival of HCC patients.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study on 200 HCC patients and 50 matched healthy controls. All patients were subjected to laboratory investigations, ultrasound, and real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the genetic polymorphisms (rs3210714, rs11950384, and rs7719521) in the SPARC gene in the blood.

Results: One hundred sixty (80%) patients were men with a mean age of 43 years. The SPARC gene showed a significant higher prevalence of rs3210714 mutation (i.e. AA or AG) and a significant lower prevalence of rs11950384 mutation (i.e. AA or AC) among HCC patients in comparison with controls (83% vs 22%, P ≤ 0.001) and (65.5 vs 86%, P = 0.005), respectively, while rs7719521 mutation did not reach significance. On univariate and multivariate analyses, elder age and having at least one copy of the mutant rs3210714 were associated with a significantly increased risk of HCC (P < 0.001 for both), whereas the presence of at least one copy of the mutant rs11950384 carried a significantly reduced risk of having HCC (P < 0.01). Overall survival did not differ significantly between any of the SPARC gene mutation groups.

Conclusions: The SPARC gene polymorphisms had a diverse impact on the susceptibility of HCC due to its ability to inhibit or promote tumor progression. SPARC gene polymorphisms were not related to survival of our HCC patients, and probably, this needs further analysis of other SPARC gene nucleotides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.14541DOI Listing
August 2019

Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir with or without ribavirin in elderly patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

J Med Virol 2019 02 8;91(2):272-277. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered as a major public health problem that, worldwide, chronically affects 170 million people. Elderly patients are more likely than younger patients to have increased duration of infection, increased rate of disease progression, and subsequently increased incidence of advanced liver disease. Natural history models predicted that the prevalence of HCV infection and its chronic sequelae as well as extrahepatic manifestations will eventually increase through the next decade and will mostly affect those who are greater than 60 years of age. Moreover, polytherapy and polypharmacy are frequent in elderly patients due to associated comorbidities. As advanced age is associated with increasing risk of development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, elderly patients are in special need of safe and effective antiviral therapies. Achievement of sustained viral responses (SVR) is associated with reduced liver-related complications and overall mortality in such patients with the advanced liver disease. With the recent introduction of interferon-free direct-acting antivirals, successful treatment for chronic HCV infection had dramatically improved, with overall cure rates that exceed 90% SVR. In our study, we aimed to study the efficacy and safety of combined sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, with or without ribavirin, in management of chronically infected HCV elderly patients who are more than 60 years old.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25287DOI Listing
February 2019

Evaluation of the effects of dexmedetomidine infusion on oxygenation and lung mechanics in morbidly obese patients with restrictive lung disease.

BMC Anesthesiol 2018 08 14;18(1):104. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Department of anesthesia and critical care medicine, Cairo university, 01 elsarayah street, Elmanyal, Cairo, 11559, Egypt.

Background: Dexmedetomidine infusion improves oxygenation and lung mechanics in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease; however, its effect in patients with restrictive lung disease has not been thoroughly investigated yet. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine infusion on oxygenation and lung mechanics in morbidly obese patients with restrictive lung disease.

Methods: Forty-two morbidly obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were included in the study. Patients were randomized to receive either dexmedetomidine infusion at a bolus dose of 1mcg/Kg followed by infusion at 1 mcg/Kg/hour for 90 min (Dexmedetomidine group), or normal saline infusion (Control group). Both groups were compared with regard to: oxygenation {P/F ratio: PaO/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO)}, lung compliance, dead space, plateau pressure, blood pressure, and heart rate.

Results: Dexmedetomidine group showed significant improvement of the PaO/FiO ratio, and higher lung compliance compared to control group by the end of drug infusion. Dexmedetomidine group demonstrated decreased dead space, plateau pressure, blood pressure, and heart rate compared to control group by the end of drug infusion.

Conclusion: A 90-min dexmedetomidine infusion resulted in moderate improvement in oxygenation and lung mechanics in morbidly obese patients with restrictive lung disease.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov : NCT02843698 on 20 July 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12871-018-0572-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090793PMC
August 2018

Longitudinal assessment of hepatic fibrosis in responders to direct-acting antivirals for recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation using noninvasive methods.

Clin Transplant 2018 08 24;32(8):e13334. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Successful eradication of recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection following liver transplantation (HCV) improves graft survival. This study aimed at evaluation of hepatic fibrosis changes among long-term responders to DAA therapy for recurrent HCV after liver transplantation using noninvasive methods. Patients with significant hepatic fibrosis (≥F2) who achieved SVR12 after treatment with DAAs for recurrent HCV were included (n = 52). Hepatic fibrosis status was assessed, noninvasively, by calculation of fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4) and Aspartate Aminotransferase Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) and by measurement of graft stiffness using FibroScan at baseline and 12 and 18 months post-treatment. Acoustic radiation force imaging (ARFI) was done for all patients 12 and 18 months post-treatment. Patients were classified into two groups based on baseline liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by FibroScan; significant fibrosis (F2; n = 28) and advanced fibrosis groups (≥F3). Over 18-month follow-up period, there was serial improvement of FIB-4, APRI, and LSM by FibroScan in both groups. Higher baseline LSM and delayed initiation of antiviral therapy were significant predictors of lack of fibrosis regression (P-value 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). Fibroindices and LSM improved over time in liver transplant recipients who responded to DAAs. Baseline LSM can predict post-treatment fibrosis regression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.13334DOI Listing
August 2018

Nalbuphine as an adjuvant to 0.25% levobupivacaine in ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block provided prolonged sensory block and similar motor block durations (RCT).

J Anesth 2018 08 28;32(4):551-557. Epub 2018 May 28.

Anesthesia Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Kasr Alainy Street, Cairo, Egypt.

Purpose: Prolonged postoperative analgesia with early motor recovery for early rehabilitation is a challenge in regional block. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of adding 20 mg nalbuphine to 25 ml of 0.25% levobupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block.

Methods: One hundred thirty-five (135) patients scheduled for hand and forearm surgeries with supraclavicular block were randomly allocated into three equal groups. Group L received 25 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine + 1 ml normal saline; group H received 25 ml of 0.25% levobupivacaine + 1 ml normal saline; and group N received 25 ml of 0.25% levobupivacaine + 1 ml (20 mg) nalbuphine. Onset time and duration of sensory and motor block, and time to first analgesic dose were recorded.

Results: Sensory block onset was comparable between the three groups. Motor block onset in group L and group N was comparable (13.16 ± 3.07 and 13.84 ± 3.05 min, respectively) and was shorter than that in group H (15.71 ± 2 0.91 min). Sensory block duration in group L and group N was comparable (522.22 ± 69.57 and 533.78 ± 66.03 min, respectively) and was longer than that in group H (342.67 ± 92.80 min). Motor block duration in group N and group H was comparable (272.00 ± 59.45 and 249.78 ± 66.01 min, respectively) and was shorter than that in group L (334.67 ± 57.90 min). Time to first analgesic dose was significantly longer in group N (649.78 ± 114.76 min) than that of group L and group H (575.56 ± 96.85 and 375.56 ± 84.49 min, respectively) and longer in group L when compared to group H.

Conclusions: Adding 20 mg nalbuphine to 25 ml of 0.25% levobupivacaine in supraclavicular block provided prolonged duration of sensory block with similar duration of motor block.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00540-018-2512-xDOI Listing
August 2018

An account of the real-life hepatitis C management in a single specialized viral hepatitis treatment centre in Egypt: results of treating 7042 patients with 7 different direct acting antiviral regimens.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 24;12(12):1265-1272. Epub 2018 May 24.

c Endemic Medicine and Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine , Cairo University , Cairo , Egypt.

Background: A large Egyptian treatment program for HCV was launched in2014 after the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). This program depended mainly on establishing specialized independent centres for HCV treatment. These centres represent the major strengths in the Egyptian model of care, as they provide integrated care for HCV patients and have enabled Egypt to treat more than one million patients in 3 years. The New Cairo Viral Hepatitis Treatment Center (NCVHTC) is an example of these specialized centres.

Methods: The Egyptian experience in the management of HCV was evaluated by analysing the data of real-life HCV management in the NCVHTC from 2014 to 2017. Results of different treatment regimens in addition to their strengths, limitations and areas for improvement are discussed in this report.

Results: A total of 7042 HCV patients have been evaluated for treatment in the NCVHTC. Among them, 5517 patients received treatment by seven different DAA regimens with excellent results.

Conclusions: All regimens were highly effective at treating HCV in a real-life setting, apart from SOF/RBV, which was the least effective. A nationwide screening program and enhancing the follow-up of treated patients are the main missing pillars in the Egyptian model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2018.1476137DOI Listing
December 2018

Magnesium Sulfate as a Preemptive Adjuvant to Levobupivacaine for Postoperative Analgesia in Lower Abdominal and Pelvic Surgeries under Epidural Anesthesia(Randomized Controlled Trial).

Authors:
Heba Omar

Anesth Essays Res 2018 Jan-Mar;12(1):256-261

Department of Anaesthesia, Pain and Surgical Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Magnesium (Mg) has been evaluated as an adjuvant to local anesthetics for prolongation of postoperative epidural and intrathecal analgesia but not with epidural levobupivacaine in lower abdominal surgeries.

Aim Of The Study: The aim of the study was to evaluate the preemptive analgesic effect of Mg added to epidural levobupivacaine anesthesia in infraumbilical abdominal surgeries.

Settings And Design: This study design was a prospective randomized controlled trial.

Patients And Methods: Two groups, each with fifty patients undergoing lower abdominal and pelvic surgeries with epidural anesthesia. Group M received 15 ml of a mixture of 14 ml levobupivacaine 0.5%, 0.5 ml magnesium sulfate 10% (50 mg), and 0.5 ml 0.9 NaCl at induction. Group L received 15 ml of 14 ml levobupivacaine 0.5% and 1 ml 0.9 NaCl at induction. Then, continuous infusion was used as 5 ml/h of the specific mixture of each group till the end of the surgery.

Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, unpaired -test or Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon sign rank test were used.

Results: No statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding intraoperative hemodynamics ( > 0.05). Sensory and motor block onset was significantly shorter in Group M (14.5 [±1.51] and 12.42 [±1.69]) compared to Group L (19.86 [±1.39] and 19.34 [±1.62]) ( = 0.001). Group M showed lower visual analog scale (VAS) pain score compared to Group L from the 2 to the 5 h postoperatively. Time for first analgesic dose was longer in Group M (294.98 [±21.67]) compared to Group L (153.96 [±10.04]) ( = 0.001).

Conclusions: Preoperative and intraoperative epidural Mg infusion with levobupivacaine resulted in prolonged postoperative analgesia and lower VAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aer.AER_194_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5872875PMC
April 2018

HCV in Egypt, prevention, treatment and key barriers to elimination.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2018 04 11;16(4):345-350. Epub 2018 Mar 11.

b Endemic Hepatogastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine , Cairo University , Cairo , Egypt.

Introduction: Currently, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are considered the ideal choice for the treatment of chronic HCV patients due to their proven efficacy (SVR> 90%), and minimal adverse effects. Egypt launched a large treatment program aimed at providing treatment coverage for Egyptian HCV- infected patients. Areas covered: This review covers the treatment and prevention efforts made by the Egyptian National Committee for the Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH) with the available model of care for HCV patients in Egypt, in addition to the barriers that prevent elimination of HCV from Egypt. Expert commentary: Egypt could provide a model for establishing the largest HCV management system aimed at eliminating HCV from the country with the highest worldwide prevalence. Despite the huge efforts and achieved results in combating the HCV epidemic in Egypt, certain improvements are needed in order to attain HCV elimination, such as the development of an enhanced screening program working in parallel to the present treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2018.1448709DOI Listing
April 2018

Epidemiology of Chronic Hepatitis C Infections at a Tertiary Care Centre in Oman.

Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2017 Nov 10;17(4):e404-e410. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Department of Medicine, Armed Forces Hospital, Muscat, Oman.

Objectives: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. However, there is a lack of data regarding the epidemiology of CHC in Oman. This study aimed to describe the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of CHC-infected patients at a tertiary care hospital in Oman.

Methods: This retrospective descriptive hospital-based study included all CHC-infected patients who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman, between January 2010 and December 2015. The baseline demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data of the patients were analysed.

Results: A total of 603 CHC-infected patients were identified during the study period; of these, 65.8% were male and the mean age was 44.8 ± 16.5 years. The main risk factors associated with CHC infection were intravenous drug abuse (23.9%) and a history of blood transfusions (20.7%). The most prevalent virus genotypes were 1 and 3 (44.0% and 35.1%, respectively). Upon initial presentation, 33.0% of the cohort had liver cirrhosis; of these, 48.7% had decompensated cirrhosis and 23.1% had HCCs. Liver transplantation was only performed for 7.5% of the cirrhosis patients, mostly as a curative treatment for HCC.

Conclusion: The implementation of national policies to prevent hepatitis C transmission and encourage the early screening of at-risk patients is recommended to reduce the burden and consequences of this disease in Oman.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18295/squmj.2017.17.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5766295PMC
November 2017

Accuracy and trending of non-invasive hemoglobin measurement during different volume and perfusion statuses.

J Clin Monit Comput 2018 Dec 15;32(6):1025-1031. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 01 Elsarayah Street, Elmanyal, Cairo, 11559, Egypt.

The evolution of non-invasive hemoglobin measuring technology would save time and improve transfusion practice. The validity of pulse co-oximetry hemoglobin (SpHb) measurement in the perioperative setting was previously evaluated; however, the accuracy of SpHb in different volume statuses as well as in different perfusion states was not well investigated. The aim of this work is to evaluate the accuracy and trending of SpHb in comparison to laboratory hemoglobin (Lab-Hb) during acute bleeding and after resuscitation. Seventy patients scheduled for major orthopedic procedures with anticipated major blood loss were included. Radical-7 device was used for continuous assessment of SpHb, volume status [via pleth variability index (PVI)] and perfusion status [via perfusion index (PI)]. Lab-Hb and SpHb were measured at three time-points, a baseline reading, after major bleeding, and after resuscitation. Samples were divided into fluid-responsive and fluid non-responsive samples, and were also divided into high-PI and low-PI samples. Accuracy of SpHb was determined using Bland-Altman analysis. Trending of SpHb was evaluated using polar plot analysis. We obtained 210 time-matched readings. Fluid non-responsive samples were 106 (50.5%) whereas fluid responsive samples were 104 (49.5%). Excellent correlation was reported between Lab-Hb and SpHb (r = 0.938). Excellent accuracy with moderate levels of agreement was also reported between both measures among all samples, fluid non-responsive samples, fluid-responsive samples, high-PI samples, and low-PI samples [Mean bias (limits of agreement): 0.01 (- 1.33 and 1.34) g/dL, - 0.08 (- 1.27 and 1.11) g/dL, 0.09 (- 1.36 and 1.54) g/dL, 0.01 (- 1.34 to 1.31) g/dL, and 0.04 (- 1.31 to 1.39) g/dL respectively]. Polar plot analysis showed good trending ability for SpHb as a follow up monitor. In conclusion, SpHb showed excellent correlation with Lab-Hb in fluid responders, fluid non-responders, low-PI, and high PI states. Despite a favorable mean bias of 0.01 g/dL for SpHb, the relatively wide levels of agreement (- 1.3 to 1.3 g/dL) might limit its accuracy. SpHb showed good performance as a trend monitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10877-018-0101-zDOI Listing
December 2018

Utility of point shear wave elastography in characterisation of focal liver lesions.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Feb 15;12(2):201-207. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

a Endemic Medicine and Hepato-gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine , Cairo University , Cairo , Egypt.

Background: The present study aimed at evaluation of the usefulness of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) in characterization of FLL(s) by quantifying their stiffness.

Methods: In total, 197 patients (mean age was 56.57 years) with FLL(s) on conventional ultrasound were included. Final diagnoses, confirmed by imaging and/or biopsy whenever possible, included hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 143), metastasis (n = 36), hemangioma (n = 16), and focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 2). Stiffness evaluation was performed by pSWE. Stiffness ratio (lesion to background liver) was calculated. ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the stiffness value and stiffness ratio and to extract the optimal cutoff values for characterisation of FLL(s).

Results: HCC was significantly softer than its surrounding liver parenchyma [5.43 (3.03) vs. 17.05 (8.53) kPa, p <0.001]. However, the stiffness values for the other examined FLLs were comparable to their surrounding liver parenchyma. No significant difference was detected across different types of metastases or between metastases and surrounding liver (p>0.05). Stiffness ratio was superior to stiffness value in discrimination of HCC from metastasis (AUROC, 0.91 vs. 0.51 respectively).

Conclusion: pSWE could provide a complementary information about FLLs especially in differentiation between HCCs from metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2018.1415144DOI Listing
February 2018

SNPs in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Gene and Obesity Impact on Colorectal Cancer in Egyptians

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 11 26;18(11):2959-2964. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatogastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.Email:

Background and aims: The insulin pathway may play a role in development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated associations between CRC and obesity in Egyptians with reference to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) gene. We also studied serum levels of IGF-1in Egyptian CRC patients with different BMI values. Methods: This prospective study included 66 CRC patients and 30 healthy individuals, for whom body mass index (BMI) was estimated, patients and controls being categorized into overweight or obese in one group and average weight in the other. Serum levels of IGF-1 were assessed by ELISA and SNPs in the IGF-I gene at rs6214C/T, rs6220 T/C and rs35767 C/T were examined by PCR- RFLP. Results: Serum levels of IGF-1 were significantly lower in both CRC average weight and overweight cases. IGF-1 could negatively predict CRC at a cut-off of 154 ng/ml with 87.5% sensitivity and 72.6 specificity. IGF-1 rs6214 CT and TT (T allele) genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of CRC. Univariate logistic regression showed that CRC risk significantly decreases by 0.14 for each one unit increase in IGF1. Conclusion: BMI could be considered as effect modifier for CRC risk. IGF-1 SNP rs6214 (TT and CT) are significantly associated with risk regardless of the BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.11.2959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5773777PMC
November 2017

Pertussis and Pertussis like Illness: Pediatric Experience in Oman.

Oman Med J 2017 Sep;32(5):396-402

Child Health Department, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman; Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Objectives: A resurgence of pertussis or whooping cough has been observed worldwide despite broad vaccination coverage. Pertussis like illness (PLI) refers to a clinical syndrome compatible with pertussis infection but lacking laboratory confirmation or an epidemiological link to a confirmed case. Our study aimed to estimate the contribution of infection and identifying predictors of its diagnosis in a cohort of children with PLI.

Methods: Demographic and clinical information were retrospectively collected from the medical records of children < 13 years old and hospitalized for PLI in two pediatric units in Oman from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. The laboratory data of all cases were reviewed and confirmed cases of pertussis were identified, analyzed, and compared with non-confirmed cases.

Results: A total of 131 patients were enrolled in this study. The majority (95.4% [125/131]) were infants. Only 54.1% (71/131) of admitted children with PLI were tested for pertussis. The incidence of pertussis infection among the tested group was 16.9% (12/71) with a 95% confidence interval 8.2-25.6. Severe illness occurred in 56.4% (74/131) of patients, and six were confirmed to have pertussis. Pediatric intensive care unit admission was required for one confirmed case of pertussis and eight cases from the PLI group (three were negative for pertussis, and five were not tested). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis revealed that a white blood cell count 23.5 × 10/L had 96.6% specificity and lymphocytes 17 × 10/L had 98.3% specificity.

Conclusions: Taking into consideration that the number tested for pertussis was limited, the incidence of pertussis was 16.9% (12 out of 71 patients). Lymphocytosis can be used as a reliable predictor for the diagnosis of pertussis especially in the absence of specific confirmatory tests or until their results are available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2017.75DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5632702PMC
September 2017
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