Publications by authors named "Heba Badr"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of the prebiotic lactoferrin on multidrug-resistant infections in broiler chickens.

Vet World 2021 Aug 25;14(8):2197-2205. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Bacteriology, Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Nadi El-Seid Street, Dokki, Giza 12618, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Increased multidrug resistance in has created challenges for the poultry industry. Consequently, new antimicrobial agents should preferentially be utilized for the prevention and treatment of outbreaks. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of lactoferrin (LF) as a prebiotic on broiler chicks challenged with multidrug-resistant in comparison with antibiotics.

Materials And Methods: A total of 70 diseased flocks from Egypt were collected for isolation and identification, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern determination. was isolated and characterized phenotypically and one isolate that showed multidrug-resistance was selected. A challenge trial was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of LF as a prebiotic on the isolated multidrug-resistant . Liver samples were collected from the experimental chicks and subjected to enumeration to illustrate the effectiveness of LF on the liver cells and bacteria using an electron microscope. Serum samples were also collected to estimate lysozyme and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations.

Results: After isolation of with a percentage of 54.3% from the diseased broilers, the strain was serotyped (identified serotypes: O2, O18, O55, O78, O86a, O111, O125, O126, O127, O157, O159, and O166). Multi-antibiotic resistance was found to be harbored in a high percentage among 11 antibiotic discs. The LF in the prophylactic and treated groups was found to have a significant effect in comparison with the group treated with the drug of choice (ciprofloxacin). Furthermore, a significant difference in the NO (one of non-specific immune response) and a non-significant difference in lysozyme concentrations were reported in the group fed on rations with LF in comparison with the non-fed group.

Conclusion: LF was thus identified as an effective prebiotic that can improve chick performance, help them to overcome multidrug-resistant and stimulate immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2021.2197-2205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8448632PMC
August 2021

Monitoring of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from Poultry Farms from 2014 to 2018.

Vet Med Int 2021 10;2021:6739220. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Nadi El-Seid Street, Dokki P.O. Box 246, Giza 12618, Egypt.

The current situation of antibiotic resistance of most bacterial pathogens was a threat to the poultry and public health with increasing economic losses. Regarding this problem, monitoring of the circulating microorganisms occurred with the antibiotic resistance profile. A total of 657 different samples from internal organs (liver, heart, lung, and yolk) and paper-lining chick boxes were collected from native chicken farms which were submitted to the Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production in the period from 2014 to 2018 for the detection of , (. , and . The bacterial isolates were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion technique. was isolated from 128 out of 657 (19.5%), . was isolated from 496 out of 657 (75.5%), and species was isolated from 497 out of 657 (75.6%). All positive samples were examined for antibiotic resistance against 10 different antibiotics, and the highest percentage all over the five years was against penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline. All E. positive samples were examined for antibiotic resistance against 14 different antibiotics, and the highest percentage all over the five years was with ampicillin, tetracycline, norfloxacin, streptomycin, and danofloxacin. All positive sample species were examined for antibiotic resistance against 14 different antibiotics, and the highest percentage of resistance all over the five years was shown with tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6739220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8448596PMC
September 2021

Detection of aerobic bacterial pathogens associated with early embryonic death in pregnant New Zealand female Rabbits in Egypt.

Vet World 2021 Apr 24;14(4):986-995. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Nadi El-Seid Street, Dokki P.O. Box246, Giza 12618, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Rabbits are a highly sensitive species and susceptible to various bacterial pathogens that may be causative agents for early embryonic death. This study aimed to explore the administration of different bacterial agents in does suffering from early embryonic death. Furthermore, identification of genes associated with virulence was performed to identify the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance patterns that may increase the virulence of pathogens and lead to early embryonic death.

Materials And Methods: We isolated and identified bacterial agents in 106 samples from live and dead female rabbits that had undergone early embryonic death, including liver and intestine tissue, aborted fetuses, discharges, and vaginal swabs. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted to confirm the identity of the isolated bacterial strains and their virulence. Moreover, antibiotic resistance was studied phenotypically and genotypically.

Results: We isolated , , , , and . PCR confirmed typical identification except in , which was confirmed as spp. in some cases. The final percentage of detection was 34%, 30.2%, 16.9%, 13.2%, and 11.3%, respectively. Virulence properties were investigated using different designated genes. All strains harbored , , , and genes, while the gene was identified in 31.25%. strains harboring the gene lacked the shiga toxin () gene. and strains harbored the hemolysin gene (66.7% and 33.4%, respectively). Multidrug resistance was detected phenotypically and genotypically in most strains. Each bacterial pathogen had a different antibiotic resistance profile.

Conclusion: Multiple bacterial species may contribute to early embryonic death in does. Furthermore, the combined infection could be the main cause of early embryonic death. Thus, monitoring programs should bear this in mind and focus on the early detection of these bacterial agents in female rabbits to avoid embryonic death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2021.986-995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167537PMC
April 2021

Bacteriological and molecular study of species associated with central nervous system manifestation in chicken flocks.

Vet World 2020 Oct 20;13(10):2183-2190. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Nadi El-Seid Street, Dokki, Giza 12618, Egypt.

Background And Aim: species often cause systemic health problems in poultry flocks, sometimes including nervous systems manifestations. This impact of has rarely been studied. This study aimed to define an alternative pathogenic pathway for spp. invasion of brain tissue in chicken flocks. Brain infection produces neurological manifestations; strains isolated from brain tissue showed the presences of two virulence genes. Confirmation of the pathway of isolates from intestinal mucosa through the blood-brain barrier was attained using experimental infections in specific pathogen-free (SPF)-day-old chicks through two routes of inoculation.

Materials And Methods: Isolation of spp. from five chicken flocks that showed signs of the central nervous system (CNS) effects were isolated. Isolates were characterized by serotyping, and antimicrobial assays. In addition, virulence profiles were described using detection of virulence plasmid , and plasmid . A pathogenicity study of isolates in specific pathogen-free (SPF)-day-old chicks through oral and intracerebral administration performed, and experimental infection in SPF embryonated chicken eggs through intra-yolk and intra-allantoic administration was investigated. Supporting histopathology and immunohistopathology against antigen in brain tissue were performed for flock and experimental infections.

Results: Three serotypes of were isolated from the brains of five flocks (two Virchow, two Kentucky, and one Enteritidis isolates). Phage related gene and plasmid-mediated operon were identified in all isolated strains. The strains were re-isolated and identified from the brain and internal organs of post-experimental infected chicks. Infected chicks showed nervous manifestations associated with infection. The presence of positively stained antigen in brain tissues indicates penetration of the blood-brain barrier by the species.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that some virulent systemic strains of spp. can induce CNS manifestations in chicken hosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.2183-2190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7704317PMC
October 2020

Cancer proteome and metabolite changes linked to SHMT2.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(9):e0237981. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Program in Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2) converts serine plus tetrahydrofolate (THF) into glycine plus methylene-THF and is upregulated at the protein level in lung and other cancers. In order to better understand the role of SHMT2 in cancer a model system of HeLa cells engineered for inducible over-expression or knock-down of SHMT2 was characterized for cell proliferation and changes in metabolites and proteome as a function of SHMT2. Ectopic over-expression of SHMT2 increased cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Knockdown of SHMT2 expression in vitro caused a state of glycine auxotrophy and accumulation of phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide (AICAR), an intermediate of folate/1-carbon-pathway-dependent de novo purine nucleotide synthesis. Decreased glycine in the HeLa cell-based xenograft tumors with knocked down SHMT2 was potentiated by administration of the anti-hyperglycinemia agent benzoate. However, tumor growth was not affected by SHMT2 knockdown with or without benzoate treatment. Benzoate inhibited cell proliferation in vitro, but this was independent of SHMT2 modulation. The abundance of proteins of mitochondrial respiration complexes 1 and 3 was inversely correlated with SHMT2 levels. Proximity biotinylation in vivo (BioID) identified 48 mostly mitochondrial proteins associated with SHMT2 including the mitochondrial enzymes Acyl-CoA thioesterase (ACOT2) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) along with more than 20 proteins from mitochondrial respiration complexes 1 and 3. These data provide insights into possible mechanisms through which elevated SHMT2 in cancers may be linked to changes in metabolism and mitochondrial function.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237981PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480864PMC
October 2020

Molecular epidemiology of virulent E. coli among rural small scale dairy herds and shops: Efficacy of selected marine algal extracts and disinfectants.

Int J Environ Health Res 2020 Feb 13:1-23. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Biology, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Virulent pathotypes of seriously affect the livestock regarding the misuse of antibiotics. All 180 samples collected from cow's environment and dairy shops in Qena, Egypt were serologically and molecularly positive for coliforms. Enteropathogenic  (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing  (STEC), Enteroinvasive  (EIEC) and Enterotoxigenic  (ETEC) pathotypes were isolated from water and milk-related samples. STEC serogroups O26, O55, O111, O113, O145 were also recovered. The non-O157 STEC serotypes were recovered from human diarrheagenic patients contacting cattle or consuming contaminated water/milk products. and genes were detected in 25.5% and 100%, respectively. Disinfectants and algal extracts, identified by GC-MS, were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activities. TH4+® disinfectant and methanol extract of reduced at 13 log10 at 1.5% and 3 mg/ml concentrations, respectively. Ag-NPs/ showed 8-9 log10 reduction at concentration of 1.6 × 10 NPs/ml. Examined water sources, milk and milk products were potential reservoirs for virulent antibiotic-resistant which may impose animal and public health threats. APEC: Avian pathogenic : β-lactamase inhibitors-Cefotaximase gene; : β-lactamase inhibitors-Temoneira gene; CFU: Colony-forming unit; DAEC: Diffusely adherent ; DEC: Diarrheagenic ; DEMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; : Intimin or attaching gene; EAEC: Enteroaggregative ; EHEC: Enterohemorrhagic ; EIEC: Enteroinvasive ; EOSQC: Egyptian Organization for Standardization and Quality Control; EPEC: Enteropathogenic ; ETEC: Enterotoxigenic ; ExPEC: Extra-intestinal pathogenic ; GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique; : Hemolysin gene; STEC: Shiga like producing : Shiga-toxin 1 gene; ESBLs: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2020.1727422DOI Listing
February 2020

Different Contribution of Redox-Sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Channels to Acetaminophen-Induced Death of Human Hepatoma Cell Line.

Front Pharmacol 2016 9;7:19. Epub 2016 Feb 9.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto UniversityKyoto, Japan; World Premier International Research Initiative-Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto UniversityKyoto, Japan; Laboratory of Environmental Systems Biology, Department of Technology and Ecology, Hall of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto UniversityKyoto, Japan.

Acetaminophen (APAP) is a safe analgesic antipyretic drug at prescribed doses. Its overdose, however, can cause life-threatening liver damage. Though, involvement of oxidative stress is widely acknowledged in APAP-induced hepatocellular death, the mechanism of this increased oxidative stress and the associated alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis are still unclear. Among members of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels activated in response to oxidative stress, we here identify that redox-sensitive TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, and TRPM7 channels underlie Ca(2+) entry and downstream cellular damages induced by APAP in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Our data indicate that APAP treatment of HepG2 cells resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, and Ca(2+) entry leading to increased apoptotic cell death. These responses were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with the ROS scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate (Tiron), and also by preincubation of cells with the glutathione inducer Dimethylfumarate (DMF). TRP subtype-targeted pharmacological blockers and siRNAs strategy revealed that suppression of either TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, or TRPM7 reduced APAP-induced ROS formation, Ca(2+) influx, and cell death; the effects of suppression of TRPV1 or TRPC1, known to be activated by oxidative cysteine modifications, were stronger than those of TRPM2 or TRPM7. Interestingly, TRPV1 and TRPC1 were labeled by the cysteine-selective modification reagent, 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid)-2biotin (DTNB-2Bio), and this was attenuated by pretreatment with APAP, suggesting that APAP and/or its oxidized metabolites act directly on the modification target cysteine residues of TRPV1 and TRPC1 proteins. In human liver tissue, TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, and TRPM7 channels transcripts were localized mainly to hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. Our findings strongly suggest that APAP-induced Ca(2+) entry and subsequent hepatocellular death are regulated by multiple redox-activated cation channels, among which TRPV1 and TRPC1 play a prominent role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2016.00019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4746322PMC
February 2016

Functional and Structural Divergence in Human TRPV1 Channel Subunits by Oxidative Cysteine Modification.

J Biol Chem 2016 Feb 23;291(8):4197-210. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

From the Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan, Department of Technology and Ecology, Hall of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is a tetrameric protein that acts as a sensor for noxious stimuli such as heat and for diverse inflammatory mediators such as oxidative stress to mediate nociception in a subset of sensory neurons. In TRPV1 oxidation sensing, cysteine (Cys) oxidation has been considered as the principle mechanism; however, its biochemical basis remains elusive. Here, we characterize the oxidative status of Cys residues in differential redox environments and propose a model of TRPV1 activation by oxidation. Through employing a combination of non-reducing SDS-PAGE, electrophysiology, and mass spectrometry we have identified the formation of subunit dimers carrying a stable intersubunit disulfide bond between Cys-258 and Cys-742 of human TRPV1 (hTRPV1). C258S and C742S hTRPV1 mutants have a decreased protein half-life, reflecting the role of the intersubunit disulfide bond in supporting channel stability. Interestingly, the C258S hTRPV1 mutant shows an abolished response to oxidants. Mass spectrometric analysis of Cys residues of hTRPV1 treated with hydrogen peroxide shows that Cys-258 is highly sensitive to oxidation. Our results suggest that Cys-258 residues are heterogeneously modified in the hTRPV1 tetrameric complex and comprise Cys-258 with free thiol for oxidation sensing and Cys-258, which is involved in the disulfide bond for assisting subunit dimerization. Thus, the hTRPV1 channel has a heterogeneous subunit composition in terms of both redox status and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M115.700278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4759194PMC
February 2016
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