Publications by authors named "Heather L Palomino"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Beyond Traditional Structure-Based Drug Design: The Role of Iron Complexation, Strain, and Water in the Binding of Inhibitors for Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase 2.

ACS Omega 2019 Apr 12;4(4):6703-6708. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Janssen Research & Development, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

A combination of structure-based drug design and medicinal chemistry efforts led us from benzimidazole-2-carboxamide with modestly active hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase 2 inhibition to certain benzimidazole-2-pyrazole carboxylic acids that were more potent as well as orally efficacious stimulators of erythropoietin secretion in our in vivo mouse model. To better understand the structure-activity relationship, it was necessary to account for (i) the complexation of the ligand with the active site Fe, (ii) the strain incurred by the ligand upon binding, and (iii) certain key water interactions identified by a crystal structure analysis. With this more complete computational model, we arrived at an overarching paradigm that accounted for the potency differences between benzimidazole-2-carboxamide and benzimidazole-2-pyrazole carboxylic acid enzyme inhibitors. Moreover, the computational paradigm allowed us to anticipate that the bioisostere replacement strategy (amide → pyrazole), which had shown success in the benzimidazole series, was not generally applicable to other series. This illustrates that to fully reconcile the important ligand-active site interactions for certain targets, one often needs to move beyond traditional structure-based drug design (such as crystallographic analysis, docking, etc.) and appeal to a higher level of computational theory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b00199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6547624PMC
April 2019

Prolyl hydroxylase inhibition corrects functional iron deficiency and inflammation-induced anaemia in rats.

Br J Pharmacol 2015 Aug 26;172(16):4078-88. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Aetheria Therapeutics, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background And Purpose: Small-molecule inhibitors of prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes are a novel target for the treatment of anaemia and functional iron deficiency (FID). Other than being orally bioavailable, the differentiation of PHD inhibitors from recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has not been demonstrated.

Experimental Approach: JNJ-42905343 was identified and characterized as a novel inhibitor of PHD and its action was compared with rhEPO in healthy rats and in a rat model of inflammation-induced anaemia and FID [peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PGPS) model].

Key Results: Oral administration of JNJ-42905343 to healthy rats increased the gene expression of cytochrome b (DcytB) and divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) in the duodenum, and increased plasma EPO. Repeated administration of JNJ-42905343 for 28 days increased blood haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The serum iron concentration was increased with low doses (0.3 mg·kg(-1) ) but reduced at high doses (6 mg·kg(-1) ). In PGPS-treated rats, administration of JNJ-42905343 for 28 days corrected FID and anaemia, as reflected by increased blood haemoglobin, MCH and MCV. Increased expression of DcytB and DMT1 genes in the duodenum resulting in increased iron availability was defined as the mechanism for these effects. rhEPO did not affect DcytB and DMT1 and was not effective in PGPS-treated rats.

Conclusions And Implications: PHD inhibition has a beneficial effect on iron metabolism in addition to stimulating the release of EPO. Small-molecule inhibitors of PHD such as JNJ-42905343 represent a mechanism distinct from rhEPO to treat anaemia and FID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.13188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4543614PMC
August 2015

24-hour urine phosphorus excretion and mortality and cardiovascular events.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2013 Jul 28;8(7):1202-10. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92161, USA.

Background And Objectives: Higher morning serum phosphorus has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with or without CKD. In patients with CKD and a phosphorous level >4.6 mg/dl, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend dietary phosphorus restriction. However, whether phosphorus restriction influences serum phosphorus concentrations and whether dietary phosphorus is itself associated with CVD or death are uncertain.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: Among 880 patients with stable CVD and normal kidney function to moderate CKD, 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (UPE) and serum phosphorus were measured at baseline. Participants were followed for a median of 7.4 years for CVD events and all-cause mortality.

Results: Mean ± SD age was 67±11 years, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 71±22 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and serum phosphorus was 3.7±0.6 mg/dl. Median UPE was 632 (interquartile range, 439, 853) mg/d. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics and eGFR, UPE was weakly and nonsignificantly associated with serum phosphorus (0.03 mg/dl higher phosphorus per 300 mg higher UPE; P=0.07). When adjusted for demographics, eGFR, and CVD risk factors, each 300-mg higher UPE was associated with 17% lower risk of CVD events. The association of UPE with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.05). Results were similar irrespective of CKD status (P interactions > 0.87).

Conclusions: Among outpatients with stable CVD, the magnitude of the association of UPE with morning serum phosphorus is modest. Greater UPE is associated with lower risk for CVD events. The association was similar for all-cause mortality but was not statistically significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.11181012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3700702PMC
July 2013

Pharmacological characterization of 1-(5-chloro-6-(trifluoromethoxy)-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (JNJ-42041935), a potent and selective hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor.

Mol Pharmacol 2011 Jun 3;79(6):910-20. Epub 2011 Mar 3.

Cardiovascular Metabolic Research, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes represent novel targets for the treatment of anemia, ulcerative colitis, and ischemic and metabolic disease inter alia. We have identified a novel small-molecule inhibitor of PHD, 1-(5-chloro-6-(trifluoromethoxy)-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (JNJ-42041935), through structure-based drug design methods. The pharmacology of JNJ-42041935 was investigated in enzyme, cellular, and whole-animal systems and was compared with other compounds described in the literature as PHD inhibitors. JNJ-42041935, was a potent (pK(I) = 7.3-7.9), 2-oxoglutarate competitive, reversible, and selective inhibitor of PHD enzymes. In addition, JNJ-42041935 was used to compare the effect of selective inhibition of PHD to intermittent, high doses (50 μg/kg i.p.) of an exogenous erythropoietin receptor agonist in an inflammation-induced anemia model in rats. JNJ-42041935 (100 μmol/kg, once a day for 14 days) was effective in reversing inflammation-induced anemia, whereas erythropoietin had no effect. The results demonstrate that JNJ-42041935 is a new pharmacological tool, which can be used to investigate PHD inhibition and demonstrate that PHD inhibitors offer great promise for the treatment of inflammation-induced anemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.110.070508DOI Listing
June 2011

Benzimidazole-2-pyrazole HIF Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Inhibitors as Oral Erythropoietin Secretagogues.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2010 Dec 5;1(9):526-9. Epub 2010 Oct 5.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (PHD) are a family of enzymes that mediate key physiological responses to hypoxia by modulating the levels of hypoxia inducible factor 1-α (HIF1α). Certain benzimidazole-2-pyrazole carboxylates were discovered to be PHD2 inhibitors using ligand- and structure-based methods and found to be potent, orally efficacious stimulators of erythropoietin secretion in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ml100198yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4007848PMC
December 2010

Characterization of a robust enzymatic assay for inhibitors of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent hydroxylases.

J Biomol Screen 2009 Jul 4;14(6):627-35. Epub 2009 Jun 4.

Department of Drug Discovery, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development L.L.C., San Diego, California, USA.

The prolyl-4-hydroxylase proteins regulate the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) by hydroxylation of proline residues targeting HIF-1alpha for proteasomal degradation. Using the purified catalytic domain of prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2(181-417)), an enzymatic assay has been developed to test inhibitors of the enzyme in vitro. Because PHD2 hydroxylates HIF-1alpha, with succinic acid produced as an end product, radiolabeled [5-(14)C]-2-oxoglutaric acid was used and formation of [14C]-succinic acid was measured to quantify PHD2(181-417) enzymatic activity. Comparison of the separation of 2-oxoglutaric acid and succinic acid by either ion exchange chromatography or precipitation with phenylhydrazine showed similar results, but the quantification and throughput were vastly increased using the latter method. The PHD2 reaction was substrate and concentration dependent. The addition of iron to the enzyme reaction mix resulted in an increase in enzymatic activity. The Km value for 2-oxoglutaric acid was determined to be 0.9 microM, and known PHD2 inhibitors were used to validate the assay. In addition, the authors demonstrate that this assay can be applied to other 2-oxoglutaric acid-dependent enzymes, including the asparaginyl hydroxylase, factor-inhibiting HIF-1alpha (FIH). A concentration-dependent increase in succinic acid production using recombinant FIH enzyme with a synthetic peptide substrate was observed. The authors conclude that a by-product enzyme assay measuring the conversion of 2-oxoglutaric acid to succinic acid using the catalytic domain of the human PHD2 provides a convenient method for the biochemical evaluation of inhibitors of the 2-oxoglutaric acid-dependent hydroxylases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087057109333976DOI Listing
July 2009
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