Publications by authors named "Heather J Gunn"

6 Publications

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Using Machine Learning to Predict Young People's Internet Health and Social Service Information Seeking.

Prev Sci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of California, UCLA Center for Community Health, 10920 Wilshire Blvd Suite 350, Los AngelesLos Angeles, CA, 90024, USA.

Machine learning creates new opportunities to design digital health interventions for youth at risk for acquiring HIV (YARH), capitalizing on YARH's health information seeking on the internet. To date, researchers have focused on descriptive analyses that associate individual factors with health-seeking behaviors, without estimating of the strength of these predictive models. We developed predictive models by applying machine learning methods (i.e., elastic net and lasso regression models) to YARH's self-reports of internet use. The YARH were aged 14-24 years old (N = 1287) from Los Angeles and New Orleans. Models were fit to three binary indicators of YARH's lifetime internet searches for general health, sexual and reproductive health (SRH), and social service information. YARH responses regarding internet health information seeking were fed into machine learning models with potential predictor variables based on findings from previous research, including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and gender minority identity, healthcare access and engagement, sexual behavior, substance use, and mental health. About half of the YARH reported seeking general health and SRH information and 26% sought social service information. Areas under the ROC curve (≥ .75) indicated strong predictive models and results were consistent with the existing literature. For example, higher education and sexual minority identification was associated with seeking general health, SRH, and social service information. New findings also emerged. Cisgender identity versus transgender and non-binary identities was associated with lower odds of general health, SRH, and social service information seeking. Experiencing intimate partner violence was associated with higher odds of seeking general health, SRH, and social service information. Findings demonstrate the ability to develop predictive models to inform targeted health information dissemination strategies but underscore the need to better understand health disparities that can be operationalized as predictors in machine learning algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-021-01255-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Letter to editor regarding "RespOnse Shift ALgorithm in Item response theory (ROSALI) for response shift detection with missing data in longitudinal patient-reported outcome studies".

Authors:
Heather J Gunn

Qual Life Res 2020 10 22;29(10):2609-2610. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02526-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572585PMC
October 2020

Streamlined Prevention and Early Intervention for Pediatric Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Prev Sci 2020 05;21(4):487-497

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 871104, USA.

There is a need to optimize the fit between psychosocial interventions with known efficacy and the demands of real-word service delivery settings. However, adaptation of evidence-based interventions (EBI) raises questions about whether effectiveness can be retained. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated a streamlined package of cognitive, behavior, and social skills training strategies known to prevent and reduce anxiety symptom and disorder escalation in youth. A total of 109 youth (M = 9.72; 68% girls; 54% Latinx) at risk based on high anxiety were randomized to the streamlined prevention and early intervention (SPEI) (n = 59) or control (n = 50) and were assessed at pretest, posttest, and 12-month follow-up. A main objective was to determine whether our redesign could be delivered by community providers, with acceptable levels of fidelity, quality, and impact. In terms of process evaluation results, there was high protocol fidelity, excellent clinical process skills, few protocol adaptations, and high satisfaction with the SPEI. In terms of outcomes, there were no significant main or moderated effects of the SPEI at the immediate posttest. However, at the follow-up, youth in the SPEI reported greater self-efficacy for managing anxiety-provoking situations, greater social skills, and fewer negative cognitive errors relative to controls. Collectively, findings suggest that the redesigned SPEI might be an attractive and efficient solution for service delivery settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-019-01066-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166170PMC
May 2020

Intergenerational gaps in Mexican American values trajectories: Associations with parent-adolescent conflict and adolescent psychopathology.

Dev Psychopathol 2018 12;30(5):1611-1627

Arizona State University.

Growth mixture modeling with a sample of 749 Mexican heritage families identified parallel trajectories of adolescents' and their mothers' heritage cultural values and parallel trajectories of adolescents' and their fathers' heritage cultural values from Grades 5 to 10. Parallel trajectory profiles were then used to test cultural gap-distress theory that predicts increased parent-adolescent conflict and adolescent psychopathology over time when adolescents become less aligned with Mexican heritage values compared to their parents. Six similar parallel profiles were identified for the mother-youth and father-youth dyads, but only one of the six was consistent with the hypothesized problem gap pattern in which adolescents' values were declining over time to become more discrepant from their parents. When compared to families in the other trajectory groups as a whole, mothers in the mother-adolescent problem gap trajectory group reported higher levels of mother-adolescent conflict in the 10th grade that accounted for subsequent increases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms assessed in 12th grade. Although the findings provided some support for cultural gap-distress predictions, they were not replicated with adolescent report of conflict nor with the father-adolescent trajectory group analyses. Exploratory pairwise comparisons between all six mother-adolescent trajectory groups revealed additional differences that qualified and extended these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579418001256DOI Listing
December 2018

Multigroup Propensity Score Approach to Evaluating an Effectiveness Trial of the New Beginnings Program.

Eval Health Prof 2018 06 10;41(2):290-320. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

1 Department of Psychology, REACH Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

We used a multigroup propensity score approach to evaluate a randomized effectiveness trial of the New Beginnings Program (NBP), an intervention targeting divorced or separated families. Two features of effectiveness trials, high nonattendance rates and inclusion of an active control, make program effects harder to detect. To estimate program effects based on actual intervention participation, we created a synthetic inactive control comprised of nonattenders and assessed the impact of attending the NBP or active control relative to no intervention (inactive control). We estimated propensity scores using generalized boosted models and applied inverse probability of treatment weighting for the comparisons. Relative to the inactive control, NBP strengthened parenting quality as well as reduced child exposure to interparental conflict, parent psychological distress, and child internalizing problems. Some effects were moderated by parent gender, parent ethnicity, or child age. On the other hand, the effects of active versus inactive control were minimal for parenting and in the unexpected direction for child internalizing problems. Findings from the propensity score approach complement and enhance the interpretation of findings from the intention-to-treat approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163278718763499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6054305PMC
June 2018