Publications by authors named "Heather Day"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Unexpectedly high mortality in Pacific herring embryos exposed to the 2007 Cosco Busan oil spill in San Francisco Bay.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Jan 27;109(2):E51-8. Epub 2011 Dec 27.

Environmental Conservation Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA 98112, USA.

In November 2007, the container ship Cosco Busan released 54,000 gallons of bunker fuel oil into San Francisco Bay. The accident oiled shoreline near spawning habitats for the largest population of Pacific herring on the west coast of the continental United States. We assessed the health and viability of herring embryos from oiled and unoiled locations that were either deposited by natural spawning or incubated in subtidal cages. Three months after the spill, caged embryos at oiled sites showed sublethal cardiac toxicity, as expected from exposure to oil-derived polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). By contrast, embryos from the adjacent and shallower intertidal zone showed unexpectedly high rates of tissue necrosis and lethality unrelated to cardiotoxicity. No toxicity was observed in embryos from unoiled sites. Patterns of PACs at oiled sites were consistent with oil exposure against a background of urban sources, although tissue concentrations were lower than expected to cause lethality. Embryos sampled 2 y later from oiled sites showed modest sublethal cardiotoxicity but no elevated necrosis or mortality. Bunker oil contains the chemically uncharacterized remains of crude oil refinement, and one or more of these unidentified chemicals likely interacted with natural sunlight in the intertidal zone to kill herring embryos. This reveals an important discrepancy between the resolving power of current forensic analytical chemistry and biological responses of keystone ecological species in oiled habitats. Nevertheless, we successfully delineated the biological impacts of an oil spill in an urbanized coastal estuary with an overlapping backdrop of atmospheric, vessel, and land-based sources of PAC pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1108884109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3258612PMC
January 2012

Cardiac arrhythmia is the primary response of embryonic Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) exposed to crude oil during weathering.

Environ Sci Technol 2009 Jan;43(1):201-7

Environmental Conservation Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2725 Montlake Boulevard E., Seattle, Washington 98112, USA.

Teleost embryos develop a syndrome characterized by edema when exposed to water that weathers substrates contaminated with crude oil. Previous studies using zebrafish demonstrated that crude oil exposure causes cardiogenic edema, and that the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in weathered crude oils (tricyclic fluorenes, dibenzothiophenes, and phenanthrenes) are cardiotoxic, causing arrhythmia through a pathway that does not require activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We demonstrate here for Pacific herring, a species impacted by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, that the developing heart is the primary target of crude oil exposure. Herring embryos exposed to the effluent of oiled gravel columns developed dose-dependent edema and irregular cardiac arrhythmia soon afterthe heartbeat was established. At a dose that produced cardiac dysfunction in 100% of exposed embryos, tissue levels of tricyclic PAHs were below 1 micromol/kg, suggesting a specific, high affinity target in the heart. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanism of tricyclic PAH cardiotoxicity, the development of biomarkers for the effects of PAH exposure in fish, and understanding the long-term impacts of oil spills and other sources of PAH pollution in aquatic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es802270tDOI Listing
January 2009

Sparklers, smoke bombs, and snakes, oh my! Effect of legislation on fireworks-related injuries in Minnesota, 1999-2005.

Minn Med 2007 Jul;90(7):46-7

Minnesota Department of Health's Injury and Violence Prevention Unit, USA.

In 2002, Minnesota changed its law banning all fireworks and allowed for nonexplosive, nonaerial fireworks. This article reports that hospitals have seen a steady rise in the number of patients treated for injuries related to fireworks, including a 100% increase in the number of annual fireworks-related injuries between the years 1999 and 2005 based on hospital discharge data.
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July 2007

Hospital-treated dog bites in Minnesota, 1998-2005.

Minn Med 2007 Jul;90(7):43-5, 47

Minnesota Department of Health's Injury and Violence Prevention Unit, USA.

This paper is the first to describe the incidence of hospital-treated dog bites in Minnesota using hospital discharge data supplemented with medical record review. The rate of hospital-treated dog bites rose 40% during the 8-year period studied, with the largest growth being seen in the number of emergency department (ED) visits. The highest rates of both hospitalization and ED treatment occurred among children ages 1 to 4 years. In most instances (75%), the victim was familiar with the dog(s) involved. The dog bites most often occurred in the home (48%) and yard (18%). Our findings emphasize the importance of physicians, especially pediatricians and family physicians, counseling parents about the importance of supervising their children when they are around dogs and teaching them safe behaviors around animals. Finally, this study validates the value of hospital discharge data for surveillance of hospital-treated dog bites.
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July 2007

Climatic and landscape correlates for potential West Nile virus mosquito vectors in the Seattle region.

J Vector Ecol 2007 Jun;32(1):22-8

Division of Environmental Science and Resource Management, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.

Climatic and landscape patterns have been associated with both relative mosquito abundance and transmission of mosquito-borne illnesses in many parts of the world, especially warm and tropical climes. To determine if temperature, precipitation, or degree of urbanization were similarly important in the number of potential mosquito vectors for West Nile virus in the moderately temperate climate of western Washington, mosquitoes were collected using CDC carbon-dioxide/light traps set throughout the Seattle region during the summers of 2003 and 2004. The type and abundance of recovered species were compared to ecological correlates. Temperature and mosquito abundance were positively correlated, while precipitation was not strongly correlated with numbers of mosquitoes. Potential WNV mosquito vectors were most abundant in urban and suburban sites, including sites near communal roosts of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Exurban sites had the greatest vector species diversity, and Culex pipiens was the most abundant species throughout the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3376/1081-1710(2007)32[22:calcfp]2.0.co;2DOI Listing
June 2007

Developmental toxicity of 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish is differentially dependent on AH receptor isoforms and hepatic cytochrome P4501A metabolism.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006 Dec 7;217(3):308-21. Epub 2006 Oct 7.

Ecotoxicology and Environmental Fish Health Program, Environmental Conservation Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Blvd E, Seattle, WA 98112, USA.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from fossil fuels are ubiquitous contaminants and occur in aquatic habitats as highly variable and complex mixtures of compounds containing 2 to 6 rings. For aquatic species, PAHs are generally accepted as acting through either of two modes of action: (1) "dioxin-like" toxicity mediated by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which controls a battery of genes involved in PAH metabolism, such as cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and (2) "nonpolar narcosis", in which tissue uptake is dependent solely on hydrophobicity and toxicity is mediated through non-specific partitioning into lipid bilayers. As part of a systematic analysis of mechanisms of PAH developmental toxicity in zebrafish, we show here that three tetracyclic PAHs (pyrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene) activate the AHR pathway tissue-specifically to induce distinct patterns of CYP1A expression. Using morpholino knockdown of ahr1a, ahr2, and cyp1a, we show that distinct embryolarval syndromes induced by exposure to two of these compounds are differentially dependent on tissue-specific activation of AHR isoforms or metabolism by CYP1A. Exposure of embryos with and without circulation (silent heart morphants) resulted in dramatically different patterns of CYP1A induction, with circulation required to deliver some compounds to internal tissues. Therefore, biological effects of PAHs cannot be predicted simply by quantitative measures of AHR activity or a compound's hydrophobicity. These results indicate that current models of PAH toxicity in fish are greatly oversimplified and that individual PAHs are pharmacologically active compounds with distinct and specific cellular targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2006.09.018DOI Listing
December 2006

Epidemiology of emergency department-treated traumatic brain injury in Minnesota.

Minn Med 2006 May;89(5):40-4

Minnesota Department of Health's Injury and Violence Prevention Unit, USA.

A number of population-based studies have been published on mortality and hospitalizations associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, very little has been published on treatment of TBI in the emergency department (ED), despite the fact that most cases are seen in such settings. Minnesota is 1 of 2 states funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention since 2001 to conduct surveillance of TBIs treated in EDs. A sample of medical records from 2002 and 2003 was reviewed to better understand the epidemiology of ED-treated TBI and identify risk factors for and interventions to prevent them. We found males, infants, adolescents and young adults, blacks, and residents of the 7-county Twin Cities metropolitan area were most likely to be seen in the ED for TBI. Sports and recreational activities were the leading causes of these injuries, followed by falls and motor vehicle crashes.
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May 2006

Interleukin 31, a cytokine produced by activated T cells, induces dermatitis in mice.

Nat Immunol 2004 Jul 6;5(7):752-60. Epub 2004 Jun 6.

Department of Immunology, ZymoGenetics, 1201 Eastlake Avenue East, Seattle, Washington 98102, USA.

T cell-derived cytokines are important in the development of an effective immune response, but when dysregulated they can promote disease. Here we identify a four-helix bundle cytokine we have called interleukin 31 (IL-31), which is preferentially produced by T helper type 2 cells. IL-31 signals through a receptor composed of IL-31 receptor A and oncostatin M receptor. Expression of IL-31 receptor A and oncostatin M receptor mRNA was induced in activated monocytes, whereas epithelial cells expressed both mRNAs constitutively. Transgenic mice overexpressing IL-31 developed severe pruritus, alopecia and skin lesions. Furthermore, IL-31 receptor expression was increased in diseased tissues derived from an animal model of airway hypersensitivity. These data indicate that IL-31 may be involved in promoting the dermatitis and epithelial responses that characterize allergic and non-allergic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni1084DOI Listing
July 2004

Genetic effects on age-dependent onset and islet cell autoantibody markers in type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes 2002 May;51(5):1346-55

Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.

Age-dependent associations between type 1 diabetes risk genes HLA, INS VNTR, and CTLA-4 and autoantibodies to GAD65 (GADAs), ICA512/IA-2, insulin, and islet cells were determined by logistic regression analysis in 971 incident patients with type 1 diabetes and 702 control subjects aged 0-34 years. GADAs were associated with HLA-DQ2 in young but not in older patients (P = 0.009). Autoantibodies to insulin were negatively associated with age (P < 0.0001) but positively associated with DQ8 (P = 0.03) and with INS VNTR (P = 0.04), supporting possible immune tolerance induction. ICA512/IA-2 were negatively associated with age (P < 0.0001) and with DQ2 (P < 0.0001) but positively associated with DQ8 (P = 0.04). Males were more likely than females to be negative for GADA (P < 0.0001), autoantibodies to islet cells (P = 0.04), and all four autoantibody markers (P = 0.004). The CTLA-4 3' end microsatellite marker was not associated with any of the autoantibodies. We conclude that age and genetic factors such as HLA-DQ and INS VNTR need to be combined with islet autoantibody markers when evaluating the risk for type 1 diabetes development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.51.5.1346DOI Listing
May 2002