Publications by authors named "Heather A Johnson"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The pharmacists behind the front lines: One year later.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2021.08.006DOI Listing
August 2021

Politics, patients, and the role of the pharmacist: Addressing social and political issues that affect health care.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2021 Sep-Oct;61(5):e41-e44. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Pharmacists are well-respected health care practitioners tasked with providing optimal patient care while operating under an assigned code of ethics. Pharmacists know their responsibility regarding improving patients' health in the examination room, pharmacy, and hospital, but several factors influence the well-being of a patient that are not directly related to their therapy regimens. A patient's actions regarding political and social issues can have an indirect effect on their health and the health of others. As health professionals, are pharmacists duty-bound to alert patients to the impact of public policies on the health care system and their individual health? In addition, should pharmacists be able to assess when interventions are necessary and provide this education? As a profession, pharmacy must work toward creating guidance to help practitioners identify and address these issues with patients and encourage positive outcomes for individual patients and communities as a whole. Political and social issues will continue to become intertwined in the patient-practitioner relationship, and tools must be created to best navigate these delicate topics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2021.03.024DOI Listing
April 2021

The pharmacists behind the front lines.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2020 Nov - Dec;60(6):e35-e36. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2020.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7406414PMC
June 2021

The impact of decision aids in patients with colorectal cancer: a systematic review.

BMJ Open 2019 09 12;9(9):e028379. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Department of Surgery, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA

Objectives: Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine the impact of patient decision aids (PDA) on patients facing treatment decisions for colorectal cancer.

Design: Systematic review.

Data Sources: Sources included Embase, Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library from inception to June, 20, 2019.

Eligibility Criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, mixed methods and case series in which a PDA for colorectal cancer treatment was used. Qualitative studies were excluded from our review.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Following execution of the search strategy by a medical librarian, two blinded independent reviewers identified articles for inclusion. Two blinded reviewers were also responsible for data extraction, risk of bias and study quality assessments. Any conflict in article inclusion or extraction was resolved by discussion.

Results: Out of 3773 articles identified, three met our inclusion criteria: one RCT, one before-and-after study and one mixed-method study. In these studies, the use of a PDA for colorectal cancer treatment was associated with increased patient knowledge, satisfaction and preparation for making a decision. On quality assessment, two of three studies were judged to be of low quality.

Conclusion: A paucity of evidence exists on the effect of PDA for colorectal cancer treatment with existing evidence being largely of low quality. Further investigation is required to determine the effect of decision aids for colorectal cancer treatment as well as reasons for the lack of PDA development and implementation in this area.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42018095153.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6747873PMC
September 2019

Anesthetic challenges and outcomes for procedures in the intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging suite: A systematic review.

J Clin Anesth 2019 May 8;54:89-101. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, 1 Rope Ferry Road, Hanover, NH 03755, USA; White River Junction VA Medical Center, 215 N Main Street, White River Junction, VT 05009, USA; The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Hybrid operating room suites with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging enable image guided surgery in a fully functional operating room environment. While this environment creates challenges to anesthetic care, the effects on anesthetic adverse events and outcomes are largely unknown. This systematic scoping review aims to map the existing knowledge about anesthetic care in advanced imaging hybrid operating rooms.

Methods: A broad-based literature search was performed using the PubMed (Medline), Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. References published in English between January 1994 and August 2017 were included. Quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE guidelines.

Results: Forty-seven manuscripts were eligible for data collection. Adverse events were heterogeneously defined across 17 manuscripts and occurred in 0 to 100% (quality of evidence mostly very low). Monitoring difficulty was reported in 4 manuscripts of very low data quality. Interference between the magnet and the electrocardiogram was investigated in 2 manuscripts (quality of evidence low and very low, respectively). None of the reported events appeared to result in long-term patient harm. Author recommendations or a narrative review of the literature were provided in 40 manuscripts. Common safety concerns included lower equipment reliability, inaccessibility of the patient and airway, and the relative isolation of the suite (in relationship to other anesthesia care areas). Most authors also emphasized the importance of safety checklists, protocols, and provider training.

Discussion: While intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging hybrid operating rooms are increasingly utilized, the existing literature does not allow estimating adverse event rates in this location. Prospective studies quantifying the effect of the environment on anesthesia outcomes are lacking. Despite this, there is a broad consensus regarding the anesthetic and safety concerns. More research is needed to inform practice standards and training requirements for this challenging environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2018.10.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7038577PMC
May 2019

Bibliometric Analysis of Erectile Dysfunction Publications in Urology and Sexual Medicine Journals.

J Sex Med 2018 10 12;15(10):1426-1433. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA.

Introduction: Scientific literature has experienced a significant growth in the number of authors per publication each year. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the most common urologic conditions, accounting for over 2.9 million outpatient visits per year. Given the prevalence of ED and the large literature base available on this condition, bibliometric analysis of the ED literature could provide urologists and sexual medicine specialists with a better understanding of publication trends in this topic area.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in authorship, citations, and impact score for ED original and review articles published in urology and sexual medicine journals.

Methods: We analyzed ED original research and review articles indexed in MEDLINE between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2016. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the mean number of authors for articles by journal type and time period (2006 vs 2016). Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between number of authors, number of citations, and relative citation ratio (RCR).

Main Outcome Measure: The primary outcomes of interest included mean number of authors, citations, and RCR per manuscript by journal type and time period.

Results: A total of 3,516 articles were analyzed, 2,938 (83.6%) original and 578 (16.4%) review articles. The mean number of authors among ED publications increased from 4.8 in 2006 to 6.4 in 2016, a 34.4% increase. Original articles had a greater mean number of authors compared to review articles (6.0 vs 4.3, P < .001). The mean number of authors for original articles significantly increased from 5.0 in 2006 to 7.0 in 2016 (P < .001), an increase of 38.9%. A positive linear relationship was observed between mean number of authors and number of citations per manuscript (r = 0.015, P < .01) as well as RCR (r = 0.37, P < .0001). The largest authorship increases were observed in European Urology (78.8%), BJU International (78.6%), and Journal of Sexual Medicine (58.1%).

Clinical Implications: Authorship trends should be taken into consideration when urologists and sexual medicine experts review ED articles for the purpose of informing patient care.

Strength And Limitations: Primary strengths include a large literature base spanning multiple years for analysis and a systematic literature search to identify relevant ED literature. Findings are limited to ED literature published in the urology and sexual medicine journals analyzed.

Conclusion: The number of authors per ED manuscript has significantly increased over time, most notably among original research articles. Increasing authorship was associated with more citations and higher RCR in the ED literature. Rezaee ME, Johnson HA, Munarriz RM, et al. Bibliometric Analysis of Erectile Dysfunction Publications in Urology and Sexual Medicine Journals. J Sex Med 2018;15:1426-1433.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2018.08.004DOI Listing
October 2018

Postoperative prophylactic antibiotics for facial fractures: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Laryngoscope 2019 01 14;129(1):82-95. Epub 2018 May 14.

Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire.

Objective: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing surgery for maxillofacial fractures is standard practice. However, the use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis remains controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to evaluate the effect of postoperative antibiotic therapy on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) in patients with maxillofacial fractures.

Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception through October 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies evaluating the efficacy of pre-, peri-, and postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing SSI in maxillofacial fractures were included. Data were extracted from studies using a standardized data collection form, with two reviewers independently performing extraction and quality assessment for each study. Risk ratios (RRs) for SSI were pooled using a random-effects model.

Results: Among 2,150 potentially eligible citations, 13 studies met inclusion criteria and provided data to be included in a meta-analysis. The addition of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis to a standard preoperative and/or perioperative antibiotic regimen showed no significant difference in the risk of SSI (RR = 1.11 [95% CI: 0.86-1.44], P > .1). There were also no differences in the risk of SSI when restricting the analysis to mandibular fractures (eight studies, RR = 1.22 [95% CI: 0.92-1.62]) or open surgical techniques (eight studies, RR = 1.02 [95% CI: 0.62-1.67]). A sensitivity analysis did not find any significant differences in risk when restricting to RCTs (seven trials, RR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.61-1.67]) or cohort studies (six studies, RR = 1.21 [95% CI: 0.89-1.63]).

Conclusions: Our findings, along with the available evidence, does not support the routine use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with maxillofacial fractures. Avoiding the unnecessary use of antibiotic therapy in the postoperative period could have important implications for healthcare costs and patient outcomes. Laryngoscope, 129:82-95, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.27210DOI Listing
January 2019

One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework.

One Health 2017 Jun 26;3:56-65. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Western Institute for Food Safety and Security, University of California - Davis, 1477 Drew Ave., Suite 101, Davis, CA 95618, United States.

Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2017.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5454146PMC
June 2017

Your teaching strategy matters: how engagement impacts application in health information literacy instruction.

J Med Libr Assoc 2017 Jan;105(1):44-48

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare two pedagogical methods, active learning and passive instruction, to determine which is more useful in helping students to achieve the learning outcomes in a one-hour research skills instructional session.

Methods: Two groups of high school students attended an instructional session to learn about consumer health resources and strategies to enhance their searching skills. The first group received passive instruction, and the second engaged in active learning. We assessed both groups' learning using 2 methods with differing complexity. A total of 59 students attended the instructional sessions (passive instruction, n=28; active learning, n=31).

Results: We found that the active learning group scored more favorably in four assessment categories.

Conclusions: Active learning may help students engage with and develop a meaningful understanding of several resources in a single session. Moreover, when using a complex teaching strategy, librarians should be mindful to gauge learning using an equally complex assessment method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2017.8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5234460PMC
January 2017

Analysis of Web access logs for surveillance of influenza.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2004 ;107(Pt 2):1202-6

RODS Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Informatics, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the level of influenza in a population correlates with the number of times that internet users access information about influenza on health-related Web sites. We obtained Web access logs from the Healthlink Web site. Web access logs contain information about the user and the information the user accessed, and are maintained electronically by most Web sites, including Healthlink. We developed weekly counts of the number of accesses of selected influenza-related articles on the Healthlink Web site and measured their correlation with traditional influenza surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) using the cross-correlation function (CCF). We defined timeliness as the time lag at which the correlation was a maximum. There was a moderately strong correlation between the frequency of influenza-related article accesses and the CDC's traditional surveillance data, but the results on timeliness were inconclusive. With improvements in methods for performing spatial analysis of the data and the continuing increase in Web searching behavior among Americans, Web article access has the potential to become a useful data source for public health early warning systems.
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June 2005

Polyhydroxylated azepanes as new motifs for DNA minor groove binding agents.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2002 Jan;12(2):237-41

School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.

The synthesis of 1,3-bis-[3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyazepane-N-p-phenoxy] and 1,3-bis-[3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyazepane-N-p-benzyloxy] propanes is reported. These compounds have been prepared to investigate the potential of incorporating iminosugars as useful recognition elements in DNA minor groove binding agents. The compounds were shown to have very moderate binding affinities for DNA in thermal denaturation and ethidium bromide displacement assays when compared with propamidine. They were also found to possess some in vitro anticancer activity that did not correlate with their DNA binding affinity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0960-894x(01)00719-3DOI Listing
January 2002
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