Publications by authors named "He Ren"

194 Publications

Interval State Estimation in Active Distribution Systems Considering Multiple Uncertainties.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 6;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA, UK.

Distribution system state estimation (DSSE) plays a significant role for the system operation management and control. Due to the multiple uncertainties caused by the non-Gaussian measurement noise, inaccurate line parameters, stochastic power outputs of distributed generations (DG), and plug-in electric vehicles (EV) in distribution systems, the existing interval state estimation (ISE) approaches for DSSE provide fairly conservative estimation results. In this paper, a new ISE model is proposed for distribution systems where the multiple uncertainties mentioned above are well considered and accurately established. Moreover, a modified Krawczyk-operator (MKO) in conjunction with interval constraint-propagation (ICP) algorithm is proposed to solve the ISE problem and efficiently provides better estimation results with less conservativeness. Simulation results carried out on the IEEE 33-bus, 69-bus, and 123-bus distribution systems show that the our proposed algorithm can provide tighter upper and lower bounds of state estimation results than the existing approaches such as the ICP, Krawczyk-Moore ICP(KM-ICP), Hansen, and MKO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21144644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309476PMC
July 2021

Pathogenetic mechanisms of septic cardiomyopathy.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Cardiology, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Sepsis is a serious complication after infection, whose further development may lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and so on. It is an important cause of death in critically ill patients who suffered an infection. Sepsis cardiomyopathy is a common complication that exacerbates the prognosis of patients. At present, though the pathogenesis of sepsis cardiomyopathy is not completely clear, in-depth study of the pathogenesis of sepsis cardiomyopathy and the discovery of its potential therapeutic targets may decrease the mortality of sepsis patients and bring clinical benefits. This article reviews mitochondrial dysfunction, mitophagy, oxidation stress, and other mechanisms in sepsis cardiomyopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30527DOI Listing
July 2021

Influence of management on vegetation restoration in coal waste dump after reclamation in semi-arid mining areas: examining ShengLi coalfield in Inner Mongolia, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing, 100083, China.

Conservation management usually carried out for a period of time to maintain the vegetation restoration of coal waste dumps after reclamation. However, the natural restoration of vegetation is faced with great challenges in semi-arid mining areas without management, due to the fragile ecological environment. Therefore, it is necessary to determine a reasonable management plan so that vegetation restoration can reach a stable state although the abandonment of the management. The objective was to explore the difference of vegetation restoration under different management modes in a typical semi-arid mining area. Two reclaimed coal waste dumps under different management measures, the north waste dump (ND) and the south waste dump (SD), were examined in the ShengLi coalfield in Inner Mongolia, China. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset based on Landsat series imagery was obtained using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform, and the landscape metrics were also calculated based on different vegetation coverage. The results proved that 3 years of management was not enough to stabilize vegetation restoration. A serious vegetation degradation occurred at the ND after the management stopped, with 40.1% of the pixels recorded a significant decrease (ρ = 0.05). The vegetation coverage became fragmented, and there was a tendency of succession to lower coverage. On the contrary, the vegetation restoration of SD was better under continuous management, and no significant degradation trend was observed. Furthermore, the results indicated that rainfall is the main influencing factor on vegetation restoration in semi-arid mining areas. The coal waste dump was more susceptible to weather change in natural restoration. By contrast, continuous management measures will resist such climate disturbances, even in dry years. This research will provide support for the formulation of the reclamation management plan of coal waste dumps in semi-arid mining areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15361-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Optimal Consensus Control Design for Multiagent Systems With Multiple Time Delay Using Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Jul 9;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

In this article, a novel data-based adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method is presented to solve the optimal consensus tracking control problem for discrete-time (DT) multiagent systems (MASs) with multiple time delays. Necessary and sufficient conditions of the corresponding equivalent time-delay system are provided on the basis of the causal transformations. Benefitting from the construction of tracking error dynamics, the optimal tracking problem can be transformed into settling the Nash-equilibrium in the graphical game, which can be completed by solving the coupled Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. An error estimator is introduced to construct the tracking error of the MASs only using the input and output (I/O) data. Therefore, the designed data-based ADP algorithm can minimize the cost functions and ensure the consensus of MASs without the knowledge of system dynamics. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3090067DOI Listing
July 2021

Epithelial cells mimic immune cells: a novel path toward tumor immunotherapy.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Gastroenterology, Center of Tumor Immunology and Cytotherapy, Medical Research Center of The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0406DOI Listing
July 2021

The molecular mechanisms supporting the homeostasis and activation of dendritic epidermal T cell and its role in promoting wound healing.

Burns Trauma 2021 23;9:tkab009. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Zhuhai Institute of Translational Medicine, Zhuhai People's Hospital Affiliated with Jinan University, Jinan University, Zhuhai, 519000, Guangdong, China.

The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin and the first barrier against invasion. Dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs) are a subset of γδ T cells and an important component of the epidermal immune microenvironment. DETCs are involved in skin wound healing, malignancy and autoimmune diseases. DETCs secrete insulin-like growth factor-1 and keratinocyte growth factor for skin homeostasis and re-epithelization and release inflammatory factors to adjust the inflammatory microenvironment of wound healing. Therefore, an understanding of their development, activation and correlative signalling pathways is indispensable for the regulation of DETCs to accelerate wound healing. Our review focuses on the above-mentioned molecular mechanisms to provide a general research framework to regulate and control the function of DETCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/burnst/tkab009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240510PMC
June 2021

Surfactant-Stripped Micelles with Aggregation-Induced Enhanced Emission for Bimodal Gut Imaging In Vivo and Microbiota Tagging Ex Vivo.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Jun 23:e2100356. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300350, P. R. China.

Aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) hold promise for biomedical imaging and new approaches facilitating their aggregation state are desirable for fluorescence enhancement. Herein, a series of surfactant-stripped AIEgen micelles (SSAMs) with improved fluorescence are developed by a low-temperature surfactant-stripping method to encapsulate AIEgens in temperature-sensitive Pluronic block copolymer. After stripping excessive surfactant, SSAMs exhibit altered optical properties and significantly higher fluorescence quantum yield. Using this method, a library of highly concentrated fluorescent nanoparticles are generated with tunable absorption and emission wavelengths, permitting imaging of deep tissues at different wavelengths. SSAMs remain physiologically stable and can pass safely through gastrointestinal tract (GI) without degradation in the harsh conditions, allowing for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging of intestine with high resolution. d-amino acids (DAA), a natural metabolite for bacteria, can be chemically conjugated on the surface of SSAMs, enabling non-invasive monitoring of the microbial behavior of ex vivo fluorescently labeled gut microbiota in the GI tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202100356DOI Listing
June 2021

Beyond the virus: a first look at coronavirus-themed Android malware.

Empir Softw Eng 2021 12;26(4):82. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.

As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in early 2020, a number of malicious actors have started capitalizing the topic. Although a few media reports mentioned the existence of coronavirus-themed mobile malware, the research community lacks the understanding of the landscape of the coronavirus-themed mobile malware. In this paper, we present the first systematic study of coronavirus-themed Android malware. We first make efforts to create a daily growing COVID-19 themed mobile app dataset, which contains 4,322 COVID-19 themed apk samples (2,500 unique apps) and 611 potential malware samples (370 unique malicious apps) by the time of mid-November, 2020. We then present an analysis of them from multiple perspectives including trends and statistics, installation methods, malicious behaviors and malicious actors behind them. We observe that the COVID-19 themed apps as well as malicious ones began to flourish almost as soon as the pandemic broke out worldwide. Most malicious apps are camouflaged as benign apps using the same app identifiers (e.g., app name, package name and app icon). Their main purposes are either stealing users' private information or making profit by using tricks like phishing and extortion. Furthermore, only a quarter of the COVID-19 malware creators are habitual developers who have been active for a long time, while 75% of them are newcomers in this pandemic. The malicious developers are mainly located in the US, mostly targeting countries including English-speaking countries, China, Arabic countries and Europe. To facilitate future research, we have publicly released all the well-labelled COVID-19 themed apps (and malware) to the research community. Till now, over 30 research institutes around the world have requested our dataset for COVID-19 themed research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10664-021-09974-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196937PMC
June 2021

Role of the preoperative circulating tumor DNA mutation in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer.

Pharmacogenomics 2021 Jul 14;22(11):657-667. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pancreatic Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute & Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, 300060, China.

The prognosis of resectable pancreatic cancer patients with the same stage of disease is highly variable. The purpose of this study is to establish a scoring system for preoperative screening of resectable patients. The clinical information and laboratory tests of 105 resectable patients with pancreatic cancer were enrolled and analyzed. The consistency of clinical stage and pathological stage was poor (κ = 0.193; p < 0.003). We performed a comprehensive scoring system with mutations in circulating tumor DNA ( ctDNA) for the resectable patients. Patients with higher scores were more prone to early postoperative recurrence and poorer prognosis. The scoring system can help preoperatively screen out resectable patients who are prone to early postoperative recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pgs-2020-0183DOI Listing
July 2021

Machine learning models to predict red blood cell transfusion in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):530

Department of Transfusion, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion therapy has been widely used in surgery, and has yielded excellent treatment outcomes. However, in some instances, the demand for RBC transfusion is assessed by doctors based on their experience. In this study, we use machine learning models to predict the need for RBC transfusion during mitral valve surgery to guide the surgeon's assessment of the patient's need for intraoperative blood transfusion.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 698 cases of isolated mitral valve surgery with and without combined tricuspid valve operation. Seventy percent of the database was used as the training set and the remainder as the testing set for 13 machine learning algorithms to build a model to predict the need for intraoperative RBC transfusion. According to the characteristic value of model mining, we analyzed the risk-related factors to determine the main effects of variables influencing the outcome.

Results: A total of 166 patients of the cases considered had undergone intraoperative RBC transfusion (24.52%). Of the 13 machine learning algorithms, CatBoost delivered the best performance, with an AUC of 0.888 (95% CI: 0.845-0.909) in testing set. Further analysis using the CatBoost model revealed that hematocrit (<37.81%), age (>64 y), body weight (<59.92 kg), body mass index (BMI) (<22.56 kg/m), hemoglobin (<122.6 g/L), type of surgery (median thoracotomy surgery), height (<160.61 cm), platelet (>194.12×10/L), RBC (<4.08×10/L), and gender (female) were the main risk-related factors for RBC transfusion. A total of 204 patients were tested, 177 of whom were predicted accurately (86.8%).

Conclusions: Machine learning models can be used to accurately predict the outcomes of RBC transfusion, and should be used to guide surgeons in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-7375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105834PMC
April 2021

SARS-CoV-2 spike protein dictates syncytium-mediated lymphocyte elimination.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Cell Engineering, Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing, China.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus is highly contagious and causes lymphocytopenia, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We demonstrate here that heterotypic cell-in-cell structures with lymphocytes inside multinucleate syncytia are prevalent in the lung tissues of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. These unique cellular structures are a direct result of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is sufficient to induce a rapid (~45.1 nm/s) membrane fusion to produce syncytium, which could readily internalize multiple lines of lymphocytes to form typical cell-in-cell structures, remarkably leading to the death of internalized cells. This membrane fusion is dictated by a bi-arginine motif within the polybasic S1/S2 cleavage site, which is frequently present in the surface glycoprotein of most highly contagious viruses. Moreover, candidate anti-viral drugs could efficiently inhibit spike glycoprotein processing, membrane fusion, and cell-in-cell formation. Together, we delineate a molecular and cellular rationale for SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and identify novel targets for COVID-19 therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00782-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056997PMC
April 2021

Remedial Teaching and Learning From a Cognitive Diagnostic Model Perspective: Taking the Data Distribution Characteristics as an Example.

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:628607. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment for Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

In response to the big data era trend, statistics has become an indispensable part of mathematics education in junior high school. In this study, a pre-test and a post-test were developed for the six attributes (sort, median, average, variance, weighted average, and mode) of the data distribution characteristic. This research then used the cognitive diagnosis model to learn about the poorly mastered attributes and to verify whether cognitive diagnosis can be used for targeted intervention to improve students' abilities effectively. One hundred two eighth graders participated in the experiment and were divided into two groups. Among them, the intervention materials read by the experimental group students only contained attributes that they could not grasp well. In contrast, the reading materials of the control group were non-targeted. The results of the study showed the following: (1) The variance and the weighted average were poorly mastered by students in the pre-test; (2) compared with the control group, the average test score of the experimental group was significantly improved; (3) in terms of attributes, the experimental group students' mastery of variance and the weighted average was significantly improved than the pre-test, while the control group's mastery was not. Based on this, some teaching suggestions were put forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.628607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024492PMC
March 2021

VHH212 nanobody targeting the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α suppresses angiogenesis and potentiates gemcitabine therapy in pancreatic cancer .

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biochemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China.

Objective: We aimed to develop a novel anti-HIF-1α intrabody to decrease gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer patients.

Methods: Surface plasmon resonance and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays were conducted to identify the binding affinity and specificity of anti-HIF-1α VHH212 [a single-domain antibody (nanobody)]. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to determine the protein-protein interactions between hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and VHH212. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analyses were performed to identify the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF-A in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines. The efficiency of the VHH212 nanobody in inhibiting the HIF-1 signaling pathway was measured using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Finally, a PANC-1 xenograft model was developed to evaluate the anti-tumor efficiency of combined treatment. Immunohistochemistry analysis was conducted to detect the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF-A in tumor tissues.

Results: VHH212 was stably expressed in tumor cells with low cytotoxicity, high affinity, specific subcellular localization, and neutralization of HIF-1α in the cytoplasm or nucleus. The binding affinity between VHH212 and the HIF-1α PAS-B domain was 42.7 nM. Intrabody competitive inhibition of the HIF-1α heterodimer with an aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator was used to inhibit the HIF-1/VEGF pathway . Compared with single agent gemcitabine, co-treatment with gemcitabine and a VHH212-encoding adenovirus significantly suppressed tumor growth in the xenograft model with 80.44% tumor inhibition.

Conclusions: We developed an anti-HIF-1α nanobody and showed the function of VHH212 in a preclinical murine model of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer. The combination of VHH212 and gemcitabine significantly inhibited tumor development. These results suggested that combined use of anti-HIF-1α nanobodies with first-line treatment may in the future be an effective treatment for pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0568DOI Listing
April 2021

Identification of a Six Gene Prognosis Signature for Papillary Thyroid Cancer Using Multi-Omics Methods and Bioinformatics Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 18;11:624421. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of General Surgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common subtype of thyroid cancer. PTC is typically curable with an excellent survival rate; however, some patients experience disease recurrence or death. This study aimed to discover potential key genes and signaling pathways of PTC, which could provide new insights for thyroid lesions. Four GEO microarray datasets were integrated to screen for candidate genes involved in PTC progression. A total of 164 upregulated and 168 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened. Gene Ontology/Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes were used in pathway enrichment analyses for DEGs. A protein-protein interaction network was then built and analyzed utilizing STRING and Cytoscape, followed by the identification of 13 hub genes by cytoHubba. , and were selected through survival analyses. Furthermore, immune infiltration, mutations and methylation analysis indicated that these six hub genes played vital roles in immune surveillance and tumor progression. ROC and K-M plots showed that these genes had good prognostic values for PTC which was validated by TCGA dataset. Finally, GSEA for a single hub gene revealed that each candidate hub gene had close associations with PTC development. These findings provided new insights into PTC pathogenesis and identified six candidate gene prognosis signature for PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.624421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012734PMC
March 2021

Non-classic splicing mutation in the CPLANE1 (C5orf42) gene cause Joubert syndrome in a fetus with severe craniocerebral dysplasia.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Jun 30;64(6):104212. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Sixth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100048, China.

Backgroud: Joubert syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by clinical and genetic heterogeneity. The characteristic molar tooth sign, which resulted from cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and midbrain anomalies, is expected to be the key diagnostic feature for this disease. However, it is not easy to make a definite diagnosis in prenatal only based on the imageology due to its clinical heterogeneity.

Case Report: We report on a fetus who was detected cerebellum dysplasia and encephalocele by ultrasound at 19 and 23 gestational weeks and confirmed by MRI examination. The pregnancy was terminated at 23 weeks of gestation. Postaxial polydactyly and deficiency in occipital bone and skin were identified in the induced fetus.

Results: The whole exome sequencing identified a novel compound heterozygous variation in the CPLANE1 gene related with Joubert syndrome, including a 2-bp insertion, NM_023073.3:c.1383_1384dup; p.(Gly462Glufs*3) and a non-classic splicing variation, NC_000005.10(NM_023073.3):c.7691-5_7691-4del. The pathogenicity of the non-classic splicing variation was further confirmed by cDNA level sequencing, which showed a exon 39 skipping that would introduce a premature termination. The novel compound heterozygous variation caused a complete function loss of the CPLANE1 gene.

Conclusion: The cerebellum dysplasia fetus without obvious molar tooth sign was finally diagnosed as Joubert syndrome, combined with genetic detecting and the postnatal clinical symptoms. We also highlight the clinical heterogeneity of encephalodysplasia in Joubert syndrome, which increases the clinical diagnosis difficulty, especially for prenatal diagnosis. Our findings provided a new perspective for the prenatal diagnosis of Joubert syndrome with severe craniocerebral dysplasia and expanded the variation spectrum of the CPLANE1 gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2021.104212DOI Listing
June 2021

Delta HU is a potential marker to predict chemotherapy response for unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Pancreatology 2021 Jun 25;21(4):763-770. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pancreatic Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Background: FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine plus albumin-bound paclitaxel (AG) regimens are recommended as first-line therapy for both locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer. However, there were no specific markers to conduct personalized regimen choice. The research is to assess delta Housfield unit (delta HU), which is the difference in CT attenuation value (in HU) between enhanced and nonenhanced phase of region of interest, as a marker for predicting chemotherapy response of unresectable pancreatic cancer.

Methods: A total of 179 unresectable pancreatic cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Kaplan-Meier analysis and COX regression analysis were performed for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. The differences of clinical characteristics were analyzed by χ test. Microvessel density (MVD) was calculated by immunochemistry staining of CD34.

Results: Delta HU was an independent risk factor for unresectable pancreatic cancer (P = 0.017, HR 0.672, 95%CI 0.485-0.930). Patients with higher delta HU were associated with better PFS (P = 0.004). For modified FOLFIRINOX (mFOLFIRINOX) group, delta HU was an independent risk factor (P = 0.045, HR 0.571), but not for AG group (P = 0.473, HR 0.855). Delta HU was correlated with stroma MVD (P = 0.000, R = 0.483), not with parenchyma MVD (P = 0.074, R = 0.199).

Conclusions: Delta HU was a marker predicting chemotherapy response for unresectable pancreatic cancer. Higher delta HU was associated with better survival for patients receiving mFOLFIRINOX rather than AG. The delta HU was positively correlated with stroma MVD, explaining the relationship between delta HU and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2021.02.016DOI Listing
June 2021

2D Perovskite Nanosheets with Intrinsic Chirality.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Mar 10;12(10):2676-2681. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China.

Chiral perovskite materials have been intensively studied because of their unique properties and wide range of potential applications; however, the synthesis of perovskite nanocrystals with improved chirality has been scarcely investigated. In this Letter, two-dimensional perovskite nanosheets with intrinsic chirality are demonstrated. Inserting chiral amines into the perovskite framework leads to the chirality transfer from amine molecules to perovskite structure. The protecting agent, specifically, achiral octylamine, is found to influence the chiral optical signal or dissymmetric factor of nanosheets significantly. By controlling the amount of octylamine, we have synthesized perovskite nanosheets with the highest -factor ever reported. We expect our primary demonstration could attract more attention toward the synthesis of intrinsic chiral perovskite nanocrystals and the development of nanocrystal-based chiral-optical devices with improved functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00315DOI Listing
March 2021

Characteristics of human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical cytological abnormalities in the Zhoupu District, Shanghai City, China, 2014-2019.

Virol J 2021 Mar 8;18(1):51. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is currently the main cause of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions in female patients. By analyzing 6-year patient data from Shanghai Zhoupu Hospital in China, we retrospectively analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of women to determine the relationship between HPV genotype and cytological test results.

Methods: From 2014 to 2019, 23,724 cases of cervical shedding were collected from Zhoupu Hospital in Shanghai, China. By comparing the results of HPV and ThinPrep cytology test (TCT), the HPV infection rate of patients was retrospectively analyzed. HPV genotyping using commercial kits can detect 21 HPV subtypes (15 high-risk and 6 low-risk). According to the definition of the Bethesda system, seven types of cervical cytology results were involved.

Results: 3816 among 23,724 women, nearly 16.08%, were infected with HPV. The top three highest HPV prevalence rates were high-risk type infection, including HPV52 (3.19%), 58 (2.47%) and 16 (2.34%). The number of single-type HPV infections (3480 (91.20%)) was much larger than the number of multi-type ones (336 (8.8%)). Single-type infections were mainly in women aged 50-60 (16.63%) and women under 30 (15.37%), while multi-type infections were more common in women over 60 (2.67%). By analyzing the long-term trends, between 2014 and 2019, HPV52, 58, and 16 subtypes changed significantly, and the HPV positive rate also changed significantly during this period. Among 4502 TCT positive women, 15 (4.04%), 125 (2.64%),159 (1.54%), 4202 (17.71%) and 1 (0.004%) had atypical glandular cells (AGC), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), atypical squamous cells (ASC)and cervical adenocarcinoma, respectively. The HPV infection rates were 66.08%, 63.99%, 115.20%, 119.50%, and 31.72% for NILM, AGCs, HSILs LSILs and ASCs, respectively.

Conclusions: HPV and TCT screening were very important steps in the secondary prevention of cervical cancer. Through the tracking and analysis of HPV and TCT results in this study, it can provide valuable information for Shanghai's HPV screening and prevention strategies, and provide references for clinical decision-making in the treatment of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-021-01518-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938559PMC
March 2021

The influence of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on endogenous estrogen in patients with disorders of consciousness.

Brain Stimul 2021 May-Jun;14(3):461-466. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a promising therapeutic intervention for neurological disorders. However, the precise mechanisms of rTMS in neural excitability remains poorly understood. Estradiol is known to have strong influence on cortical excitability. This study aimed to determine whether high-frequency (HF) rTMS influences endogenous estradiol in male patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC).

Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a total of 57 male patients with DOC. Eventually, 50 patients completed the study. Twenty-five patients underwent real rTMS, and 25 patients underwent sham rTMS, which were delivered over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The primary outcome measure was the change in serum estradiol from baseline to after 10 sessions of HF-rTMS. The improvement in the total score of the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) was also assessed.

Results: Changes in estradiol levels and CRS-R scores from pre-to post-treatment were significantly different between the active rTMS and sham stimulation conditions. A significant enhancement of CRS-R scores in the patients receiving rTMS stimulation was observed compared to the sham group. Serum estradiol levels in patients following HF-rTMS were significantly higher than their baseline levels, whereas no significant changes were found in the sham group from pre-to post-stimulation. The rise in estradiol levels was greater in responders than in non-responders. The changes in estradiol levels were significantly positively correlated with the improvement in CRS-R scores.

Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate that serum estradiol levels are affected by HF-rTMS and positively related to clinical responses in male patients with DOC. The elevation of estradiol levels may lay a physiological foundation for successful rTMS treatment for DOC patients by increasing cortical excitability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2021.02.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Chaos Analysis of Urban Low-Carbon Traffic Based on Game Theory.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 25;18(5). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

School of Automotive and Traffic Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

Developing urban low-carbon traffic is an effective measure to reduce traffic carbon emissions, which are important parts of greenhouse gas. In order to understand the development characteristics and regular patterns of urban low-carbon traffic, we present a game model that enables us to predict the possible range of travel mode choice and the impact of low-carbon awareness. Through chaos analysis and simulation of the model, the authors come to realize that the proportions of travel mode choice can reach an equilibrium under a certain urban traffic system. This equilibrium is related to low-carbon awareness and the situation of the urban traffic system. The research we have done suggests that in small cities with undeveloped traffic systems, the most effective measure to achieve urban low-carbon traffic is to increase the comprehensive costs of high-carbon travel. However, in big cities with developed traffic systems, raising low-carbon awareness of residents can greatly increase the proportion of low-carbon travelers and improve the stability of travel mode choice. The results could provide development strategies and policy suggestions for urban low-carbon traffic and reduce the adverse impact of urban traffic emissions on public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956532PMC
February 2021

Antibiotic Cross-linked Micelles with Reduced Toxicity for Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Sepsis Treatment.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 22;13(8):9630-9642. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, P. R. China.

One potential approach to address the rising threat of antibiotic resistance is through novel formulations of established drugs. We designed antibiotic cross-linked micelles (ABC-micelles) by cross-linking the Pluronic F127 block copolymers with an antibiotic itself, via a novel one-pot synthesis in aqueous solution. ABC-micelles enhanced antibiotic encapsulation while also reducing systemic toxicity in mice. Using colistin, a hydrophilic, potent ″last-resort" antibiotic, ABC-micelle encapsulation yield was 80%, with good storage stability. ABC-micelles exhibited an improved safety profile, with a maximum tolerated dose of over 100 mg/kg colistin in mice, at least 16 times higher than the free drug. Colistin-induced nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were reduced in ABC-micelles by 10-50-fold. Despite reduced toxicity, ABC-micelles preserved bactericidal activity, and the clinically relevant combination of colistin and rifampicin (co-loaded in the micelles) showed a synergistic antimicrobial effect against antibiotic-resistant strains of , , and . In a mouse model of sepsis, colistin ABC-micelles showed equivalent efficacy as free colistin but with a substantially higher therapeutic index. Microscopic single-cell imaging of bacteria revealed that ABC-micelles could kill bacteria in a more rapid manner with distinct cell membrane disruption, possibly reflecting a different antimicrobial mechanism from free colistin. This work shows the potential of drug cross-linked micelles as a new class of biomaterials formed from existing antibiotics and represents a new and generalized approach for formulating amine-containing drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c21459DOI Listing
March 2021

Role and dynamics of vacuolar pH during cell-in-cell mediated death.

Cell Death Dis 2021 01 22;12(1):119. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Laboratory of Cell Engineering, Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing, China.

The nonautonomous cell death by entosis was mediated by the so-called cell-in-cell structures, which were believed to kill the internalized cells by a mechanism dependent on acidified lysosomes. However, the precise values and roles of pH critical for the death of the internalized cells remained undetermined yet. We creatively employed keima, a fluorescent protein that displays different excitation spectra in responding to pH changes, to monitor the pH dynamics of the entotic vacuoles during cell-in-cell mediated death. We found that different cells varied in their basal intracellular pH, and the pH was relatively stable for entotic vacuoles containing live cells, but sharply dropped to a narrow range along with the inner cell death. In contrast, the lipidation of entotic vacuoles by LC3 displayed previously underappreciated complex patterns associated with entotic and apoptotic death, respectively. The pH decline seemed to play distinct roles in the two types of inner cell deaths, where apoptosis is preceded with moderate pH decline while a profound pH decline is likely to be determinate for entotic death. Whereas the cancer cells seemed to be lesser tolerant to acidified environments than noncancerous cells, manipulating vacuolar pH could effectively control inner cell fates and switch the ways whereby inner cell die. Together, this study demonstrated for the first time the pH dynamics of entotic vacuoles that dictate the fates of internalized cells, providing a rationale for tuning cellular pH as a potential way to treat cell-in-cell associated diseases such as cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03396-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822940PMC
January 2021

General Mechanism for Sulfate Radical Addition to Olefinic Volatile Organic Compounds in Secondary Organic Aerosol.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 02 21;55(3):1456-1465. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio 44074 United States.

Previous laboratory studies have suggested that sulfate radical addition to olefinic biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) is a potential formation mechanism for some organosulfates detected in ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, these studies propose conflicting reaction products, possibly because laboratory dissolved oxygen levels did not accurately reflect atmospheric conditions. Additionally, these studies used analytical methods that could not definitively identify and quantify the structurally specific products. Here, we describe a method that allows for the study of the reaction of sulfate radicals and several olefinic precursors, including allyl alcohol (AA), methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO), and methacrolein (MA), with careful control of dissolved oxygen levels and using the isomer-specific nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method to definitively identify and quantify the reaction products. Specific mechanisms for each olefinic precursor were developed, as well as a generalized mechanism that can be used to predict the sulfate radical reaction pathways for any olefin. The product yield results indicate that this mechanism is dominated by carbon backbone fragmentation pathways: 61, 83, 79, and 100% for AA, MVK, MBO, and MA, respectively. Several of the observed organosulfate products have also been detected in field observations of SOA, which indicates the potential relevance of this mechanism in the atmosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c05256DOI Listing
February 2021

Self-Paced Dynamic Infinite Mixture Model for Fatigue Evaluation of Pilots' Brains.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2020 Dec 7;PP. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Current brain cognitive models are insufficient in handling outliers and dynamics of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. This article presents a novel self-paced dynamic infinite mixture model to infer the dynamics of EEG fatigue signals. The instantaneous spectrum features provided by ensemble wavelet transform and Hilbert transform are extracted to form four fatigue indicators. The covariance of log likelihood of the complete data is proposed to accurately identify similar components and dynamics of the developed mixture model. Compared with its seven peers, the proposed model shows better performance in automatically identifying a pilot's brain workload.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2020.3033005DOI Listing
December 2020

p53-dependent elimination of aneuploid mitotic offspring by entosis.

Cell Death Differ 2021 02 27;28(2):799-813. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Laboratory of Cell Engineering, Institute of Biotechnology, 20 Dongda Street, Beijing, 100071, China.

Entosis was proposed to promote aneuploidy and genome instability by cell-in-cell mediated engulfment in tumor cells. We reported here, in epithelial cells, that entosis coupled with mitotic arrest functions to counteract genome instability by targeting aneuploid mitotic progenies for engulfment and elimination. We found that the formation of cell-in-cell structures associated with prolonged mitosis, which was sufficient to induce entosis. This process was controlled by the tumor suppressor p53 (wild-type) that upregulates Rnd3 expression in response to DNA damages associated with prolonged metaphase. Rnd3-compartmentalized RhoA activities accumulated during prolonged metaphase to drive cell-in-cell formation. Remarkably, this prolonged mitosis-induced entosis selectively targets non-diploid progenies for internalization, blockade of which increased aneuploidy. Thus, our work uncovered a heretofore unrecognized mechanism of mitotic surveillance for entosis, which eliminates newly born abnormal daughter cells in a p53-dependent way, implicating in the maintenance of genome integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00645-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862607PMC
February 2021

How do drivers respond to driving risk during car-following? Risk-response driver model and its application in human-like longitudinal control.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Dec 3;148:105783. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

The blooming of intelligent connected vehicle (ICV) has been continuously shaping a hybrid traffic environment in which the road is shared among ICVs and vehicles driven by human drivers. However, due to the insufficient understanding of the human driving strategy and style, the conflicts between ICVs and human drivers have arisen public attention, threatening the road safety and bottlenecking the development of ICV. In order to embed the human driving strategy in the intelligent driving system, researchers have been rolling out efforts on driver modeling. Most driver models, however, still suffer from the limited application scope or poor transparency. Within our finite horizons, a unified and readable driver model for various driving scenarios is generally unobtainable. In this work, we tried to model the human driving strategy from an aspect of human nature, that is, the way human drivers respond to the driving risk. We employed the risk field theory (also known as the safety field theory) to model the environmental risk in a comprehensive manner. By studying the risk-response strategy from the driving data of 24 human drivers, we proposed a unified structure, which we call the risk-response driver model (RRDM), to model the human driving strategy. This model provides access to learning not only the average driving strategy of a group of human drivers but also the specific driving style of a single driver. The explicit and readable driving strategy produced by RRDM can be directly employed to reproduce human-like longitudinal driving control. We verified the performance of our model in car-following tasks and found that its human-like driving performance is recoverable among the human drivers who participated in the tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105783DOI Listing
December 2020

An SGLT2 inhibitor modulates SHH expression by activating AMPK to inhibit the migration and induce the apoptosis of cervical carcinoma cells.

Cancer Lett 2020 12 12;495:200-210. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Basic Medical College of Tianjin Medical University, 300070, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

In addition to their hypoglycemic effect, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have many other benefits. In the present study, we examine the anticancer effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin using cervical carcinoma models. In vivo antitumor activities of empagliflozin were observed in a nude mouse model. Empagliflozin intervention and downregulation of Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Molecule (Shh) inhibited the migration and promoted the apoptosis of cervical cancer cells in nude mice. Compared with the control group, the empagliflozin treatment group had an increased level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased levels of Forkhead Box A1 (FOXA1) and SHH in tumor tissue. In vitro experiments also showed that empagliflozin (50 μM) inhibited the migration of cervical cancer cells and induced their apoptosis by activating the AMPK/FOXA1 pathway and inhibiting the expression of SHH. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine the relationship between SHH expression and total survival time. The results showed that in cervical cancer patients, high SHH expression resulted in unfavorable overall survival. The downregulation of SHH with small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited the migration and invasion and promoted the apoptosis of HeLa cells. These findings show that empagliflozin has a potential therapeutic effect on cervical cancer. This effect was related to the activation of the AMPK pathway and the inhibition of SHH expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2020.09.005DOI Listing
December 2020

c-MET immunohistochemistry for differentiating malignant mesothelioma from benign mesothelial proliferations.

Hum Pathol 2020 11 8;105:31-36. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Pathology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

The separation of benign from malignant mesothelial proliferations can be a difficult problem for the surgical pathologist. c-MET is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed and detectable by immunohistochemistry in many malignancies, including malignant mesothelioma. Whether c-MET is also expressed in benign mesothelial reactions is unclear from the literature. To determine whether c-MET immunohistochemistry can separate benign from malignant mesothelial processes, we stained 2 tissue microarrays containing 33 reactive epithelioid mesothelial proliferations (E-RMPs), 23 reactive spindle cell mesothelial proliferations, 45 epithelioid malignant mesotheliomas (EMMs), and 26 sarcomatoid/desmoplastic mesotheliomas (SMMs) for c-MET and compared the results with immunohistochemistry for two established markers, BAP1 and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP). Membrane staining for c-MET was evaluated using a 12-point H-score classified as negative (score = 0), trace (score = 1-3), moderate (score = 4-6), and strong (score = 8-12). Staining was seen in only 3 of 33 (all trace) E-RMPs compared with 36 of 45 (80%) EMMs (chi-square comparing reactive and malignant = 39.80, p = 1.2 × 10). The H-score was >3 (moderate or strong) in 24 of 45 (53%) EMMs. Addition of BAP1 staining to the c-MET-negative/trace EMM increased sensitivity to 75% (32/42), whereas similar addition of MTAP staining increased sensitivity to 77% (33/43). No benign spindle cell proliferations showed staining compared with 10 of 26 (38%) positive SMMs, but only 4 (15%) SMMs were classified as moderate or strong. We conclude that moderate/strong c-MET staining can be used to support a diagnosis of EMM vs an epithelial reactive proliferation. c-MET is too insensitive to use for detecting SMM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2020.08.010DOI Listing
November 2020

Nodes staging score to quantify lymph nodes for examination in gastric cancer.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Aug;99(33):e21085

School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, P.R. China.

The lymph nodal invasion diagnosis is critical for therapeutic-decision and follows up in gastric cancer. However, the number of nodes to be examined for nodal invasion diagnosis is still under controversy, and the model for quantifying risk of missing positive node is currently not reported yet. We analyzed the nodal invasion status of 13,857 gastric cancer samples with records of primary tumor stage, the number of examined and positive lymph nodes in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database, fitting a beta-binomial model. The nodes need to be examined with different primary tumor stage were determined based on the model. Overall, examining 11 lymph nodes reduces the probability of missing positive nodes to <10%, and the currently median nodes dissected is adequate (12 nodes). While the number of nodes demands to be dissected for T1, T2, T3, and T4 subgroups are 6, 19, 40, and 66, respectively. The currently implemented median value for these samples was 12, 12, 13, and 16, separately. It implies that the number of nodes to be examined is sufficient for early gastric cancer (T1), but it is inadequate for middle and advanced gastric cancer (T2-T3). The clinical significance of nodal staging score was validated with survival information. In summary, we first quantified the lymph nodes to be examined during surgery using a beta-binomial model, and validated with survival information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437813PMC
August 2020
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