Publications by authors named "Hazza Al-Zahrani"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pregnancy with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria: A Case Series with Review of the Literature.

Saudi J Med Med Sci 2021 May-Aug;9(2):178-189. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Adult Hematology/Bone Marrow Transplantation Section, Oncology Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired hematopoietic stem cell disorder, and eculizumab and ravulizumab are its two approved therapies. Only few case series/reports have reported the outcomes of pregnancies in patients with PNH despite the increased risk of thrombosis. Similarly, there is limited knowledge regarding the effect of the approved treatments on conception and pregnancy outcomes. Here, we report the first series of pregnancies in PNH patients from the Middle Eastern region from our tertiary care hospital. Ten pregnancies in four females after diagnosis with PNH were identified. In terms of PNH management, only eculizumab was used, as the safety of ravulizumab use in pregnancies has not yet been established. In the antepartum period, the patients had variable symptoms that ranged from mild symptoms including epistaxis, tea-colored urine and vaginal bleeding to life-threatening vessel thrombosis. Further, red blood cell and platelet transfusions were required because of bleeding and hemolysis in four pregnancies. The pregnancy outcomes varied, but based on these, the safety of eculizumab use during pregnancy remained inconclusive. The postpartum period was complicated in one case by portal vein thrombosis and was managed accordingly. In conclusion, pregnant females with PNH are at an increased risk for complications due to PNH, and thus experienced hematologists and obstetricians should be involved jointly in their care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_4_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152383PMC
April 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adolescent and adult patients with high-risk T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2012 Dec 21;18(12):1897-904. Epub 2012 Jul 21.

Adult Hematology/HSCT, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is often recommended for patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in second or later complete remission (≥CR2) and sometimes in high-risk (HR) patients in first complete remission (CR1). Between January 1995 and July 2009, 53 patients with HR T-ALL underwent allo-SCT at our institution. Median age was 18 years (range, 14-51). Thirty-two patients (60.3%) were in CR1, 18 (34%) were in ≥CR2, and 3 (5.7%) were in relapse. The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 5 years was 22.5%. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 40.2%, and that of chronic GVHD was 43.7%. The majority of relapses (88.9%) occurred within 1 year after SCT. The cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) at 5 years was 35.6%. CIR was 29.8% in patients in CR1, 35.3% in patients in ≥CR2 and all patients transplanted in relapse had disease recurrence post-allo-SCT (P = .000). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years were 43.5% and 41.8%, respectively. The 5-year OS was 53.5% (95% CI 34.5%-72.5%) and 5-year DFS was 52% (95% CI 33%-71%) in patients who underwent allo-SCT in CR1, compared with 31.9% (95% CI, 9%-54.8%) and 29.4% (95% CI 7.6%-51.2%) in those who underwent allo-SCT in ≥CR2. On multivariate analysis, disease status at SCT remained significantly associated with OS (P = .007), DFS (P = .002), and CIR (P = .000). The presence of extramedullary disease at diagnosis had no effect on the different outcomes. Grade II-IV acute GVHD was significantly associated with a lower OS (P = .006) and DFS (P = .01). Our data indicate that allo-SCT represents an effective treatment for HR T-ALL, particularly when performed in CR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.07.011DOI Listing
December 2012

Klebsiella oxytoca bacteremia causing septic shock in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant: Two case reports.

Cases J 2008 Sep 18;1(1):160. Epub 2008 Sep 18.

Section of Adult Hematology and Hematopoietic, Stem Cell Transplant, King Faisal Cancer Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, P,O, Box: 3345, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Klebsiella oxytoca can cause various infectious complications in healthy as well as in immunocompromised individuals.

Case Presentations: Case 1: A 49 year old female with multiple myeloma received an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant in October 2005. Eight days following her autograft she developed septic shock caused by Klebsiella oxytoca bacteremia which was successfully treated with intravenous meropenem and gentamicin. Case 2: A 29 year old female with sickle cell anemia and severe aplastic anemia underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant in July 2005. Seven months following her unsuccessful allograft, she developed septic shock due to Klebsiella oxytoca bacteremia caused by a urinary tract infection. The septic episode was successfully managed with intravenous meropenem and gentamicin. Both patients were treated at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. To our knowledge, they are the first reports of Klebsiella oxytoca bacteremias and septic shocks in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

Conclusion: Klebsiella oxytoca should be considered as a possible cause of severe infections in recipients of various forms of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, these infections may be complicated by bacteremias, septic shocks, systemic dysfunctions and even deaths if not managed promptly and appropriately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1757-1626-1-160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2556667PMC
September 2008

Successful outcome of Langerhans cell histiocytosis complicated by therapy-related myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia: a case report.

Cases J 2008 Aug 18;1(1):101. Epub 2008 Aug 18.

Section of Adult Hematology and Hematopoietic, Stem Cell Transplant, King Faisal Cancer Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, P,O, Box: 3345, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Various therapeutic options are available for the management of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. However, treatment administered to control this disease may be complicated by acute leukemia.

Case Presentation: A 34 years old male was diagnosed to have Langerhans cell histiocytosis in March 1999. Unfortunately, the cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy given to control the repeated relapses and exacerbations of the primary disease predisposed him to therapy-induced myelodysplastic syndrome which transformed into acute myeloid leukemia. After achieving complete remission of his leukemia, the patient received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The allograft was complicated by chronic graft versus host disease that was controlled by various immunosuppressive agents and extracorporal photophoresis.

Conclusion: Management of complicated cases of histiocytosis requires various therapeutic modalities and a multidisciplinary approach. Having complications of therapy eg myelodysplasia or acute leukemia make the outcome more dismal and the management options limited to aggressive forms of treatment. High dose chemotherapy followed by an allograft may be a curative option not only for therapy-related myelodysplasia/acute leukemia, but also for frequently relapsing and poorly controlled Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1757-1626-1-101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2527498PMC
August 2008

The Wilms' tumor antigen is a novel target for human CD4+ regulatory T cells: implications for immunotherapy.

Cancer Res 2008 Aug;68(15):6350-9

Tumor Immunology Section, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Compelling evidences indicate a key role for regulatory T cells (T(reg)) on the host response to cancer. The Wilms' tumor antigen (WT1) is overexpressed in several human leukemias and thus considered as promising target for development of leukemia vaccine. However, recent studies indicated that the generation of effective WT1-specific cytotoxic T cells can be largely affected by the presence of T(regs). We have generated T-cell lines and clones that specifically recognized a WT1-84 (RYFKLSHLQMHSRKH) peptide in an HLA-DRB1*0402-restricted manner. Importantly, they recognized HLA-DRB1*04-matched fresh leukemic cells expressing the WT1 antigen. These clones exerted a T helper 2 cytokine profile, had a CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)GITR(+)CD127(-) T(reg) phenotype, and significantly inhibited the proliferative activity of allogeneic T cells independently of cell contact. Priming of alloreactive T cells in the presence of T(regs) strongly inhibited the expansion of natural killer (NK), NK T, and CD8(+) T cells and had an inhibitory effect on NK/NK T cytotoxic activity but not on CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, priming of T cells with the WT1-126 HLA-A0201-restricted peptide in the presence of T(regs) strongly inhibited the induction of anti-WT1-126 CD8(+) CTL responses as evidenced by both very low cytotoxic activity and IFN-gamma production. Moreover, these T(reg) clones specifically produced granzyme B and selectively induced apoptosis in WT1-84-pulsed autologous antigen-presenting cells but not in apoptotic-resistant DR4-matched leukemic cells. Importantly, we have also detected anti-WT1-84 interleukin-5(+)/granzyme B(+)/Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T(regs) in five of eight HLA-DR4(+) acute myeloid leukemia patients. Collectively, our in vitro and in vivo findings strongly suggest important implications for the clinical manipulation of T(regs) in cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0050DOI Listing
August 2008

Single center review of clinicopathological characterization in 77 patients with positive lupus anticoagulant antibodies.

Hematology 2003 Aug;8(4):249-57

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, P.O. Box 11211, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background: The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a thrombophillic disorder characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APA). It often occurs in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may be associated with recurrent abortions and thrombocytopenia and, occasionally, catastrophic thrombotic events.

Objectives: To examine, retrospectively, the clinico-pathological features of patients with APS detected by the presence of the lupus anticoagulant (LAC).

Methods: Patients were selected for study on the basis of a positive LAC test on review of the laboratory computer records of the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Following this, a clinical chart review was conducted in order to determine the clinical presentations, treatment and the course of patients identified. The information obtained was entered into an electronic database and subsequently analyzed.

Results: Seventy-seven patients were identified and reviewed. Fifty-six (73%) were female and 16 (21%) were children less than 15-years-old. Thirty-two patients (42%) had no clinical events (incidental APS). The syndrome was classified as primary in 40 (52%) patients and secondary in 37 (48%). Out of the 45 (58%) patients who presented with symptoms related to APA 22 (49%) had thrombosis, 24 (53%) had pregnancy failure, and 4 (9%) presented with catastrophic APS. The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was elevated and not corrected by mixing with normal plasma in 47 (61%). On the other hand, the prothrombin time (PT) was normal in 66 (90%). There is a significant difference between aPTT and PT as a screening test with P value of < 0.0001. Tests for anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) were positive in 39 patients (70%). Only 13 (17%) patients had thrombocytopenia. All patients who presented with thrombosis were treated with warfarin but only 5 (23%) had received aspirin. Out of the 22 patients presenting with thrombosis, 12 (55%) had one or more recurrent thrombotic events while only 6 (25%) out of the 24 patients who presented with pregnancy failure had events other than pregnancy failure. Fifty-two patients were followed up regularly and were alive.

Conclusions: We find that thrombosis, venous or arterial, and obstetric complications are the most frequent clinical findings in our patients with circulating LAC. Incidental APS is not an uncommon finding in patients screened for APS. There is a clear association between the presence of LAC and an abnormal aPTT, which is much less obvious with the PT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10245330310001594216DOI Listing
August 2003
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