Publications by authors named "Hazem A Mahdy"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

New bis([1,2,4]triazolo)[4,3-a:3',4'-c]quinoxaline derivatives as VEGFR-2 inhibitors and apoptosis inducers: Design, synthesis, in silico studies, and anticancer evaluation.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 30;112:104949. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Design Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt. Electronic address:

A new series of bis([1,2,4]triazolo)[4,3-a:3',4'-c]quinoxaline derivatives were designed and synthesized to have the main essential pharmacophoric features of VEGFR-2 inhibitors. VEGFR-2 inhibitory activities were assessed for the designed compounds. In addition, cytotoxic activity was evaluated for all derivatives against two human cancer cell lines namely, HepG-2 and MCF-7. The most cytotoxic compound 20 h was subjected to further biological investigations including cell cycle, apoptosis, caspase-3, caspase-9, BAX, and Bcl-2 analyses. Different in silico studies as docking, ADMET and toxicity were carried out. The results exhibited that compounds 20b, 20e, 20h and20mshowed promising VEGFR-2 inhibitory activities with ICvalues of 5.7, 6.7, 3.2, and 3.1 µM, respectively. Moreover, these promising members exhibited the highest antiproliferative activities against the two cell lines with ICvalues ranging from 3.3 to 14.2 µM, comparing to sorafenib (IC = 2.17 and 3.43 µM against HepG2 and MCF-7, respectively). Additionally, compound 20h induced cell cycle arrest of HepG2 cells at G2/M phase. Also, such compound increased the progress of apoptosis by 3.5-fold compared to the control. As well, compound 20h showed a significant increase in the level of caspase-3 (2.07-fold), caspase-9 (1.72-fold), and BAX (1.83-fold), and a significant decrease in Bcl-2 level (1.92-fold). The in silico studies revealed that the synthesized compounds have binding pattern like that of sorafenib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104949DOI Listing
July 2021

Discovery of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-based derivatives as potent VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitors and anti-cancer agents.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 27;112:104947. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, AlMaarefa University, Ad Diriyah 13713, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Department of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt. Electronic address:

Vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (VEGFR-2) is considered one of the most important factors in tumor angiogenesis, and consequently a number of anticancer therapeutics have been developed to inhibit VEGFR-2 signaling. Accordingly, eighteen derivatives of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines having structural characteristics similar to VEGFR-2 inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Anticancer activities of the new derivatives were assessed against three human cancer cell lines (HCT-116, HepG2, and MCF-7) using MTT. Sorafenib was used as positive control. Compounds 17c-i, and 20b showed excellent anticancer activities against HCT-116 and HepG2 cell lines, while compounds 17i and 17g was found to be active against MCF-7 cell line. Compound 17f exhibited the highest cytotoxic activities against the examined cell lines, HCT-116 and HepG2, with IC values of 2.80 ± 0.16 and 4.10 ± 0.45 µM, respectively. Aiming at exploring the mechanism of action of these compounds, the most active cytotoxic derivatives were in vitro tested for their VEGFR-2 inhibitory activity. Compound 17f showed high activity against VEGFR-2 with an IC value of 0.23 ± 0.03 µM, that is equal to that of reference, sorafenib (IC = 0.23 ± 0.04 µM). Molecular docking studies also were performed to investigate the possible binding interactions of the target compounds with the active sites of VEGFR-2. The synthesized compounds were analyzed for their ADMET and toxicity properties. Results showed that most of the compounds have low to very low BBB penetration levels and they have non-inhibitory effect against CYP2D6. All compounds were predicted to be non-toxic against developmental toxicity potential model except compounds 17b and 20b.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104947DOI Listing
July 2021

New quinoxaline derivatives as VEGFR-2 inhibitors with anticancer and apoptotic activity: Design, molecular modeling, and synthesis.

Bioorg Chem 2021 May 5;110:104807. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Design Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt. Electronic address:

New series of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-4(5H)-one and [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline derivatives have been designed, synthesized, and biologically assessed for their anti-proliferative activities against two selected tumor cell lines MCF-7 and HepG2. Comparing to sorafenib (IC = 2.17 ± 0.13 and 3.51 ± 0.21 µM against MCF-7 and HepG2, respectively), compound 25d, 25e, 25i, and 27e exhibited the highest activities against the examined cell lines with IC values extending from 4.1 ± 0.4 to 11.7 ± 1.1 µM. Furthermore, VEGFR-2 inhibitory activities were assessed for all the synthesized compounds as potential mechanisms for their anti-proliferative activities. Compounds 25d, 25e, 25i, and 27e displayed prominent inhibitory efficiency versus VEGFR-2 kinase with IC value ranging from 3.4 ± 0.3 to 6.8 ± 0.5 nM. Fascinatingly, the results of VEGFR-2 inhibitory assays were matched with that of the cytotoxicity data, where the most potent anti-proliferative derivatives exhibited promising VEGFR-2 inhibitory activities. Further studies displayed the ability of compound 25d to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells and can arrest the growth of such cells at the G2/M phase. Also, compound 25d produced a significant increase in the level of BAX/Bcl-2 ratio (3.8-fold), caspase- 3 (1.8-fold), and caspase-9 (1.9-fold) compared to the control cells. Molecular docking studies were carried out to investigate the possible binding interaction inside the active site of the VEGFR-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104807DOI Listing
May 2021

Discovery of novel triazolophthalazine derivatives as DNA intercalators and topoisomerase II inhibitors.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2021 Jun 8;354(6):e2000456. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Design Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

A new series of triazolophthalazine derivatives was designed and synthesized as topoisomerase II (Topo II) inhibitors and DNA intercalators. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines: HepG2, MCF-7, and HCT-116 cells. Compound IX was the most potent counterpart with IC values of 5.39 ± 0.4, 3.81 ± 0.2, and 4.38 ± 0.3 µM, as it was about 1.47, 1.77, and 1.19 times more active than doxorubicin (IC  = 7.94 ± 0.6, 6.75 ± 0.4, and 5.23 ± 0.3 µM) against HepG2, MCF-7, and HCT-116 cells, respectively. Additionally, the binding affinity of the synthesized compounds toward the DNA molecule was assessed using the DNA/methyl green assay. Compound IX showed an excellent DNA binding affinity with an IC value of 27.16 ± 1.2 µM, which was better than that of the reference drug doxorubicin (IC  = 31.02 ± 1.80 µM). Moreover, compound IX was the most potent member among the tested compounds when investigated for their Topo II inhibitory activity. Furthermore, compound IX induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Additionally, compound IX showed Topo II poisoning effects at 2.5 μM and Topo II catalytic inhibitory effects at 5 and 10 μM. Finally, molecular docking studies were carried out against the DNA-Topo II complex and DNA, to investigate the binding patterns of the designed compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.202000456DOI Listing
June 2021

Design, molecular docking, in vitro, and in vivo studies of new quinazolin-4(3H)-ones as VEGFR-2 inhibitors with potential activity against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Feb 8;107:104532. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Design Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt. Electronic address:

A series of new VEGFR-2 inhibitors were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activities against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2 cell line). Compound 29 (IC = 4.33 ± 0.2 µg/ml) was found to be the most potent derivative as it has showed to be more active than doxorubicin (IC = 4.50 ± 0.2 µg/ml) and 78% of sorafenib activity (IC = 3.40 ± 0.25 µg/ml). The inhibitory profiles against VEGFR-2 were also assessed for the most promising candidates (16, 20, 22, 24, 24, 28, 28 29, 29 and 29). Compounds 29, 29 and 29 exhibited potent inhibitory activities towards VEGFR-2 at IC values of 3.1 ± 0.04, 3.4 ± 0.05 and 3.7 ± 0.06 µM, respectively, comparing sorafenib (IC = 2.4 ± 0.05 µM). Furthermorer, compound 29 induced apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle growth at G2/M phase. Additionally, in vivo antitumor experiments revealed that compounds 29 and 29 have significant tumor growth inhibition. The test of immuno-histochemical expression of activated caspase-3 revealed that there is a time-dependent increase in cleaved caspase-3 protein expression upon exposure of HepG-2 cells to compound 29. Moreover, the fibroblastic proliferative index test revealed that compound 29 could attenuate liver fibrosis. Docking studies also supported the results concluded from the biological screening via prediction of the possible binding interactions of the target compounds with VEGFR-2 active sites using the crystal structure of VEGFR-2 downloaded from the Protein Data Bank, (PDB ID: 2OH4) using Discovery Studio 2.5 software. Further structural optimization of the most active candidates may serve as a useful strategy for getting new lead compounds in search for powerful and selective antineoplastic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.104532DOI Listing
February 2021

Design, synthesis, and anti-proliferative evaluation of new quinazolin-4(3H)-ones as potential VEGFR-2 inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 01 12;29:115872. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Design Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt. Electronic address:

Inhibiting VEGFR-2 has been set up as a therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancer. Thus, nineteen new quinazoline-4(3H)-one derivatives were designed and synthesized. Preliminary cytotoxicity studies of the synthesized compounds were evaluated against three human cancer cell lines (HepG-2, MCF-7 and HCT-116) using MTT assay method. Doxorubicin and sorafenib were used as positive controls. Five compounds were found to have promising cytotoxic activities against all cell lines. Compound 16, containing a 2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl group, has emerged as the most active member. It was approximately 4.39-, 5.73- and 1.96-fold more active than doxorubicin and 3.88-, 5.59- and 1.84-fold more active than sorafenib against HepG2, HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively. The most active cytotoxic agents were further evaluated in vitro for their VEGFR-2 inhibitory activities. The results of in vitro VEGFR-2 inhibition were consistent with that of the cytotoxicity data. Molecular docking of these compounds into the kinase domain, moreover, supported the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2020.115872DOI Listing
January 2021

Discovery of new quinazolin-4(3H)-ones as VEGFR-2 inhibitors: Design, synthesis, and anti-proliferative evaluation.

Bioorg Chem 2020 12 15;105:104380. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Design Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt; Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Heliopolis University for Sustainable Development, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Sixteen novel quinazoline-based derivatives were designed and synthesized via modification of the VEGFR-2 reported inhibitor 7 in order to increase the binding affinity of the designed compounds to the receptor active site. The designed compounds were evaluated for their VEGFR-2 inhibitory effects. Inhibiting VEGFR-2 has been set up as a therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancer. The bioactivity of the new compounds was performed against HepG-2, MCF-7 and HCT-116 cell lines. Doxorubicin and sorafenib were used as positive controls. Compound 18 was observed to have promising cytotoxic activity (IC = 3.74 ± 0.14, 5.00 ± 0.20 and 6.77 ± 0.27 µM) in comparison to the reference drug doxorubicin (IC = 8.28, 9.63 and 7.67 µM) and sorafenib (IC = 7.31, 9.40 and 7.21 µM). The most active compounds were tested for their in vitro VEGFR-2 inhibitory activities. Results of VEGFR-2 inhibition were consistent with that of the cytotoxicity data. Thus, compound 18 showed VEGFR-2 inhibitory activity (IC = 0.340 ± 0.04 µM) superior to that of the reference drug, sorafenib (IC = 0.588 ± 0.06 µM). Furthermore, docking study was performed in order to understand the binding pattern of the new compounds into VEGFR-2 active site. Docking results attributed the potent VEGFR-2 inhibitory effect of the new compounds as they bound to the key amino acids in the active site, Glu883 and Asp1044, as well as their hydrophobic interaction with the receptor hydrophobic pocket. Results of cytotoxic activities, in vitro VEGFR-2 inhibition together with docking study argument the advantages of the synthesized analogues as promising anti-angiogenic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.104380DOI Listing
December 2020

Design, synthesis, molecular docking, anticancer evaluations, and in silico pharmacokinetic studies of novel 5-[(4-chloro/2,4-dichloro)benzylidene]thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives as VEGFR-2 inhibitors.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2021 Feb 19;354(2):e2000279. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The anticancer activity of novel thiazolidine-2,4-diones was evaluated against HepG2, HCT-116, and MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 was the most sensitive cell line to the cytotoxicity of the new derivatives. In particular, compounds 18, 12, 17, and 16 were found to be the most potent derivatives over all the tested compounds against the cancer cell lines HepG2, HCT116, and MCF-7, with IC  = 9.16 ± 0.9, 8.98 ± 0.7, 5.49 ± 0.5 µM; 9.19 ± 0.5, 8.40 ± 0.7, 6.10 ± 0.4 µM; 10.78 ± 1.2, 8.87 ± 1.5, 7.08 ± 1.6 µM; and 10.87 ± 0.8, 9.05 ± 0.7, 7.32 ± 0.4 µM, respectively. Compounds 18 and 12 have nearly the same activities as sorafenib (IC  = 9.18 ± 0.6, 5.47 ± 0.3, and 7.26 ± 0.3 µM, respectively), against HepG2 cells, but slightly lower activity against HCT116 cells and slightly higher activity against the MCF-7 cancer cell line. Also, these compounds displayed lower activities than doxorubicin against HepG2 and HCT-116 cells but higher activity against MCF-7 cells (IC  = 7.94 ± 0.6, 8.07 ± 0.8, and 6.75 ± 0.4 µM, respectively). In contrast, compounds 17 and 16 exhibited lower activities than sorafenib against HepG2 and HCT116 cells, but nearly equipotent activity against the MCF-7 cancer cell line. Also, these compounds displayed lower activities than doxorubicin against the three cell lines. All the synthesized derivatives 7-18 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against VEGFR-2. The tested compounds displayed high to medium inhibitory activity, with IC values ranging from 0.17 ± 0.02 to 0.27 ± 0.03 µM. Compounds 18, 12, 17, and 16 potently inhibited VEGFR-2 at IC values of 0.17 ± 0.02, 0.17 ± 0.02, 0.18 ± 0.02, and 0.18 ± 0.02 µM, respectively, which are nearly more than half of that of the IC value for sorafenib (0.10 ± 0.02 µM).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.202000279DOI Listing
February 2021

Discovery of new pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile derivatives as anticancer agents targeting EGFR and EGFR.

Org Biomol Chem 2020 Oct;18(38):7608-7634

Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Design Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt.

A new series of pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile derivatives has been designed as ATP mimicking tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). These compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against a panel of four human tumor cell lines, namely colorectal carcinoma (HCT-116), hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2), breast cancer (MCF-7), and non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549). Five of the synthesized compounds, 11a, 11b, 12b, 15b and 16a, were found to exhibit moderate antiproliferative activity against the tested cell lines and were more active than the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. In particular, compound 11b showed 4.5- to 8.4-fold erlotinib activity against HCT-116, HepG-2, MCF-7, and A549 cells with IC50 values of 3.37, 3.04, 4.14, and 2.4 μM respectively. Moreover, the most cytotoxic compounds that showed promising IC50 values against the four cancer cell lines were subjected to further investigation for their kinase inhibitory activities against EGFRWT and EGFRT790M using homogeneous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF) assay. Compound 11b was also found to be the most active compound against both EGFRWT and mutant EGFRT790M, exhibiting IC50 values of 0.09 and 4.03 μM, respectively. The cell cycle and apoptosis analyses revealed that compound 11b can arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M phase and induce significant apoptotic effects in HCT-116, HepG-2, and MCF-7 cells. Additionally, compound 11b upregulated the level of caspase-3 by 6.5 fold in HepG-2 when compared with the control. Finally, molecular docking studies were carried out to examine the binding mode of the synthesized compounds against the proposed targets; EGFRWT and EGFRT790M. Additional in silico ADMET studies were performed to explore drug-likeness properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ob01557aDOI Listing
October 2020

Design, synthesis, molecular modeling, in vivo studies and anticancer activity evaluation of new phthalazine derivatives as potential DNA intercalators and topoisomerase II inhibitors.

Bioorg Chem 2020 10 26;103:104233. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Design Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt. Electronic address:

Herein we report the design and synthesis of a new series of phthalazine derivatives as Topo II inhibitors and DNA intercalators. The synthesized compounds were in vitro evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against HepG-2, MCF-7 and HCT-116 cell lines. Additionally, Topo II inhibitory activity and DNA intercalating affinity were investigated for the most active compounds as a potential mechanism for the anticancer activity. Compounds 15h, 23c, 32a, 32b, and 33 exhibited the highest activities against Topo II with IC ranging from 5.44 to 8.90 µM, while compounds 27 and 32a were found to be the most potent DNA binders at IC values of 36.02 and 48.30 µM, respectively. Moreover, compound 32a induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Besides, compound 32a showed Topo II poisoning effect at concentrations of 2.5 and 5 μM, and Topo II catalytic inhibitory effect at a concentration of10 μM. In addition, compound 32b showed in vivo a significant tumor growth inhibition effect. Furthermore, molecular docking studies were carried out against DNA-Topo II complex and DNA to investigate the binding patterns of the designed compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.104233DOI Listing
October 2020

Design, synthesis, molecular modeling, in vivo studies and anticancer evaluation of quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives as potential VEGFR-2 inhibitors and apoptosis inducers.

Bioorg Chem 2020 01 12;94:103422. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Design Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt. Electronic address:

Inhibiting VEGFR-2 has been set up as a therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancer. Accordingly, new quinazoline-based derivatives having the structural features of VEGFR-2 inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Anti-proliferative activities were evaluated against three human cancer cell lines (HepG-2, MCF-7 and HCT-116) using MTT assay method. Doxorubicin and sorafenib were used as positive controls. Compounds 26, 29, 29 and 30 showed excellent anti-cancer activities against all cell lines. Moreover, compound 31 was the most active with IC values of 3.97 ± 0.2, 4.83 ± 0.2 and 4.58 ± 0.3 µM, respectively. The most active cytotoxic agents were further evaluated in vitro for their VEGFR-2 inhibitory activities, compound 31 showed a high activity against VEGFR-2 with an IC value of 2.5 ± 0.04 µM, almost equal to that of sorafenib (IC = 2.4 ± 0.05 µM). Further studies revealed the ability of this promising quinazoline derivative 31 to induce apoptosis and arrest cell cycle growth at G2/M phase. In vivo antitumor activities of the synthesized compounds revealed that compounds 30 and 31 possessed significant tumor growth inhibition effect. Molecular docking studies were also performed and finally we can say that VEGFR-2 inhibition confers the reported cytotoxic activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103422DOI Listing
January 2020

Discovery and antiproliferative evaluation of new quinoxalines as potential DNA intercalators and topoisomerase II inhibitors.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2019 Nov 29;352(11):e1900123. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

National Center for Natural Products Research, University of Mississippi, Mississippi.

In continuation of our previous work on the design and synthesis of topoisomerase II (Topo II) inhibitors and DNA intercalators, a new series of quinoxaline derivatives were designed and synthesized. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against a panel of three cancer cell lines (Hep G-2, Hep-2, and Caco-2). Compounds 18b, 19b, 23, 25b, and 26 showed strong potencies against all tested cell lines with IC values ranging from 0.26 ± 0.1 to 2.91 ± 0.1 µM, comparable with those of doxorubicin (IC values ranging from 0.65 ± 0.1 to 0.81 ± 0.1 µM). The most active compounds were further evaluated for their Topo II inhibitory activities and DNA intercalating affinities. Compounds 19b and 19c exhibited high activities against Topo II (IC = 0.97 ± 0.1 and 1.10 ± 0.1 µM, respectively) and bound the DNA at concentrations of 43.51 ± 2.0 and 49.11 ± 1.8 µM, respectively, whereas compound 28b exhibited a significant affinity to bind the DNA with an IC value of 37.06 ± 1.8 µM. Moreover, apoptosis and cell-cycle tests of the most promising compound 19b were carried out. It was found that 19b can significantly induce apoptosis in Hep G-2 cells. It has revealed cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Moreover, compound 19b downregulated the Bcl-2 levels, indicating its potential to enhance apoptosis. Furthermore, molecular docking studies were carried out against the DNA-Topo II complex to examine the binding patterns of the synthesized compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.201900123DOI Listing
November 2019