Publications by authors named "Hazel Mak"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Interesting Biochemistries in the Structure and Function of Bacterial Effectors.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 24;11:608860. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Bacterial effector proteins, delivered into host cells by specialized multiprotein secretion systems, are a key mediator of bacterial pathogenesis. Following delivery, they modulate a range of host cellular processes and functions. Strong selective pressures have resulted in bacterial effectors evolving unique structures that can mimic host protein biochemical activity or enable novel and distinct biochemistries. Despite the protein structure-function paradigm, effectors from different bacterial species that share biochemical activities, such as the conjugation of ubiquitin to a substrate, do not necessarily share structural or sequence homology to each other or the eukaryotic proteins that carry out the same function. Furthermore, some bacterial effectors have evolved structural variations to known protein folds which enable different or additional biochemical and physiological functions. Despite the overall low occurrence of intrinsically disordered proteins or regions in prokaryotic proteomes compared to eukaryotes proteomes, bacterial effectors appear to have adopted intrinsically disordered regions that mimic the disordered regions of eukaryotic signaling proteins. In this review, we explore examples of the diverse biochemical properties found in bacterial effectors that enable effector-mediated interference of eukaryotic signaling pathways and ultimately support pathogenesis. Despite challenges in the structural and functional characterisation of effectors, recent progress has been made in understanding the often unusual and fascinating ways in which these virulence factors promote pathogenesis. Nevertheless, continued work is essential to reveal the array of remarkable activities displayed by effectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.608860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943720PMC
February 2021

Salmonella Effector SteE Converts the Mammalian Serine/Threonine Kinase GSK3 into a Tyrosine Kinase to Direct Macrophage Polarization.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 01 17;27(1):41-53.e6. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens antagonize anti-bacterial immunity through translocated effector proteins that inhibit pro-inflammatory signaling. In addition, the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium initiates an anti-inflammatory transcriptional response in macrophages through its effector protein SteE. However, the target(s) and molecular mechanism of SteE remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SteE converts both the amino acid and substrate specificity of the host pleiotropic serine/threonine kinase GSK3. SteE itself is a substrate of GSK3, and phosphorylation of SteE is required for its activity. Remarkably, phosphorylated SteE then forces GSK3 to phosphorylate the non-canonical substrate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) on tyrosine-705. This results in STAT3 activation, which along with GSK3 is required for SteE-mediated upregulation of the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage marker interleukin-4Rα (IL-4Rα). Overall, the conversion of GSK3 to a tyrosine-directed kinase represents a tightly regulated event that enables a bacterial virulence protein to reprogram innate immune signaling and establish an anti-inflammatory environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2019.11.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953433PMC
January 2020