Publications by authors named "Hayato Ogawa"

32 Publications

Somatic Mosaicism in Biology and Disease.

Annu Rev Physiol 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; email:

Contrary to earlier beliefs, every cell in the individual is genetically different due to somatic mutations. Consequently, tissues become a mixture of cells with distinct genomes, a phenomenon termed somatic mosaicism. Recent advances in genome sequencing technology have unveiled possible causes of mutations and how they shape the unique mutational landscape of the tissues. Moreover, the analysis of sequencing data in combination with clinical information has revealed the impacts of somatic mosaicism on disease processes. In this review, we discuss somatic mosaicism in various tissues and its clinical implications for human disease. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 84 is February 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-physiol-061121-040048DOI Listing
October 2021

Employing the CRISPR-Cas System for Clonal Hematopoiesis Research.

Int J Phys Med Rehabil 2021 30;9(1). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Cardiovascular Research, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States.

Clonal hematopoiesis is a state in which substantial fraction of hematopoietic stem cells acquire mutations in specific driver genes and expand in the absence of an overt hematological malignancy. Recent clinical studies have shown that clonal hematopoiesis increases likelihood of hematological malignancy and cardiovascular disease. While clinical studies have identified countless candidate driver genes associated with clonal hematopoiesis, experimental studies are required to evaluate causal and mechanistic relationships with disease processes. This task is technically difficult and expensive to achieve with traditional genetically engineered mice. The versatility and programmability of CRISPR-Cas system enables investigators to evaluate the pathogenesis of each mutation in experimental systems. Technical refinements have enabled gene editing in a cell type specific manner and at a single base pair resolution. Here, we summarize strategies to apply CRISPR-Cas system to experimental studies of clonal hematopoiesis and concerns that should be addressed.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360470PMC
November 2020

The Cancer Therapy-Related Clonal Hematopoiesis Driver Gene Promotes Inflammation and Non-Ischemic Heart Failure in Mice.

Circ Res 2021 Sep 28;129(6):684-698. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Hematovascular Biology Center, Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA (Y.Y., E.M.-Y., K.-D.M., N.C., A.H.P., H.O., K.H., H.D., M.A.E., M.S., Y.W., S.S., K.W.).

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.319314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8409899PMC
September 2021

TP53-mediated therapy-related clonal hematopoiesis contributes to doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by augmenting a neutrophil-mediated cytotoxic response.

JCI Insight 2021 Jul 8;6(13). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Hematovascular Biology Center, Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Therapy-related clonal hematopoiesis (t-CH) is often observed in cancer survivors. This form of clonal hematopoiesis typically involves somatic mutations in driver genes that encode components of the DNA damage response and confer hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with resistance to the genotoxic stress of the cancer therapy. Here, we established a model of TP53-mediated t-CH through the transfer of Trp53 mutant HSPCs to mice, followed by treatment with a course of the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. These studies revealed that neutrophil infiltration in the heart significantly contributes to doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity and that this condition is amplified in the model of Trp53-mediated t-CH. These data suggest that t-CH could contribute to the elevated heart failure risk that occurs in cancer survivors who have been treated with genotoxic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.146076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8410064PMC
July 2021

Murine models of clonal hematopoiesis to assess mechanisms of cardiovascular disease.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Hematovascular Biology Center, Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is a phenomenon whereby somatic mutations confer a fitness advantage to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) and thus facilitate their aberrant clonal expansion. These mutations are carried into progeny leukocytes leading to a situation whereby a substantial fraction of an individual's blood cells originate from the HSPC mutant clone. Although this condition rarely progresses to a hematological malignancy, circulating blood cells bearing the mutation have the potential to affect other organ systems as they infiltrate into tissues under both homeostatic and disease conditions. Epidemiological and clinical studies have revealed that CH is highly prevalent in the elderly and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Recent experimental studies in murine models have assessed the most commonly mutated "driver" genes associated with CH, and have provided evidence for mechanistic connections between CH and cardiovascular disease. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which specific CH mutations promote disease pathogenesis is of importance, as it could pave the way for individualized therapeutic strategies targeting the pathogenic CH gene mutations in the future. Here, we review the epidemiology of CH and the mechanistic work from studies using murine disease models, with a particular focus on the strengths and limitations of these experimental systems. We intend for this review to help investigators select the most appropriate models to study CH in the setting of cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab215DOI Listing
June 2021

The Cell Surface Receptors Ror1/2 Control Cardiac Myofibroblast Differentiation.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 07 22;10(13):e019904. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Cardiovascular Research Center School of Medicine University of Virginia Charlottesville VA.

Background A hallmark of heart failure is cardiac fibrosis, which results from the injury-induced differentiation response of resident fibroblasts to myofibroblasts that deposit extracellular matrix. During myofibroblast differentiation, fibroblasts progress through polarization stages of early proinflammation, intermediate proliferation, and late maturation, but the regulators of this progression are poorly understood. Planar cell polarity receptors, receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 and 2 (Ror1/2), can function to promote cell differentiation and transformation. In this study, we investigated the role of the Ror1/2 in a model of heart failure with emphasis on myofibroblast differentiation. Methods and Results The role of Ror1/2 during cardiac myofibroblast differentiation was studied in cell culture models of primary murine cardiac fibroblast activation and in knockout mouse models that underwent transverse aortic constriction surgery to induce cardiac injury by pressure overload. Expression of Ror1 and Ror2 were robustly and exclusively induced in fibroblasts in hearts after transverse aortic constriction surgery, and both were rapidly upregulated after early activation of primary murine cardiac fibroblasts in culture. Cultured fibroblasts isolated from Ror1/2 knockout mice displayed a proinflammatory phenotype indicative of impaired myofibroblast differentiation. Although the combined ablation of Ror1/2 in mice did not result in a detectable baseline phenotype, transverse aortic constriction surgery led to the death of all mice by day 6 that was associated with myocardial hyperinflammation and vascular leakage. Conclusions Together, these results show that Ror1/2 are essential for the progression of myofibroblast differentiation and for the adaptive remodeling of the heart in response to pressure overload.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403294PMC
July 2021

Bone Marrow Transplantation Procedures in Mice to Study Clonal Hematopoiesis.

J Vis Exp 2021 05 26(171). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia School of Medicine; Hematovascular Biology Center, Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia School of Medicine;

Clonal hematopoiesis is a prevalent age-associated condition that results from the accumulation of somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Mutations in driver genes, that confer cellular fitness, can lead to the development of expanding HSPC clones that increasingly give rise to progeny leukocytes harboring the somatic mutation. Because clonal hematopoiesis has been associated with heart disease, stroke, and mortality, the development of experimental systems that model these processes is key to understanding the mechanisms that underly this new risk factor. Bone marrow transplantation procedures involving myeloablative conditioning in mice, such as total-body irradiation (TBI), are commonly employed to study the role of immune cells in cardiovascular diseases. However, simultaneous damage to the bone marrow niche and other sites of interest, such as the heart and brain, is unavoidable with these procedures. Thus, our lab has developed two alternative methods to minimize or avoid possible side effects caused by TBI: 1) bone marrow transplantation with irradiation shielding and 2) adoptive BMT to non-conditioned mice. In shielded organs, the local environment is preserved allowing for the analysis of clonal hematopoiesis while the function of resident immune cells is unperturbed. In contrast, the adoptive BMT to non-conditioned mice has the additional advantage that both the local environments of the organs and the hematopoietic niche are preserved. Here, we compare three different hematopoietic cell reconstitution approaches and discuss their strengths and limitations for studies of clonal hematopoiesis in cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8439117PMC
May 2021

Omentin attenuates angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in apolipoprotein-E knockout mice.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine.

Aims: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an increasing and life-threatening disease. Obesity contributes to an increased risk of AAA. Omentin is a circulating adipokine, which is downregulated in obese complications. Here we examined whether omentin could modulate angiotensin (Ang) II-induced AAA formation in apolipoprotein-E knockout (apoE-KO) mice.

Methods And Results: ApoE-KO mice were crossed with transgenic mice expressing the human omentin gene in fat tissue (OMT-Tg mice) to generate ApoE-KO/OMT-Tg mice. ApoE-KO/OMT-Tg and apoE-KO mice were subjected to continuous Ang II infusion by using osmotic mini pumps. ApoE-KO/OMT-Tg mice exhibited a lower incidence of AAA formation and a reduced maximal diameter of AAA compared with apo-E KO mice. ApoE-KO/OMT-Tg mice showed attenuated disruption of medial elastic fibers in response to Ang II compared with apo-E KO mice. ApoE-KO/OMT-Tg mice also displayed reduced expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9, MMP2 and pro-inflammatory genes in aortic walls compared with apo-E KO mice. Furthermore, systemic administration of omentin also attenuated AAA formation and disruption of medial elastic fibers in response to Ang II in apoE-KO mice. Treatment of human monocyte-derived macrophages with omentin protein attenuated expression of MMP9 and pro-inflammatory mediators, and MMP9 activation after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment of human vascular smooth muscle cells with omentin protein reduced expression and activation of MMP2 after stimulation with tumor necrosis factor α. Omentin treatment increased phosphorylation levels of Akt in human macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells. The suppressive effects of omentin on MMP9 and MMP2 expression were reversed by inhibition of integrin-αVβ3/PI3-kinase/Akt signaling in macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells, respectively.

Conclusion: These data suggest that omentin acts as an adipokine that can attenuate Ang II-induced development of AAA through suppression of MMP9 and MMP2 expression and inflammatory response in the vascular wall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab179DOI Listing
May 2021

Adipolin/C1q/Tnf-related protein 12 prevents adverse cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(12):e0243483. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of death worldwide. We previously identified adipolin, also known as C1q/Tnf-related protein 12, as an anti-inflammatory adipokine with protective features against metabolic and vascular disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of adipolin on myocardial remodeling in a mouse model of MI.

Methods: Male adipolin-knockout (APL-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to the permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery to create MI.

Results: APL-KO mice exhibited increased ratios of heart weight/body weight and lung weight/body weight after MI compared with WT mice. APL-KO mice showed increased left ventricular diastolic diameter and decreased fractional shortening after MI compared with WT mice. APL-KO mice exhibited increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the post-MI hearts compared with WT mice. Systemic administration of adenoviral vectors expressing adipolin to WT mice after MI surgery improved left ventricular contractile dysfunction and reduced cardiac expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Treatment of cultured cardiomyocytes with adipolin protein reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Treatment with adipolin protein increased Akt phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of PI3 kinase/Akt signaling reversed the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of adipolin in cardiomyocytes.

Conclusion: Our data indicate that adipolin ameliorates pathological remodeling of myocardium after MI, at least in part, by its ability to reduce myocardial inflammatory response and apoptosis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243483PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717554PMC
January 2021

C1q/TNF-Related Protein 9 Promotes Revascularization in Response to Ischemia an eNOS-Dependent Manner.

Front Pharmacol 2020 21;11:1313. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Strategies to promote revascularization are valuable for ischemic cardiovascular disease. Although C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) 9 is an adiponectin paralog with protective properties against cardiometabolic disorders, the role of endogenous CTRP9 in endothelial function is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CTRP9 on revascularization processes and dissected the potential mechanisms. CTRP9-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to unilateral hindlimb ischemic surgery. CTRP9-KO mice exhibited impaired blood flow recovery and decreased capillary density in the ischemic limb compared with WT mice. In both CTRP9-KO and WT mice, systemic delivery of an adenoviral vector expressing CTRP9 (Ad-CTRP9) accelerated blood flow recovery. Treatment with recombinant CTRP9 protein increased network formation and migration of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). CTRP9 promoted the phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in HUVECs. CTRP9-KO mice also showed reduced phosphorylation levels of AMPK, Akt, and eNOS in the ischemic limbs compared with WT mice. Furthermore, blockade of AMPK or Akt signaling pathway reversed the CTRP9-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation in HUVECs. Treatment with the NOS inhibitor significantly reduced CTRP9-stimulated network formation and migration of HUVECs. Of note, Ad-CTRP9 had no effects on blood flow of the ischemic limb in eNOS-KO mice. These results indicated that CTRP9 promotes endothelial cell function and ischemia-induced revascularization through the eNOS-dependent mechanism, suggesting that CTRP9 represents a target molecule for treatment of ischemic vascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.01313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472599PMC
August 2020

A novel selective PPARα modulator, pemafibrate promotes ischemia-induced revascularization through the eNOS-dependent mechanisms.

PLoS One 2020 25;15(6):e0235362. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Objective: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Obesity-related metabolic disorders including dyslipidemia cause impaired collateralization under ischemic conditions, thereby resulting in exacerbated cardiovascular dysfunction. Pemafibrate is a novel selective PPARα modulator, which has been reported to improve atherogenic dyslipidemia, in particular, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Here, we investigated whether pemafibrate modulates the revascularization process in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia.

Methods And Results: Male wild-type (WT) mice were randomly assigned to two groups, normal diet or pemafibrate admixture diet from the ages of 6 weeks. After 4 weeks, mice were subjected to unilateral hindlimb surgery to remove the left femoral artery and vein. Pemafibrate treatment enhanced blood flow recovery and capillary formation in ischemic limbs of mice, which was accompanied by enhanced phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Treatment of cultured endothelial cells with pemafibrate resulted in increased network formation and migratory activity, which were blocked by pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Pemafibrate treatment also increased plasma levels of the PPARα-regulated gene, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 in WT mice. Systemic administration of adenoviral vectors expressing FGF21 (Ad-FGF21) to WT mice enhanced blood flow recovery, capillary density and eNOS phosphorylation in ischemic limbs. Treatment of cultured endothelial cells with FGF21 protein led to increases in endothelial cell network formation and migration, which were canceled by pretreatment with L-NAME. Furthermore, administration of pemafibrate or Ad-FGF21 had no effects on blood flow in ischemic limbs in eNOS-deficient mice.

Conclusion: These data suggest that pemafibrate can promote revascularization in response to ischemia, at least in part, through direct and FGF21-mediated modulation of endothelial cell function. Thus, pemafibrate could be a potentially beneficial drug for ischemic vascular disease.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235362PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316279PMC
September 2020

Tet2-mediated clonal hematopoiesis in nonconditioned mice accelerates age-associated cardiac dysfunction.

JCI Insight 2020 03 26;5(6). Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Hematovascular Biology Center, Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential is prevalent in elderly individuals and associated with increased risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. However, mouse models to study the dynamics of clonal hematopoiesis and its consequences on the cardiovascular system under homeostatic conditions are lacking. We developed a model of clonal hematopoiesis using adoptive transfer of unfractionated ten-eleven translocation 2-mutant (Tet2-mutant) bone marrow cells into nonirradiated mice. Consistent with age-related clonal hematopoiesis observed in humans, these mice displayed a progressive expansion of Tet2-deficient cells in multiple hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fractions and blood cell lineages. The expansion of the Tet2-mutant fraction was also observed in bone marrow-derived CCR2+ myeloid cell populations within the heart, but there was a negligible impact on the yolk sac-derived CCR2- cardiac-resident macrophage population. Transcriptome profiling revealed an enhanced inflammatory signature in the donor-derived macrophages isolated from the heart. Mice receiving Tet2-deficient bone marrow cells spontaneously developed age-related cardiac dysfunction characterized by greater hypertrophy and fibrosis. Altogether, we show that Tet2-mediated hematopoiesis contributes to cardiac dysfunction in a nonconditioned setting that faithfully models human clonal hematopoiesis in unperturbed bone marrow. Our data support clinical findings that clonal hematopoiesis per se may contribute to diminished health span.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.135204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7213793PMC
March 2020

Lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing for the Study of Hematopoietic Cells in Disease Models.

J Vis Exp 2019 10 3(152). Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Hematovascular Biology Center, Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia School of Medicine;

Manipulating genes in hematopoietic stem cells using conventional transgenesis approaches can be time-consuming, expensive, and challenging. Benefiting from advances in genome editing technology and lentivirus-mediated transgene delivery systems, an efficient and economical method is described here that establishes mice in which genes are manipulated specifically in hematopoietic stem cells. Lentiviruses are used to transduce Cas9-expressing lineage-negative bone marrow cells with a guide RNA (gRNA) targeting specific genes and a red fluorescence reporter gene (RFP), then these cells are transplanted into lethally-irradiated C57BL/6 mice. Mice transplanted with lentivirus expressing non-targeting gRNA are used as controls. Engraftment of transduced hematopoietic stem cells are evaluated by flow cytometric analysis of RFP-positive leukocytes of peripheral blood. Using this method, ~90% transduction of myeloid cells and ~70% of lymphoid cells at 4 weeks after transplantation can be achieved. Genomic DNA is isolated from RFP-positive blood cells, and portions of the targeted site DNA are amplified by PCR to validate the genome editing. This protocol provides a high-throughput evaluation of hematopoiesis-regulatory genes and can be extended to a variety of mouse disease models with hematopoietic cell involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/59977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249700PMC
October 2019

Adipolin/CTRP12 protects against pathological vascular remodelling through suppression of smooth muscle cell growth and macrophage inflammatory response.

Cardiovasc Res 2020 01;116(1):237-249

Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumaicho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

Aims: Secreted factors produced by adipose tissue are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. We previously identified adipolin, also known as C1q/TNF-related protein 12, as an insulin-sensitizing adipokine. However, the role of adipolin in vascular disease remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether adipolin modulates pathological vascular remodelling.

Methods And Results: Adipolin-knockout (APL-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to wire-induced injury of the femoral artery. APL-KO mice showed increased neointimal thickening after vascular injury compared with WT mice, which was accompanied by an enhanced inflammatory response and vascular cell proliferation in injured arteries. Adipolin deficiency also led to a reduction in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) 1 protein levels in injured arteries. Treatment of cultured macrophages with adipolin protein led to a reduction in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL) 6, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1. These effects were reversed by inhibition of TGF-β receptor II (TGF-βRII)/Smad2 signalling. Adipolin also reduced platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through a TGF-βRII/Smad2-dependent pathway. Furthermore, adipolin treatment significantly increased TGF-β1 concentration in media from cultured VSMCs and macrophages.

Conclusion: These data indicate that adipolin protects against the development of pathological vascular remodelling by attenuating macrophage inflammatory responses and VSMC proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvz074DOI Listing
January 2020

Myonectin Is an Exercise-Induced Myokine That Protects the Heart From Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Circ Res 2018 12;123(12):1326-1338

Department of Molecular Medicine and Cardiology (K.O., T.E., N. Ouchi), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

Rationale: Physical exercise provides benefits for various organ systems, and some of systemic effects of exercise are mediated through modulation of muscle-derived secreted factors, also known as myokines. Myonectin/C1q (complement component 1q)/TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-related protein 15/erythroferrone is a myokine that is upregulated in skeletal muscle and blood by exercise.

Objective: We investigated the role of myonectin in myocardial ischemic injury.

Methods And Results: Ischemia-reperfusion in myonectin-knockout mice led to enhancement of myocardial infarct size, cardiac dysfunction, apoptosis, and proinflammatory gene expression compared with wild-type mice. Conversely, transgenic overexpression of myonectin in skeletal muscle reduced myocardial damage after ischemia-reperfusion. Treadmill exercise increased circulating myonectin levels in wild-type mice, and it reduced infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion in wild-type mice, but not in myonectin-knockout mice. Treatment of cultured cardiomyocytes with myonectin protein attenuated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis via S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate)-dependent activation of cAMP/Akt cascades. Similarly, myonectin suppressed inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide in cultured macrophages through the S1P/cAMP/Akt-dependent signaling pathway. Moreover, blockade of S1P-dependent pathway reversed myonectin-mediated reduction of myocardial infarct size in mice after ischemia-reperfusion.

Conclusions: These data indicate that myonectin functions as an endurance exercise-induced myokine which ameliorates acute myocardial ischemic injury by suppressing apoptosis and inflammation in the heart, suggesting that myonectin mediates some of the beneficial actions of exercise on cardiovascular health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.313777DOI Listing
December 2018

Role of Adipokines in Cardiovascular Disease.

Circ J 2017 Jun 10;81(7):920-928. Epub 2017 Jun 10.

Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the greatest cause of death, accounting for nearly one-third of all deaths worldwide. The increase in obesity rates over 3 decades is widespread and threatens the public health in both developed and developing countries. Obesity, the excessive accumulation of visceral fat, causes the clustering of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, culminating in the development of CVD. Adipose tissue is not only an energy storage organ, but an active endocrine tissue producing various biologically active proteins known as adipokines. Since leptin, a central regulator of food intake and energy expenditure, was demonstrated to be an adipose-specific adipokine, attention has focused on the identification and characterization of unknown adipokines to clarify the mechanisms underlying obesity-related disorders. Numerous adipokines have been identified in the past 2 decades; most adipokines are upregulated in the obese state. Adipokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and resistin are pro-inflammatory, and exacerbate various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, a small number of adipokines, including adiponectin, are decreased by obesity, and generally exhibit antiinflammatory properties and protective functions against obesity-related diseases. Collectively, an imbalance in the production of pro- and antiinflammatory adipokines in the obese condition results in multiple complications. In this review, we focus on the pathophysiologic roles of adipokines with cardiovascular protective properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-17-0458DOI Listing
June 2017

C1q/TNF-related protein 1 prevents neointimal formation after arterial injury.

Atherosclerosis 2017 02 16;257:138-145. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Obesity contributes to the progression of vascular disorders. C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) 1 is a circulating adipokine, which is upregulated in obese complications including coronary artery disease. Here, we investigated the role of CTRP1 in regulation of vascular remodeling after mechanical injury and evaluated its potential mechanism.

Methods: Mice were subjected to wire-induced injury of left femoral arteries. An adenoviral vector encoding CTRP1 (Ad-CTRP1) or β-galactosidase as a control was injected into the jugular vein of mice 3 days prior to surgery.

Results: Systemic administration of Ad-CTRP1 to wild-type mice led to reduction of the neointimal thickening after wire-induced arterial injury and the number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in injured vessels as compared with treatment with control vectors. Treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with CTRP1 protein attenuated proliferative activity and ERK phosphorylation in response to PDGF-BB. CTRP1 treatment increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in VSMCs, and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase reversed the inhibitory effect of CTRP1 on VSMC growth and ERK phosphorylation. Antagonization of sphingosine-1-phosphaterote (S1P) receptor 2 blocked the effects of CTRP1 on cAMP production and VSMC growth. Furthermore, CTRP1-knockout mice had enhanced neointimal thickening following injury and increased numbers of proliferating cells in neointima compared to control WT mice.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that CTRP1 functions to prevent the development of pathological vascular remodeling by reducing VSMC growth through the cAMP-dependent pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.01.014DOI Listing
February 2017

Association of Circulating Follistatin-Like 1 Levels with Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Healthy Men.

PLoS One 2016 4;11(5):e0153619. Epub 2016 May 4.

Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Objectives: Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a circulating glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in cardiovascular diseases and inflammation-related disorders. We have shown that Fstl1 acts as an anti-inflammatory factor that protects against ischemic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. Here we examined whether plasma level of Fstl1 associates with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in apparently healthy Japanese men.

Methods And Results: Plasma Fstl1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Circulating Fstl1 concentrations positively correlated with levels of fasting immune-reactive insulin (FIRI), high-sensitive CRP (hsCRP) and derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites (dROMs), an indicator of oxidative stress. The levels of hsCRP positively associated with Fstl1, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride, FIRI and dROMs levels. dROMs levels positively associated with Fstl1, Hemoglobin A1c and hsCRP levels. Multiple regression analysis with confounding factors revealed that Fstl1 levels, together with BMI and FIRI, correlated with hsCRP and that Fstl1 levels correlated with dROMs.

Conclusion: Our observations indicate that measurement of plasma Fstl1 levels can be valuable for assessment of pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress conditions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0153619PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4856269PMC
July 2017

Omentin attenuates atherosclerotic lesion formation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

Cardiovasc Res 2016 May 28;110(1):107-17. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan

Aims: Obesity is associated with the development of atherosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that omentin is a circulating adipokine that is downregulated in association with atherosclerotic diseases. Here, we examined the impact of omentin on the development of atherosclerosis with gain-of-function genetic manipulations and dissected its potential mechanism.

Methods And Results: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-KO) mice were crossed with transgenic mice expressing the human omentin gene (OMT-Tg) mice in fat tissue to generate apoE-KO/OMT-Tg mice. ApoE-KO/OMT-Tg mice exhibited a significant reduction of the atherosclerotic areas in aortic sinus, compared with apoE-KO mice despite similar lipid levels. ApoE-KO/OMT-Tg mice also displayed significant decreases in macrophage accumulation and mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators including tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in aorta when compared with apoE-KO mice. Treatment of human monocyte-derived macrophages with a physiological concentration of human omentin protein led to reduction of lipid droplets and cholesteryl ester content. Treatment with human omentin protein also reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of proinflammatory genes in human macrophages. Treatment of human macrophages with omentin promoted the phosphorylation of Akt. Inhibition of Akt signalling abolished the anti-inflammatory actions of omentin in macrophages.

Conclusion: These data document for the first time that omentin reduces the development of atherosclerosis by reducing inflammatory response of macrophages through the Akt-dependent mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvv282DOI Listing
May 2016

C1q/TNF-related protein-1 functions to protect against acute ischemic injury in the heart.

FASEB J 2016 Mar 17;30(3):1065-75. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

*Department of Cardiology, Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, and Department of Pathophysiological Laboratory Science, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan; and College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP)-1 is a poorly characterized adipokine that is up-regulated in association with ischemic heart disease. We investigated the role of CTRP1 in myocardial ischemia injury. CTRP1-knockout mice showed increased myocardial infarct size, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and proinflammatory gene expression after I/R compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, systemic delivery of CTRP1 attenuated myocardial damage after I/R in WT mice. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with CTRP1 led to reduction of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced apoptosis and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which was reversed by inhibition of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with CTRP1 also resulted in the increased production of cAMP, which was blocked by suppression of S1P signaling. The antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory actions of CTRP1 were cancelled by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase or knockdown of adiponectin receptor 1. Furthermore, blockade of S1P signaling reversed CTRP1-mediated inhibition of myocardial infarct size, apoptosis, and inflammation after I/R in vivo. These data indicate that CTRP1 protects against myocardial ischemic injury by reducing apoptosis and inflammatory response through activation of the S1P/cAMP signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes, suggesting that CTRP1 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.15-279885DOI Listing
March 2016

Long-term effects of tolvaptan in patients requiring recurrent hospitalization for heart failure.

Nagoya J Med Sci 2015 Aug;77(3):355-62

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tosei General Hospital, Seto, Japan.

Although reports suggest that tolvaptan does not reduce survival or subsequent hospitalization rates in heart failure patients, its continuous use has shown good outcomes in some patients who cannot be effectively managed with high doses of loop diuretics. Therefore, we investigated the association of patient characteristics and continued tolvaptan use in heart failure patients with changes in the frequency and annual duration of patient hospitalization due to heart failure. We carefully reviewed the medical records of patients hospitalized due to heart failure who began tolvaptan therapy and continued with outpatient treatment between December 2010 and November 2013 (tolvaptan group); patients hospitalized for heart failure between May 2008 and March 2009 served as controls. We set the reference dates as the start of tolvaptan therapy (tolvaptan group) or as the date of admission (control group). The changes in hospitalization frequency and total hospitalization time due to heart failure, before and after the reference dates, were not significantly different between the tolvaptan and control groups. In the tolvaptan group, a high estimated glomerular filtration rate was a predictor of decreased hospitalization. Continuous tolvaptan use did not decrease hospitalization duration in all heart failure patients, but good renal function was predictive of a good response.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4574322PMC
August 2015

C1q/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Protein 9 Protects against Acute Myocardial Injury through an Adiponectin Receptor I-AMPK-Dependent Mechanism.

Mol Cell Biol 2015 Jun 13;35(12):2173-85. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan

Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 9 (CTRP9) is an adipokine that is downregulated by obesity. We investigated the role of CTRP9 in cardiac injury with loss-of-function genetic manipulations and defined the receptor-mediated signaling pathway downstream of this adipokine. CTRP9-knockout (CTRP9-KO) mice at the age of 12 weeks were indistinguishable from wild-type (WT) mice under basal conditions. CTRP9-KO mice had exacerbated contractile left ventricle dysfunction following intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared to WT mice. Administration of LPS to CTRP9-KO mice also resulted in increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in the heart compared to WT mice. Likewise, CTRP9-KO mice showed increased myocardial infarct size and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators in ischemic heart following ischemia and reperfusion compared to WT mice. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with CTRP9 protein led to suppression of LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory genes, which was reversed by blockade of AMPK or ablation of adiponectin receptor I (AdipoR1). Systemic delivery of CTRP9 attenuated LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction in WT mice but not in muscle-specific transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative mutant form of AMPK or in AdipoR1-knockout mice. CTRP9 protects against acute cardiac damage in response to pathological stimuli by suppressing inflammatory reactions through AdipoR1/AMPK-dependent mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01518-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4438248PMC
June 2015

FGF21 attenuates pathological myocardial remodeling following myocardial infarction through the adiponectin-dependent mechanism.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015 Mar 21;459(1):124-30. Epub 2015 Feb 21.

Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address:

Ischemic heart disease is one of the leading causes of death. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a circulating factor with an anti-diabetic property. Skeletal muscle is an important source of FGF21 production. Here, we investigated whether skeletal muscle-derived FGF21 modulates cardiac remodeling in a murine model of myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction was produced in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice by the permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Adenoviral vectors expressing FGF21 (Ad-FGF21) or control β-galactosidase were intramuscularly injected into mice at 3 days before permanent LAD ligation. Intramuscular injection of Ad-FGF21 increased plasma FGF21 levels in WT mice compared with control. Treatment of WT mice with Ad-FGF21 led to improvement of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and dilatation at 2 weeks after LAD ligation. Ad-FGF21 administration to WT mice also led to enhancement of capillary density in the infarct border zone, and reduction of myocyte apoptosis in the remote zone, which were accompanied by decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, treatment of WT mice with Ad-FGF21 increased plasma levels of adiponectin, which is a cardioprotective adipokine. The beneficial effects of Ad-FGF21 on cardiac dysfunction and inflammatory response after myocardial infarction were diminished in adiponectin-knockout mice. These data suggest that muscle-derived FGF21 ameliorates adverse cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction, at least in part, through an adiponectin-dependent mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.02.081DOI Listing
March 2015

Neuron-derived neurotrophic factor ameliorates adverse cardiac remodeling after experimental myocardial infarction.

Circ Heart Fail 2015 Mar 5;8(2):342-51. Epub 2015 Feb 5.

From the Departments of Cardiology (Y.J., D.Y., R.S., Y.K., T.K., Y.U., K.M., S.H., M.H.-I., N.K., M.I., H.O., T.M.) and Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine (K.O., N.O.), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan; and Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan (Y.J., H.D.).

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Chronic heart failure is a serious complication of MI that leads to poor prognosis. We recently found that neuron-derived neurotrophic factor (NDNF) is a proangiogenic secretory protein that is upregulated in ischemic skeletal muscle. Here, we examined whether NDNF modulates cardiac remodeling in response to chronic ischemia.

Methods And Results: C57BL/6J wild-type mice were subjected to the permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery to create MI. Adenoviral vectors expressing NDNF or β-galactosidase (control) were intramuscularly injected into mice 3 days before permanent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Intramuscular administration of adenoviral vectors expressing NDNF to mice resulted in increased levels of circulating NDNF. Adenoviral vectors expressing NDNF administration improved left ventricular systolic dysfunction and dilatation after MI surgery. Moreover, adenoviral vectors expressing NDNF enhanced capillary formation and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and hypertrophy in the post-MI hearts. Treatment of cultured cardiomyocytes with recombinant NDNF protein led to reduced apoptosis under conditions of hypoxia. NDNF also promoted the phosphorylation of Akt and focal adhesion kinase in cardiomyocytes. Blockade of focal adhesion kinase activation blocked the stimulatory effects of NDNF on cardiomyocyte survival and Akt phosphorylation. Similarly, treatment of cultured endothelial cells with NDNF protein led to enhancement of network formation and Akt phosphorylation, which was diminished by focal adhesion kinase inhibition.

Conclusions: These data suggest that NDNF ameliorates adverse myocardial remodeling after MI by its abilities to enhance myocyte survival and angiogenesis in the heart through focal adhesion kinase/Akt-dependent mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.114.001647DOI Listing
March 2015

High revivability of vitrified-warmed bovine mature oocytes after recovery culture with α-tocopherol.

Reproduction 2015 Apr 27;149(4):347-55. Epub 2015 Jan 27.

Graduate School of Science and Technology Faculty of Textile Science and Technology Shinshu University, Nagano 386-8567, Japan National Institute for Physiological Sciences Aichi 444-8787, Japan Graduate School of Science and Technology Faculty of Textile Science and Technology Shinshu University, Nagano 386-8567, Japan National Institute for Physiological Sciences Aichi 444-8787, Japan

The objective of this study was to investigate whether developmental competence of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes can be improved by antioxidant treatment during recovery culture. In experiment 1, one of the two antioxidants (either l-ascorbic acid or α-tocopherol) was added as a supplement to the recovery culture medium to which postwarming oocytes were exposed for 2 h before IVF. The exposure to α-tocopherol had a positive effect on rescuing the oocytes as assessed by the blastocyst yield 8 days after the IVF (35.1-36.3% vs 19.2-25.8% in untreated postwarming oocytes). Quality of expanding blastocysts harvested on Day 8 was comparable between α-tocopherol-treated vitrification group and fresh control group in terms of total cell number and chromosomal ploidy. In experiment 2, level of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial activity, and distribution of cortical granules in α-tocopherol-treated postwarming oocytes were assessed. No obvious differences from the control data were found in these parameters. However, the treatment with α-tocopherol increased the percentage of zygotes exhibiting normal single aster formation (90.3% vs 48.0% in untreated postwarming oocytes; 10 h post-IVF). It was concluded that α-tocopherol treatment of vitrified-warmed bovine mature oocytes during recovery culture can improve their revivability, as shown by the high blastocyst yield and the higher mean total cell number in the blastocysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-14-0594DOI Listing
April 2015

Omentin functions to attenuate cardiac hypertrophic response.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2015 Feb 3;79:195-202. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address:

Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in many obesity-related conditions. Omentin is an adipose-derived plasma protein that is downregulated under obese conditions. Here, we investigated whether omentin modulates cardiac hypertrophic responses in vivo and in vitro. Systemic administration of an adenoviral vector expressing human omentin (Ad-OMT) to wild-type (WT) mice led to the attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and ERK phosphorylation induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or angiotensin II infusion. In cultured cardiomyocytes, stimulation with phenylephrine (PE) led to an increase in myocyte size, which was prevented by pretreatment with human omentin protein. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with omentin protein also reduced ERK phosphorylation in response to PE stimulation. Ad-OMT enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the heart of WT mice after TAC operation. Blockade of AMPK activation by transduction with dominant-negative mutant forms of AMPK reversed the inhibitory effect of omentin on myocyte hypertrophy and ERK phosphorylation following PE stimulation. Moreover, fat-specific transgenic mice expressing human omentin showed reduced cardiac hypertrophy and ERK phosphorylation following TAC surgery compared to littermate controls. These data suggest that omentin functions to attenuate the pathological process of myocardial hypertrophy via the activation of AMPK in the heart, suggesting that omentin may represent a target molecule for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.11.019DOI Listing
February 2015

Adipose-derived protein omentin prevents neointimal formation after arterial injury.

FASEB J 2015 Jan 9;29(1):141-51. Epub 2014 Oct 9.

Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan

Obesity is highly linked with the development of vascular diseases. Omentin is a circulating adipokine that is downregulated in patients with cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of omentin in regulation of vascular remodeling in response to injury. Wild-type (WT) mice were treated intravenously with adenoviral vectors encoding human omentin (Ad-OMT) or control β-gal and subjected to arterial wire injury. Ad-OMT treatment reduced the neointimal thickening and the frequencies of bromodeoxyuridine-positive proliferating cells in injured arteries. Treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with human omentin protein at a physiologic concentration led to suppression of growth and ERK phosphorylation after stimulation with various growth factors. Omentin stimulated AMPK signaling in VSMCs, and blockade of AMPK reversed omentin-mediated inhibition of VSMC growth and ERK phosphorylation. Furthermore, fat-specific human omentin transgenic (OMT-TG) mice exhibited reduced neointimal thickening and vascular cell growth following vascular injury. AMPK activation was enhanced in injured arteries in OMT-TG mice, and administration of AMPK inhibitor reversed the reduction of neointimal hyperplasia in OMT-TG mice. These data indicate that omentin attenuates neointimal formation after arterial injury and suppresses VSMC growth through AMPK-dependent mechanisms. Thus, omentin can represent a novel target molecule for the prevention of vascular disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.14-258129DOI Listing
January 2015

Cardiac myocyte-derived follistatin-like 1 prevents renal injury in a subtotal nephrectomy model.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2015 Mar 28;26(3):636-46. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

Molecular Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan;

Heart disease contributes to the progression of CKD. Heart tissue produces a number of secreted proteins, also known as cardiokines, which participate in intercellular and intertissue communication. We recently reported that follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) functions as a cardiokine with cardioprotective properties. Here, we investigated the role of cardiac Fstl1 in renal injury after subtotal nephrectomy. Cardiac-specific Fstl1-deficient (cFstl1-KO) mice and wild-type mice were subjected to subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy. cFstl1-KO mice showed exacerbation of urinary albumin excretion, glomerular hypertrophy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis after subtotal renal ablation compared with wild-type mice. cFstl1-KO mice also exhibited increased mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6, NADPH oxidase components, and fibrotic mediators, in the remnant kidney. Conversely, systemic administration of adenoviral vectors expressing Fstl1 (Ad-Fstl1) to wild-type mice with subtotal nephrectomy led to amelioration of albuminuria, glomerular hypertrophy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, accompanied by reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, NADPH oxidase components, and fibrotic markers in the remnant kidney. In cultured human mesangial cells, treatment with recombinant FSTL1 attenuated TNF-α-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Treatment of mesangial cells with FSTL1 augmented the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibition of AMPK activation abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of FSTL1. These data suggest that Fstl1 functions in cardiorenal communication and that the lack of Fstl1 production by myocytes promotes glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in the kidney.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2014020210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4341480PMC
March 2015

Platinum complexes bearing a boron-based PBP pincer ligand: synthesis, structure, and application as a catalyst for hydrosilylation of 1-decene.

Dalton Trans 2013 Jan;42(3):625-9

Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27, Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, 112-8551, Tokyo, Japan.

Four platinum(II) complexes bearing a boron-based PBP pincer ligand and chloride, hydride, triflate, and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide were synthesized and structurally characterized. PBP-platinum chloride was proven to be an active catalyst for the hydrosilylation reaction using 1-decene and triethylsilane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2dt31892jDOI Listing
January 2013

Analysis of the biological activity of a novel 24-membered macrolide JBIR-19 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the morphological imaging program CalMorph.

FEMS Yeast Res 2012 May 3;12(3):293-304. Epub 2012 Jan 3.

Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan.

To investigate the biological activity of a novel 24-membered macrolide compound, JBIR-19, isolated from the culture broth of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium sp. fE61, morphological changes in yeast cells were examined using the automated image-processing program CalMorph. Principal components analysis was used to elucidate dynamic changes in the phenotypes, revealing two independent effects of JBIR-19 in yeast cells: bud elongation and increased size of the actin region. Using a fitness assay, we identified the genes required for robust growth in the presence of JBIR-19. Among these were CCW12, YLR111W, and DHH1, which are also involved in abnormal bud morphology. Based on these results and others, we predict intracellular targets of JBIR-19 and its functional interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1567-1364.2011.00770.xDOI Listing
May 2012
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