Publications by authors named "Hassane Zouhal"

105 Publications

The effects of exercise training on plasma volume variations: A systematic review.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar-Saïd, Manouba, Tunisia., Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar-Saïd, Manouba, Tunisia., Tunis, Tunisia.

The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence on the acute and long-term effects of exercise training on PV, in both trained and untrained individuals and to examine associations between changes in %PVV and change in physical/physiological performance. Despite the status of participants and the exercise duration or intensity, all the acute studies reported a significant decrease of PV (effect size: 0.85
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1667-6624DOI Listing
October 2021

The Effects of Aerobic-Resistance Training and Broccoli Supplementation on Plasma Dectin-1 and Insulin Resistance in Males with Type 2 Diabetes.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 9;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 9.

M2S (Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé)-EA 1274, University of Rennes, F-35000 Rennes, France.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a combination of aerobic-resistance training (CARET) and broccoli supplementation on dectin-1 levels and insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).

Methods: Forty-four males with T2D were randomly allocated to four groups ( = 11 each group): CARET + broccoli supplement (TS), CARET + placebo (TP), control + broccoli supplement (S), and control + placebo (CP). CARET was performed three days per week for 12 weeks. TS and S groups received 10 g of broccoli supplement per day for 12 weeks. All variables were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks.

Results: Plasma dectin-1 levels were decreased in TS and TP groups compared with the CP group ( < 0.05). Cardiometabolic risk factors showed significant reductions in TP and TS groups compared to S and CP groups ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: The combination of CARET and broccoli supplementation produced the largest improvements in insulin resistance and dectin-1 and other complications of T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13093144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8471572PMC
September 2021

Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit to Accelerometer-Based Training Monotony and Strain during a Soccer Season: A within-Group Study for Starters and Non-Starters.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 28;18(15). Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Movement, Sport, Health and Sciences Laboratory (M2S), University of Rennes 2, F-35000 Rennes, France.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the intragroup differences in weekly training monotony (TM) and training strain (TS) between starter and non-starter male professional soccer players at accelerometry based variables throughout the periods of a season. TM and TS of different accelerations and decelerations zones for twenty-one players were followed for forty-eight weeks. Regardless of group, players obtained the highest mean TM (starters = 3.3 ± 0.6, non-starters = 2.2 ± 1.1, in arbitrary unit, AU) and TS (starters = 1288.9 ± 265.2, non-starters = 765.4 ± 547.5, AU) scores in the pre-season for accelerations at Zone 1 (<2 m/s). The results also indicated that both groups exhibited similar TM and TS scores in accelerations at Zones 2 (2 to 4 m/s) and 3 (>4 m/s) across the entire season. While the starters showed the highest TM and TS scores at deceleration Zone 1 (<-2 m/s) in the end-season, the non-starters exhibited the highest scores at the deceleration Zone 1 in pre-season. It seems that in pre-season, coaches applied higher levels of training with greater emphasis on deceleration for non-starters. This tendency was reduced over time for non-starters, while starters presented higher values of deceleration Zone 1. These results highlight the variations in TM and TS across the different periods of a full season according to match starting status among professional soccer players, and the results suggest that non-starter players should receive higher levels of load to compensate for non-participation in matches throughout a soccer season.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345473PMC
July 2021

Hematology, Hormones, Inflammation, and Muscle Damage in Elite and Professional Soccer Players: A Systematic Review with Implications for Exercise.

Sports Med 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

M2S (Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé)-EA 1274, University Rennes, 35000, Rennes, France.

Background: Knowledge of the long-term effects of soccer training on hematological, hormonal, inflammatory, and muscle damage markers and physical performance may help to better design strength and conditioning programs for performance development and injury prevention for the individual player and the team.

Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to summarize and discuss evidence on the long-term effects of soccer training on selected hematological, hormonal, inflammatory, and muscle damage markers and physical performance in elite and professional soccer players. A second goal was to investigate associations between selected physiological markers and measures of performance.

Methods: Adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic literature search was conducted in four electronic databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) from inception until August 2020 to identify articles related to soccer training effects. To be included in this systematic review, studies had to examine male elite (national level) and/or professional (international level) soccer players aged > 17 years and a soccer training period > 4 weeks, and report outcomes related to hematological, hormonal, inflammatory, muscle damage, and performance markers.

Results: The search syntax initially identified 2420 records. After screening titles, abstracts, and full texts, 20 eligible studies were included in this systematic review, with training durations lasting between 4 and 18 weeks in 15 studies, around 6 months in four studies, and around 1 year in one study. Effects of long-term soccer training revealed parameter-specific increases or decreases in hematological, hormonal, inflammatory, and muscle damage markers and physical performance. Two studies showed a moderate increase in hematological markers such as hemoglobin (effect size [ES] = 0.67-0.93). Parameter-specific changes were noted for hormonal markers in the form of increases for total testosterone (ES = 0.20-0.67) and free testosterone (FT) (ES = 0.20-0.65) and decreases for cortisol (ES =  - 0.28 to - 1.31). Finally, moderate to very large increases were found for muscle damage markers such as creatine kinase (ES = 0.94-6.80) and physical performance such as countermovement jump (CMJ) height (ES = 0.50-1.11) and squat jump (SJ) height (ES = 0.65-1.28). After long-term periods of soccer training, significant positive correlations were found between percentage change (Δ%) in FT and Δ% in CMJ height (r = 0.94; p = 0.04) and between Δ% in total testosterone/cortisol (TT/C) ratio and Δ% in SJ (r = 0.89; p = 0.03).

Conclusions: Findings suggest that long-term soccer training induces increases/decreases in hematological, hormonal, inflammatory, and muscle damage markers and physical performance in male elite and professional soccer players. These fluctuations can be explained by different contextual factors (e.g., training load, duration of training, psychological factors, mood state). Interestingly, the observed changes in hormonal parameters (FT and TT/C) were related to vertical jump performance changes (e.g., CMJ and SJ). Anabolic hormones and TT/C can possibly be used as a tool to identify physical performance alteration after long-term soccer training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01522-wDOI Listing
August 2021

High-intensity Interval Training Improves Lipocalin-2 and Omentin-1 Levels in Men with Obesity.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Univ Rennes, M2S (Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé) - EA 1274, F-35000 Rennes, France.

We investigated the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on selected circulating adipokines and other cardiovascular diseases risks factors in men with obesity. Thirty men with obesity (age: 24.96±3.11 year, BMI: 30.92±1.04 kg/m) were randomly assigned to HIIT and control groups. The HIIT group participated in a 12-week HIIT program (5×2 min interval bout at an intensity of 85-95% HRmax interspersed by 1 min passive recovery, three times per week), while the control group maintained their usual lifestyles. Blood lipids, insulin resistance, and select serum adipokines were assessed before and after 12 weeks of the intervention period. HIIT improved body composition and lipid profiles (p<0.05) and also decreased fasting insulin levels (p=0.001) and HOMA-IR (p=0.002) levels. Furthermore, HIIT increased levels of lipocalin-2 (p=0.002) while decreasing omentin-1 levels (p=0.001) in men with obesity. Changes in lcn2 and omentin-1 concentrations correlated with the changes in risk factors in the HIIT group (p<0.05). The results indicate that 12 weeks of supervised HIIT significantly improves both circulating concentrations of lcn2 and omentin-1, two recently described adipokines, and risk markers of cardiovascular diseases in men with obesity. Further research is necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms involved with these changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1560-5401DOI Listing
July 2021

Association between ACTN3 R577X genotype and risk of non-contact injury in trained athletes: A systematic review.

J Sport Health Sci 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education, Ksar-Said, University of Manouba, Tunis 2010, Tunisia.

Background: The aim of this study was to review, systematically, evidence concerning the link between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and the rates and severity of non-contact injuries and exercise-induced muscle damage in athletes and individuals enrolled in exercise training programs.

Methods: A computerized literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus, from inception until November 2020. All included studies compared the epidemiological characteristics of non-contact injury between the different genotypes of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism.

Results: Our search identified 492 records. After the screening of titles, abstracts, and full texts, 13 studies examining the association between the ACTN3 genotypes and the rate and severity of non-contact injury were included in the analysis. These studies were performed in 6 different countries (Spain, Japan, Brazil, China, Republic of Korea, and Italy) and involved a total participant pool of 1093 participants. Of the studies, 2 involved only women, 5 involved only men, and 6 involved both men and women. All the studies included were classified as high-quality studies (≥6 points on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database [PEDro] scale). Overall, evidence suggests there is an association between the ACTN3 R577X genotype and non-contact injury in 12 investigations. Six studies observed a significant association between ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and exercise induced muscle damage: 2 with non-contact ankle injury, 3 with non-contact muscle injury, and 1 with overall non-contact injury.

Conclusion: The present findings support the premise that possessing the ACTN3 XX genotype may predispose athletes to a higher probability of some non-contact injuries, such as muscle injury, ankle sprains, and higher levels of exercise-induced muscle damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2021.07.003DOI Listing
July 2021

The Effects of Eccentric and Plyometric Training Programs and Their Combination on Stability and the Functional Performance in the Post-ACL-Surgical Rehabilitation Period of Elite Female Athletes.

Front Physiol 2021 2;12:688385. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Tunisian Research Laboratory "Sport Performance Optimization", National Center of Medicine and Science in Sports, Tunis, Tunisia.

Background: The standard method to treat physically active patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is ligament reconstruction surgery. The rehabilitation training program is very important to improve functional performance in recreational athletes following ACL reconstruction.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the effects of three different training programs, eccentric training (ECC), plyometric training (PLYO), or combined eccentric and plyometric training (COMB), on dynamic balance (Y-BAL), the Lysholm Knee Scale (LKS), the return to sport index (RSI), and the leg symmetry index (LSI) for the single leg hop test for distance in elite female athletes after ACL surgery.

Materials And Methods: Fourteen weeks after rehabilitation from surgery, 40 elite female athletes (20.3 ± 3.2 years), who had undergone an ACL reconstruction, participated in a short-term (6 weeks; two times a week) training study. All participants received the same rehabilitation protocol prior to the training study. Athletes were randomly assigned to three experimental groups, ECC ( = 10), PLYO ( = 10), and COMB ( = 10), and to a control group (CON: = 10). Testing was conducted before and after the 6-week training programs and included the Y-BAL, LKS, and RSI. LSI was assessed after the 6-week training programs only.

Results: Adherence rate was 100% across all groups and no training or test-related injuries were reported. No significant between-group baseline differences (pre-6-week training) were observed for any of the parameters. Significant group-by-time interactions were found for Y-BAL ( < 0.001, ES = 1.73), LKS ( < 0.001, ES = 0.76), and RSI ( < 0.001, ES = 1.39). Contrast analysis demonstrated that COMB yielded significantly greater improvements in Y-BAL, LKS, and RSI (all < 0.001), in addition to significantly better performances in LSI (all < 0.001), than CON, PLYO, and ECC, respectively.

Conclusion: In conclusion, combined (eccentric/plyometric) training seems to represent the most effective training method as it exerts positive effects on both stability and functional performance in the post-ACL-surgical rehabilitation period of elite female athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.688385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283277PMC
July 2021

Association Between Mental Imagery and Change of Direction Performance in Young Elite Soccer Players of Different Maturity Status.

Front Psychol 2021 10;12:665508. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar-Said, University of La Manouba, Tunis, Tunisia.

Previous studies have not considered the potential influence of maturity status on the relationship between mental imagery and change of direction (CoD) speed in youth soccer. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study examined the association between mental imagery and CoD performance in young elite soccer players of different maturity status. Forty young male soccer players, aged 10-17 years, were assigned into two groups according to their predicted age at peak height velocity (PHV) (Pre-PHV; = 20 and Post-PHV; = 20). Participants were evaluated on soccer-specific tests of CoD with (CoDBall-15m) and without (CoD-15m) the ball. Participants completed the movement imagery questionnaire (MIQ) with the three- dimensional structure, internal visual imagery (IVI), external visual imagery (EVI), as well as kinesthetic imagery (KI). The Post-PHV players achieved significantly better results than Pre-PHV in EVI ( = 1.58, large; < 0.001), CoD-15m ( = 2.09, very large; < 0.001) and CoDBall-15m ( = 1.60, large; < 0.001). Correlations were significantly different between maturity groups, where, for the pre-PHV group, a negative very large correlation was observed between CoDBall-15m and KI ( = -0.73, = 0.001). For the post-PHV group, large negative correlations were observed between CoD-15m and IVI ( = -0.55, = 0.011), EVI ( = -062, = 0.003), and KI ( = -0.52, = 0.020). A large negative correlation of CoDBall-15m with EVI ( = -0.55, = 0.012) and very large correlation with KI ( = -0.79, = 0.001) were also observed. This study provides evidence of the theoretical and practical use for the CoD tasks stimulus with imagery. We recommend that sport psychology specialists, coaches, and athletes integrated imagery for CoD tasks in pre-pubertal soccer players to further improve CoD related performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.665508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222513PMC
June 2021

Improvement of Physical Performance Following a 6 Week Change-of-Direction Training Program in Elite Youth Soccer Players of Different Maturity Levels.

Front Physiol 2021 24;12:668437. Epub 2021 May 24.

Tunisian Research Laboratory, Sport Performance Optimization, National Center of Medicine and Science in Sports (CNMSS), Tunis, Tunisia.

Change-of-direction (CoD) is a necessary physical ability of a field sport and may vary in youth players according to their maturation status. The aim of this study is: to compare the effectiveness of a 6-week CoD training intervention on dynamic balance (CS-YBT), horizontal jump (5JT), speed (10 and 30-m linear sprint times), CoD with (15 m-CoD + B) and without (15 m-CoD) the ball, in youth male soccer players at different levels of maturity [pre- and post-peak height velocity (PHV)]. Thirty elite male youth soccer players aged 10-17 years from the Tunisian first division participated in this study. The players were divided into pre- (G1, = 15) and post-PHV (G2, = 15) groups. Both groups completed a similar 6-week training program with two sessions per week of four CoD exercises. All players completed the following tests before and after intervention: CS-YBT; 5 JT; 10, 30, and 15 m-CoD; and 15 m-CoD + B, and data were analyzed using ANCOVA. All 30 players completed the study according to the study design and methodology. Adherence rate was 100% across all groups, and no training or test-related injuries were reported. Pre-PHV and post-PHV groups showed significant amelioration post-intervention for all dependent variables (after test > before test; < 0.01, = 0.09-1.51). ANOVA revealed a significant group × time interaction only for CS-YBT ( = 4.45; < 0.04; η = 0.14), 5JT ( = 6.39; < 0.02; η = 0.18), and 15 m-CoD ( = 7.88; < 0.01; η = 0.22). CS-YBT, 5JT, and 15 m-CoD improved significantly in the post-PHV group (+ 4.56%, effect size = 1.51; + 4.51%, effect size = 1.05; and -3.08%, effect size = 0.51, respectively), more than the pre-PHV group (+ 2.77%, effect size = 0.85; + 2.91%, effect size = 0.54; and -1.56%, effect size = 0.20, respectively). The CoD training program improved balance, horizontal jump, and CoD without the ball in male preadolescent and adolescent soccer players, and this improvement was greater in the post-PHV players. The maturity status of the athletes should be considered when programming CoD training for soccer players.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.668437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8181750PMC
May 2021

Editorial: Acute: Chronic Workload Ratio: Is There Scientific Evidence?

Front Physiol 2021 7;12:669687. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Training and Movement Sciences, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.669687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138569PMC
May 2021

Sex-specific effects of small-sided games in basketball on psychometric and physiological markers during Ramadan intermittent fasting: a pilot study.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2021 May 23;13(1):56. Epub 2021 May 23.

M2S (Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé) - EA 1274, University of Rennes, F-35000, Rennes, France.

Background: We assessed the effects of gender, in association with a four-week small-sided games (SSGs) training program, during Ramadan intermitting fasting (RIF) on changes in psychometric and physiological markers in professional male and female basketball players.

Methods: Twenty-four professional basketball players from the first Tunisian (Tunisia) division participated in this study. The players were dichotomized by sex (males [G = 12]; females [G = 12]). Both groups completed a 4 weeks SSGs training program with 3 sessions per week. Psychometric (e.g., quality of sleep, fatigue, stress, and delayed onset of muscle soreness [DOMS]) and physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate frequency, blood lactate) were measured during the first week (baseline) and at the end of RIF (post-test).

Results: Post hoc tests showed a significant increase in stress levels in both groups (G [- 81.11%; p < 0.001, d = 0.33, small]; G [- 36,53%; p = 0.001, d = 0.25, small]). Concerning physiological parameters, ANCOVA revealed significantly lower heart rates in favor of G at post-test (1.70%, d = 0.38, small, p = 0.002).

Conclusions: Our results showed that SSGs training at the end of the RIF negatively impacted psychometric parameters of male and female basketball players. It can be concluded that there are sex-mediated effects of training during RIF in basketball players, and this should be considered by researchers and practitioners when programing training during RIF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13102-021-00285-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141155PMC
May 2021

Effects of different resistance training frequencies on body composition and muscular performance adaptations in men.

PeerJ 2021 21;9:e10537. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

M2S (Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé) - EA 1274, Univ Rennes, Rennes, France.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8 weeks resistance training (RT) with two sessions versus four sessions per week under volume load-equated conditions on body composition, maximal strength, and explosive actions performance in recreationally trained men.

Methods: Thirty-five healthy young men participated in the study and were randomly divided into a two sessions per-week RT (RT2, = 12), four sessions per-week RT (RT4, = 13) or a control group (CG, = 10). All subjects were evaluated for thigh, chest and arm circumference, countermovement jump (CMJ), medicine ball throw (MBT), 1-repetition maximum (1RM) leg press, bench press, arm curl, muscular endurance (i.e., 60% of 1RM to failure) for leg press, and bench press at pre, mid (week 4) and post an 8-week training intervention.

Results: A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures (3 [group] × 3 [time]) revealed that both training groups increased chest and thigh circumferences, strength and explosive actions performance tests in comparison to CG following 8 weeks of training ( = 0.01 to 0.04). Group × time interactions were also noted in 1RM bench press (effects size [ES] = 1.07 vs. 0.89) and arm curl (ES = 1.15 vs. 0.89), with greater gains for RT4 than RT2 ( = 0.03).

Conclusion: RT improved muscle strength, explosive actions performance and markers of muscle size in recreationally trained men; however, four sessions of resistance training per week produced greater gains in muscular strength for the upper body measures (i.e., 1RM bench press and arm curl) when compared to two sessions per week under volume-equated conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067909PMC
April 2021

Physical activity and adipokine levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes: A literature review and practical applications.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

We review the effects of acute and long-term physical activity on adipokine levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Three electronic databases were searched. Studies made in animal models were excluded, while studies based on participants with and without T2D, and also studies with type 1 diabetes were included. Of the 2,450 citations, 63 trials, including randomised control trials, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, met our inclusion criteria. Seventy and five percent of studies reported the effects of physical activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), adiponectin, visfatin, omentin-1, and leptin levels. There are no robust results due to variations in exercise modality, intensity, duration, and also differences in cohort characteristics in the literature. Only four studies described the effects of an acute session of physical activity on adipokine levels. Overall, physical activity improves diabetes status by regulating adipokine levels. However, long-term aerobic + resistance training combined with dietary modifications is likely to be a more effective strategy for improving adipokines profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11154-021-09657-xDOI Listing
April 2021

Associations Between Variations in Accumulated Workload and Physiological Variables in Young Male Soccer Players Over the Course of a Season.

Front Physiol 2021 18;12:638180. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Movement, Sport, Health and Sciences Laboratory (M2S), University of Rennes 2, Rennes, France.

This study sought to analyze the relationship between in-season training workload with changes in aerobic power (VO ), maximum and resting heart rate (HR and HR ), linear sprint medium (LSM), and short test (LSS), in soccer players younger than 16 years (under-16 soccer players). We additionally aimed to explain changes in fitness levels during the in-season through regression models, considering accumulated load, baseline levels, and peak height velocity (PHV) as predictors. Twenty-three male sub-elite soccer players aged 15.5 ± 0.2 years (PHV: 13.6 ± 0.4 years; body height: 172.7 ± 4.2 cm; body mass: 61.3 ± 5.6 kg; body fat: 13.7% ± 3.9%; VO : 48.4 ± 2.6 mL⋅kg⋅min), were tested three times across the season (i.e., early-season (EaS), mid-season (MiS), and end-season (EnS) for VO , HR , LSM, and LSS. Aerobic and speed variables gradually improved over the season and had a strong association with PHV. Moreover, the HR demonstrated improvements from EaS to EnS; however, this was more evident in the intermediate period (from EaS to MiS) and had a strong association with VO . Regression analysis showed significant predictions for VO [ = 8.18, ≤ 0.001] with an of 0.45. In conclusion, the meaningful variation of youth players' fitness levels can be observed across the season, and such changes can be partially explained by the load imposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.638180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012769PMC
March 2021

Effect of training at intensities around critical velocity on 400 meters front crawl performance in young swimmers.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar-Said, University of Manouba, Manouba, Tunisia.

Background: Young swimmers are rarely involved in training control, leading to inadequate volume and prescription of training intensities. This study aimed to examine the effect of prescribing and monitoring training intensities around critical velocity (CV) on 400 m frontcrawl performance during an 8-weeks period.

Methods: Twenty young male swimmers (13.4±1.0 years) were randomly assigned into two groups. The experimental group (EG) used training monitoring based on intensities around CV (95, 100, 105 and 110% of CV), while for the control group (CG) different heart-rate (HR) zones (EN1+, EN2, EN2+ and EN3) were used as an intensity criterion. The training volume was the same for both EG and CG. A maximal 400 m front-crawl test was performed before and after the 8-week period to determine CV intensities and to assess alternations in performance. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and HR values were also evaluated.

Results: Significant main effects of time were observed for T400, CV, HR and RPE. A significant group x time interaction was found for T400 (p=0.035, effect size=1.07, moderate). Results revealed significant pre-to-post improvements for both EG (from 328.46±26.25 to 305.88±20.09) and CG (from 329.07±25.24 to 314.75±19.87). A significant group x time interaction was also found for CV (p=0.005, effect size=1.51, large). Results revealed significant pre-to-post improvements for both EG (from 1.126±0.08 to 1.207±0.07) and CG (from 1.124±0.08 to 1.173±0.07).

Conclusions: Both training methods induced significant improvements in 400 m front-crawl performance with a greater degree for the training prescription and monitoring using CV intensities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.21.12314-XDOI Listing
March 2021

Walking exercise and lower-body blood flow restriction: Effects on systemic inflammation, lipid profiles and hematological indices in overweight middle-aged males.

Res Sports Med 2021 Feb 16:1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Univ Rennes, M2S (Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé) - EA 1274, Rennes, France.

The objective of present study is to investigate the effects of walk training with and without blood flow restriction (BFR and no-BFR) on lipid profiles, inflammatory and haematological factors in over-weighed men. Participants were divided into BFR ( = 9) or no-BFR ( = 9) groups. Both groups were exposed to 8-week walk training on a treadmill: 3 sessions/week at a speed of 50 m/min, 5 sets × 2 min/session. There were differences in pre- to post-levels of (TG) and fibrinogen in the BFR group ( ≤ 0.05) that were accompanied by changes in red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB) and haematocrit (HCT) levels ( ≤ 0.05). RBC levels were increased in the BFR group ( ≤ 0.05). The groups differed in their mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). These findings suggest the efficiency of BFR walk training in individuals exposed to chronic diseases associated with overweight, such as metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2021.1888100DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of three fitness programs on strength, speed, flexibility and muscle power on sedentary subjects.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar-Said, Manouba, Tunisia.

Background: The aim of this study was to research and compare the effect of Crossfit® (CF), LesMills® (LM) and traditional resistance (TRAD) training program on short performances.

Methods: Participants were assigned randomly into 3 groups and followed the training sessions allocated at the rate of 5 sessions/week for 16 weeks. A battery of tests including anthropometric and performance measures were carried out over three sessions: before training (T0), after eight weeks (T1) and sixteen weeks of training (T2).

Results: Findings indicated that strength tests demonstrated a significant time effect (p<0.001, ηp 2=0.6), the results showed that CF and TRAD groups improved strength every 8 weeks while LM group only at T2, The speed test demonstrated also a significant time effect (p<0.001 , ηp 2=0.5) the results showed an improvement in speed every 8 weeks for LM, at T2 for CF and no change for TRAD, for flexibility, all tests demonstrated a main time effect (p<0.001 , ηp 2=0.46 - 0.7) CF was the best in shoulder range of motion and LM in trunk and lower limb flexibility, all power tests also demonstrated a significant time effect (p<0.001 , ηp 2=0.76 - 0.9) the improvement for all groups was every 8 weeks.

Conclusions: Based on these findings, we recommend TRAD and CF as valuable trainings for strength development, LM for flexibility and all three trainings for power improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.21.12086-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Internal and External Training Load in Under-19 versus Professional Soccer Players during the In-Season Period.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 11;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé, University of Rennes, M2S-EA 1274, F-35000 Rennes, France.

This study aimed to compare the training load of a professional under-19 soccer team (U-19) to that of an elite adult team (EAT), from the same club, during the in-season period. Thirty-nine healthy soccer players were involved (EAT [ = 20]; U-19 [ = 19]) in the study which spanned four weeks. Training load (TL) was monitored as external TL, using a global positioning system (GPS), and internal TL, using a rating of perceived exertion (RPE). TL data were recorded after each training session. During soccer matches, players' RPEs were recorded. The internal TL was quantified daily by means of the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) using Borg's 0-10 scale. For GPS data, the selected running speed intensities (over 0.5 s time intervals) were 12-15.9 km/h; 16-19.9 km/h; 20-24.9 km/h; >25 km/h (sprint). Distances covered between 16 and 19.9 km/h, > 20 km/h and >25 km/h were significantly higher in U-19 compared to EAT over the course of the study ( = 0.023, d = 0.243, small; = 0.016, d = 0.298, small; and = 0.001, d = 0.564, small, respectively). EAT players performed significantly fewer sprints per week compared to U-19 players ( = 0.002, d = 0.526, small). RPE was significantly higher in U-19 compared to EAT ( = 0.001, d = 0.188, trivial). The external and internal measures of TL were significantly higher in the U-19 group compared to the EAT soccer players. In conclusion, the results obtained show that the training load is greater in U19 compared to EAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826948PMC
January 2021

Effects of Combined Balance and Strength Training on Measures of Balance and Muscle Strength in Older Women With a History of Falls.

Front Physiol 2020 23;11:619016. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education, Ksar-said, University of Manouba, Manouba, Tunisia.

Objective: We investigated the effects of combined balance and strength training on measures of balance and muscle strength in older women with a history of falls.

Methods: Twenty-seven older women aged 70.4 ± 4.1 years (age range: 65 to 75 years) were randomly allocated to either an intervention (IG, = 12) or an active control (CG, = 15) group. The IG completed 8 weeks combined balance and strength training program with three sessions per week including visual biofeedback using force plates. The CG received physical therapy and gait training at a rehabilitation center. Training volumes were similar between the groups. Pre and post training, tests were applied for the assessment of muscle strength (weight-bearing squat [WBS] by measuring the percentage of body mass borne by each leg at different knee flexions [0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°], sit-to-stand test [STS]), and balance. Balance tests used the modified clinical test of sensory interaction (mCTSIB) with eyes closed (EC) and opened (EO), on stable (firm) and unstable (foam) surfaces as well as spatial parameters of gait such as step width and length (cm) and walking speed (cm/s).

Results: Significant group × time interactions were found for different degrees of knee flexion during WBS (0.0001 < < 0.013, 0.441 < < 0.762). tests revealed significant pre-to-post improvements for both legs and for all degrees of flexion (0.0001 < < 0.002, 0.697 < < 1.875) for IG compared to CG. Significant group × time interactions were found for firm EO, foam EO, firm EC, and foam EC (0.006 < < 0.029; 0.302 < < 0.518). tests showed significant pre-to-post improvements for both legs and for all degrees of oscillations (0.0001 < < 0.004, 0.753 < < 2.097) for IG compared to CG. This study indicates that combined balance and strength training improved percentage distribution of body weight between legs at different conditions of knee flexion (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°) and also decreased the sway oscillation on a firm surface with eyes closed, and on foam surface (with eyes opened or closed) in the IG.

Conclusion: The higher positive effects of training seen in standing balance tests, compared with dynamic tests, suggests that balance training exercises including lateral, forward, and backward exercises improved static balance to a greater extent in older women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.619016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786296PMC
December 2020

Resistance training, gremlin 1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obese men: a randomised trial.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2020 Dec 28:1-9. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Univ Rennes, M2S (Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé) - EA 1274, Rennes, France.

Objective: This study aimed to determine how different resistance training protocols affect gremlin 1, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), cardiometabolic, and anthropometric measures in obese men.

Methods: Forty-four males with obesity (weight: 93.2 ± 2.2 kg, BMI: 32.9 ± 1.2 kg/m, age: 27.5 ± 9.4 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training (TRT,  = 11), circuit resistance training (CRT,  = 11), interval resistance training (IRT,  = 11) or control (C,  = 11) groups. TRT group performed ten exercises at 50% of 1RM with 14 repetitions for three sets and 30 seconds rest interval between exercises and 1.5 min rest between sets, the CRT protocol included three circuits of 10 exercises, at an intensity of 50% of 1-RM, 14 repetitions with a minimum rest (< 15 s) between exercises and 3 min rest between sets, and the IRT group performed two sets of the same exercises with 50% of 1 RM, and 14 repetitions were followed with active rest of 25% of 1RM and 14 repetitions. All resistance training groups performed 60 min per session resistance exercises, 3 days per week, for 12 weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of exercise training.

Results: Resistance training (TRT, CRT, and IRT) significantly decreased plasma levels of gremlin (TRT from 231.0 ± 5.8 to 210.0 ± 11.6 ng/ml, CRT from 226.0 ± 7.6 to 188.0 ± 7.7 ng/ml and, IRT from 227.0 ± 6.3 to 183.0 ± 9.0 ng/ml, effect size (ES): 0.50), MIF (TRT from 251.0 ± 7.4 to 260.0 ± 6.5 ng/ml, CRT from 248.0 ± 10.9 to 214.0 ± 9.0 ng/ml and, IRT from 247.0 ± 8.9 to 196.0 ± 6.9 ng/ml, ES: 0.55) and CRP (TRT from 28.4 ± 1.7 to 23.3 ± 2.1 nmol/l, CRT from 28.5 ± 2.2 to 21.1 ± 1.8 nmol/l, IRT from 28.1 ± 1.3 to 20.8 ± 1.3 nmol/l, ES: 0.49) compared to the control group ( < .05), but these reduction were greater in the CRT and IRT groups compared to the TRT group ( < .05).

Conclusion: The CRT and IRT protocols had more beneficial improvement in gremlin 1, MIF, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors compared to the beneficial changes produced by TRT protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2020.1856142DOI Listing
December 2020

Sprint and jump performances in highly trained young soccer players of different chronological age: Effects of linear VS. CHANGE-OF-DIRECTION sprint training.

J Exerc Sci Fit 2021 Apr 13;19(2):81-90. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Univ Rennes, M2S (Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé) - EA 1274, F-35000, Rennes, France.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different sprint-training regimes on sprint and jump performances according to age in elite young male soccer players over the course of one soccer season.

Methods: Players were randomly assigned to two training groups. Group 1 performed systematic change-of-direction sprints (CODST, U19 [n = 9], U17 [n = 9], U15 [n = 10]) while group 2 conducted systematic linear sprints (LST, U19 [n = 9], U17 [n = 9], U15 [n = 9]). Training volumes were similar between groups (40 sprints per week x 30 weeks = 1200 sprints per season). Pre and post training, all players performed tests for the assessment of linear and slalom sprint speed (5-m and 10-m), countermovement jump, and maximal aerobic speed performance.

Results: For all physical fitness measures, the baseline-adjusted means data (ANCOVA) across the age groups showed no significant differences between LST and CODST at post (0.061 < p < 0.995; 0.0017 < d < 1.01). The analyses of baseline-adjusted means for all physical fitness measures for U15, U17, and U19 (LST vs. CODST) revealed no significant differences between LST and CODST for U15 (0.213 < p < 0.917; 0.001 < d < 0.087), U17 (0.132 < p < 0.976; 0.001 < d < 0.310), and U19 (0.300 < p < 0.999; 0.001 < d < 0.049) at post.

Conclusions: The results from this study showed that both, LST and CODST induced significant changes in the sprint, lower limbs power, and aerobic performances in young elite soccer players. Since no significant differences were observed between LST and CODST, the observed changes are most likely due to training and/or maturation. Therefore, more research is needed to elucidate whether CODST, LST or a combination of both is beneficial for youth soccer athletes' performance development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesf.2020.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732877PMC
April 2021

L-Arginine Improves Endurance to High-Intensity Interval Exercises in Overweight Men.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2020 Dec 1;31(1):46-54. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Université Rennes 2.

The effects of acute consumption of L-Arginine (L-Arg) in healthy young individuals are not clearly defined, and no studies on the effects of L-Arg in individuals with abnormal body mass index undertaking strenuous exercise exist. Thus, we examined whether supplementation with L-Arg diminishes cardiopulmonary exercise testing responses, such as ventilation (VE), VE/VCO2, oxygen uptake (VO2), and heart rate, in response to an acute session of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) in overweight men. A double-blind, randomized crossover design was used to study 30 overweight men (age, 26.5 ± 2.2 years; body weight, 88.2 ± 5.3 kilogram; body mass index, 28.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2). Participants first completed a ramped-treadmill exercise protocol to determine VO2max velocity (vVO2max), after which they participated in two sessions of HIIE. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 6 g of L-Arg or placebo supplements. The HIIE treadmill running protocol consisted of 12 trials, including exercise at 100% of vVO2max for 1 min interspersed with recovery intervals of 40% of vVO2max for 2 min. Measurements of VO2 (ml·kg-1·min-1), VE (L/min), heart rate (beat per min), and VE/VCO2 were obtained. Supplementation with L-Arg significantly decreased all cardiorespiratory responses during HIIE (placebo+HIIE vs. L-Arg+HIIE for each measurement: VE [80.9 ± 4.3 L/min vs. 74.6 ± 3.5 L/min, p < .05, ES = 1.61], VE/VCO2 [26.4 ± 1.3 vs. 24.4 ± 1.0, p < .05, ES = 1.8], VO2 [26.4 ± 0.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 vs. 24.4 ± 0.9 ml·kg-1·min-1, p < .05, ES = 2.2], and heart rate [159.7 ± 6.3 beats/min vs. 155.0 ± 3.7 beats/min, p < .05, d = 0.89]). The authors conclude consuming L-Arg before HIIE can alleviate the excessive physiological strain resulting from HIIE and help to increase exercise tolerance in participants with a higher body mass index who may need to exercise on a regular basis for extended periods to improve their health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2020-0054DOI Listing
December 2020

Change-of-Direction Performance in Elite Soccer Players: Preliminary Analysis According to Their Playing Positions.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 12;17(22). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

M2S (Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé)-EA 1274, University of Rennes, F-35000 Rennes, France.

Our objective was to examine the relationship between change of direction (CoD) performance, with (CoDb), and without the ball (CoDwb), and selected measures of physical fitness (jump performance, speed, balance) in elite soccer players, according to players' positions. Forty elite male soccer players performed the change-of-direction and acceleration test (CODAT) with (CODATb), and without the ball (CODATwb), 5- and 20-m sprint tests, the 5-jump test (5JT), and the Y-balance test (YBT). Analyses of the whole sample showed significant correlations between all CODAT measures (CODATwb and CODATb, respectively) and sprint 5-m (r = 0.72, < 0.001; r = 0.52, < 0.01), sprint 20-m (r = 0.54, < 0.03; r = 0.45, < 0.05), jump (r = -0.62, < 0.01; r = -0.64, < 0.01) and balance (r = -0.50, < 0.01; r = -0.83, < 0.001) performances. Correlations were significantly different between player positions (defender, midfielder and striker). When examining the entire sample, the single best predictor of CODATwb was performance in the 5-m test with an explained variance of 52% ( < 0.001). For CODATb, the Y-balance performance explained 68% of the variance of performance ( < 0.001). In conclusion, soccer coaches and fitness trainers are advised to improve players' CoD using neuromuscular training that mimic crucial match actions. Meanwhile, CoD testing and training should be designed in line with the demands of playing position.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696160PMC
November 2020

Effects of a 12-Week Change-of-Direction Sprints Training Program on Selected Physical and Physiological Parameters in Professional Basketball Male Players.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 6;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé, University of Rennes, M2S-EA 1274, F-35000 Rennes, France.

Multidirectional repeated sprints with quick changes-of-direction (CoD) are considered a key performance determinant in basketball. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week CoD sprint training program compared to regular basketball training on selected measures of physical fitness and physiological adaptations in male basketball players. Sixteen professional basketball players were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT = 8) or an active control group (CON = 8). INT completed a 12-week CoD sprint training program with two sessions per week while CON continued their regular training. Training volume was similar between groups. Before and after the intervention, the two groups were evaluated for the repeated sprint ability test with CoD (IRSA), the squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) test, the five time-jump test (FJT) and change of direction -test. Blood samples were taken before the beginning of the experimental protocol, after 4, 8 and 12 weeks to monitor the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C). For -test, post-hoc tests revealed significant pre-to-post improvements for INT (3.4%; = 0.001, ES = 0.91). For CMJ, post-hoc tests revealed a significant pre-to-post decrease for INT (-11.6%; = 0.001, ES = 0.94), and a significant improvement for CON (4.96%; = 0.014, ES = 0.60). For T/C ratio, post-hoc tests revealed a significant decrease after 12 weeks of training for INT (52.3%; < 0.001; ES = 0.63). In conclusion, twelve weeks of CoD sprint training enhanced CoD performance but negatively affected vertical jump capacity in male basketball players. T/C ratio indicated that the physiological demands associated with INT were well-balanced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664328PMC
November 2020

The Interplay Between Plasma Hormonal Concentrations, Physical Fitness, Workload and Mood State Changes to Periods of Congested Match Play in Professional Soccer Players.

Front Physiol 2020 21;11:835. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Movement, Sport, Health and Sciences Laboratory (M2S), University of Rennes 2, Rennes, France.

Background: The regular assessment of hormonal and mood state parameters in professional soccer are proposed as good indicators during periods of intense training and/or competition to avoid overtraining.

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze hormonal, psychological, workload and physical fitness parameters in elite soccer players in relation to changes in training and match exposure during a congested period of match play.

Methods: Sixteen elite soccer players from a team playing in the first Tunisian soccer league were evaluated three times (T1, T2, and T3) over 12 weeks. The non-congested period of match play was from T1 to T2, when the players played 6 games over 6 weeks. The congested period was from T2 to T3, when the players played 10 games over 6 weeks. From T1 to T3, players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1), the repeated shuttle sprint ability test (RSSA), the countermovement jump test (CMJ), and the squat jump test (SJ). Plasma Cortisol (C), Testosterone (T), and the T/C ratio were analyzed at T1, T2, and T3. Players had their mood dimensions (tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, confusion, and a Total Mood Disturbance) assessed through the Profile of Mood State questionnaire (POMS). Training session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) was also recorded on a daily basis in order to quantify internal training load and elements of monotony and strain.

Results: Significant performance declines (T1 < T2 < T3) were found for SJ performance ( = 0.04, effect size [ES] ES = 0.15-0.06, ES = 0.24) from T1 to T3. YYIR1 performance improved significantly from T1 to T2 and declined significantly from T2 to T3 ( = 0.001, ES = 0.24, ES = -2.54). Mean RSSA performance was significantly higher ( = 0.019, ES = -0.47, ES = 1.15) in T3 compared with T2 and T1. Best RSSA performance was significantly higher in T3 when compared with T2 and T1 ( = 0.006, ES = 0.47, ES = -0.56), but significantly lower in T2 when compared with to T1. T and T/C were significantly lower in T3 when compared with T2 and T1 (T: = 0.03, ES = -0.51, ES = -0.51, T/C: = 0.017, ES = -1.1, ES = -1.07). Significant decreases were found for the vigor scores in T3 when compared to T2 and T1 ( = 0.002, ES = 0.31, ES = -1.25). A significant increase was found in fatigue scores in T3 as compared to T1 and T2 ( = 0.002, ES = 0.43, ES = 0.81). A significant increase was found from T1 < T2 < T3 intension score ( = 0.002, ES = 1.1, ES = 0.2) and anger score ( = 0.03, ES = 0.47, ES = 0.33) over the study period. Total mood disturbance increased significantly ( = 0.02, ES = 0.91, ES = 1.1) from T1 to T3. Between T1-T2, significant relationships were observed between workload and changes in T ( = 0.66, = 0.003), and T/C ratio ( = 0.62, = 0.01). There were significant relationships between performance in RSSA and training load parameters (workload: = 0.52, = 0.03; monotony: = 0.62, = 0.01; strain: = 0.62, = 0.009). Between T2-T3, there was a significant relationship between Δ% of total mood disturbance and Δ% of YYIR1 ( = -0.54; = 0.04), RSSA ( = 0.58, = 0.01), SJ ( = -0,55, = 0.01), T ( = 0.53; = 0.03), and T/C ( = 0.5; = 0.04).

Conclusion: An intensive period of congested match play significantly compromised elite soccer players' physical and mental fitness. These changes were related to psychological but not hormonal parameters; even though significant alterations were detected for selected measures. Mood monitoring could be a simple and useful tool to determine the degree of preparedness for match play during a congested period in professional soccer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7385323PMC
July 2020

Effects of Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Gut Hormones and Body Composition in Males with Obesity.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 08 3;17(15). Epub 2020 Aug 3.

ISSEP Ksar Said, University of La Manouba, Tunis 2000, Tunisia.

We studied the effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on gut hormones (leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), and ghrelin) in males with obesity. Thirty sedentary males were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (EG, = 15) or a control group (CG, = 15). The EG group completed their Ramadan fasting rituals (30 days), whereas the CG continued with their normal daily habits. Blood samples were collected at four time points: 24 h before the start of Ramadan (T0), on the 15th day of Ramadan (T1), the day after the end of Ramadan (T2) and 21 days after Ramadan (T3). There were significant pre-to-post improvements for leptin ( = 0.01, = 1.52), GLP-1 ( = 0.022, = 0.75), PYY ( = 0.031, = 0.69) and CCK ( = 0.027, = 0.81) in the EG, with no interaction effect for ghrelin ( = 0.74; = 0.008). No significant changes ( > 0.05) occurred in plasma volume variations (ΔPV) after RIF in both EG (-0.03 ± 0.01%) and CG (0.06 ± 0.07%). RIF represents an effective strategy to modify appetite-regulating hormones, leading to improved body composition indices and reduced obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432640PMC
August 2020

Pulmonary diffusing capacity measured by NO/CO transfer in Tunisian boys.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 10 6;55(10):2754-2761. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Université de Rennes, M2S (Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé), Rennes, France.

Background: The diffusing capacity, which measures gas-exchange, uses reference values based on data from American or European studies. There are currently no reference values of pulmonary diffusing capacity (TL) and its components, such as the conductance of the membrane (Dm) and capillary lung volume (Vc) for healthy North African children.

Objectives: We determined the prediction equations-reference values for TL, Dm, Vc and the alveolar volume (VA) in healthy Tunisian boys.

Methods: Values of Vc, Dm, TL, and VA were measured by the NO/CO transfer method, using a single breath maneuver in 118 Tunisian boys (8-14 years old) at rest. We performed linear regression analysis of the pulmonary parameters and independent variables, such as height, weight, and age.

Results: The reference equations for pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (TL ) was 0.201 × weight (kg) + 8.979; for TL was 0.76 × height (cm)-24.383; for Dm was 0.388 × height (cm)- 12.555 and for VA was 0.34 × height (cm)-3.951. Vc increased significantly with weight (P < .05) but not with age (P > .05).

Conclusions: References norms for TL and TL for nitric oxide and its components in young Tunisian boys are similar to data from other countries. The prediction equations we developed can be extended to clinical practice in Tunisia and can be considered for use in neighboring North African countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24984DOI Listing
October 2020

Effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on inflammatory and biochemical biomarkers in males with obesity.

Physiol Behav 2020 10 23;225:113090. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

ISSEP Ksar Said, University of Manouba, Tunis, Tunisia.

Background: To determine the effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on inflammatory (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)) and biochemical markers of liver-renal function (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea and creatinine) in males with obesity.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-eight males with obesity were randomly allocated to an experimental group (EG, n = 14) or a control group (CG, n = 14). The EG group completed their fasting rituals for the entire month of Ramadan (30 days) whereas the CG group continued with their normal daily habits. Blood samples were collected 24 h before the start of Ramadan (T0), on the 15th day of Ramadan (T1), the day after the end of Ramadan (T2), and 21 days after the end of Ramadan (T3). Resting plasma volume variation between pre and post-RIF (ΔPV) was calculated.

Results: Decreases were noted for interleukin-6 (p = 0.02, d = 1.4) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (p = 0.01, d = 0.7), with no changes for C-reactive protein (p = 0.3; d = 0.1) in the EG compared to CG group. There were no changes (P > 0.05) in ΔPV recorded after RIF for either EG (-0.035 ± 0.02%) and CG (0.055 ± 0.06%).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that RIF improves systemic inflammation biomarkers in males with obesity. Moreover, RIF did not negatively affect biomarkers of liver and renal function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113090DOI Listing
October 2020
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