Publications by authors named "Hassan Ahmadvand"

52 Publications

The effects of pomegranate peel extract on the gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes in a rat model of alloxan-induced diabetes.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Feb 1:1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diabetic and antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic pomegranate peel extract (APE) in alloxan-induced diabetes rat models. We divided 60 rats into the following six equal groups ( = 10): Healthy control; diabetic control (100 mg/kg alloxan); sham + glibenclamide (10 mg/kg); diabetic + glibenclamide (10 mg/kg); sham + APE (200 mg/kg) and diabetic + APE (200 mg/kg). After 8 weeks, kidneys were taken out for biochemical and molecular studies. Following APE treatment, biochemical parameters including malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly induced in the treated group as compared with the control group ( < 0.05). Also, gene expression of (3-fold), (2.6-fold), and (1.5-fold) were increased as compared to controls ( < 0.05). Overall, our results indicated that pomegranate can be used as an antioxidant agent to reduce complications from diseases associated with oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2021.1877308DOI Listing
February 2021

D-Limonene Alleviates Acute Kidney Injury Following Gentamicin Administration in Rats: Role of NF-B Pathway, Mitochondrial Apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, and PCNA.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 13;2021:6670007. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Clinical application of gentamicin (GM) is well known to be associated with the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). This study was the first to investigate the possible protective effects of D-limonene (D-lim) on AKI following GM administration in rats. 32 rats arranged in four groups ( = 8): (1) the control group received saline intraperitoneally (0.5 ml/day) and orally (0.5 ml/day), (2) the D-lim group received D-lim (100 mg/kg) orally and saline (0.5 ml/day) intraperitoneally, (3) the GM group received GM (100 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally and saline (0.5 ml/day) orally, and (4) the treated group received intraperitoneal GM (100 mg/kg) and oral D-lim (100 mg/kg). All treatments were performed daily for 12 consecutive days. Results revealed that D-lim ameliorated GM-induced AKI, oxidative stress, mitochondrial apoptosis, and inflammation. D-lim showed nephroprotective effects as reflected by the decrease in serum urea and creatinine and improvement of renal histopathological changes. D-lim alleviated GM-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities of renal catalase, serum and renal glutathione peroxidase, and renal superoxide dismutase and decreasing renal malondialdehyde and serum nitric oxide levels. Intriguingly, D-lim suppressed mitochondrial apoptosis by considerably downregulating Bax and caspase-3 (Casp-3) mRNA and protein expressions and markedly enhancing Bcl2 mRNA and protein expressions. Furthermore, D-lim significantly decreases GM-induced inflammatory response through downregulation of NF-B, IL-6, and TNF- mRNA and/or protein expressions and decrease in renal myeloperoxidase activity. Finally, D-lim remarkably downregulated PCNA protein expression in the treated group compared with the GM group. In brief, this study showed that D-lim alleviated AKI following GM administration in rats, partially through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities as well as downregulation of PCNA expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6670007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822690PMC
January 2021

Vitamin D status influences cytokine production and MALAT1 expression from the PBMCs of patients with coronary artery disease and healthy controls.

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2020 Dec;66(12):1712-1717

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (lncRNA MALAT1) expression and its role in cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and non-CAD participants (NCAD).

Methods: Blood samples were taken from 15 patients with CAD and 15 NCAD individuals. The plasma was used for biochemical analyses. MALAT1 and CD36 expressions were evaluated in the isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by real-time PCR. Furthermore, the levels of inflammatory cytokines e.g. interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-22 were measured in the supernatants of the cultured PBMCs by flow cytometry.

Results: The levels of MALAT1 and CD36 were not significantly different between the CAD and NCAD groups. However, a lower level of MALAT1 and CD36 was observed in PBMCs of vitamin D deficient (<15 ng/ml) CAD and NCAD participants. Furthermore, the vitamin D deficient (<15 ng/ml) group showed a significantly higher plasma level of IL-6, IL-10, and IL-22 compared to the non-deficient (≥15 ng/ml) group. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between CD36, IL-22, and fasting blood sugar (FBS) with MALAT1.

Conclusion: Given that in vitamin D deficient individuals a decreased level of MALAT1 was associated with CD36 expression and increased IL-22 production, vitamin D supplementation may play a role in reducing MALAT1/CD36/IL-22 mediated complications such as T2DM and CAD, especially in vitamin D deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.66.12.1712DOI Listing
December 2020

Exogenous glutamine ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2020 Oct 6:1-10. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of glutamine (Gln) on diabetic nephropathy and other complications in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin/nicotinamide induced diabetic rats were enrolled as an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Animals were divided into control, diabetic, and Gln (1000 mg/l in drinking water, eight weeks) treated diabetic groups. Gln alleviated renal inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6, glutathione peroxidase, total superoxide dismutase, and glutathione), decreased serum uric acid and creatinine, and restored renal histopathological changes (glomerular volume, sclerosis, and leukocyte infiltration). Additionally, Gln ameliorated other complications, including systemic oxidative stress (serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, serum and liver glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and total superoxide dismutase, and liver catalase), insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, and hyperlipidaemia. Collectively, Gln attenuates diabetic nephropathy and other complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2020.1828478DOI Listing
October 2020

Room temperature and high response ethanol sensor based on two dimensional hybrid nanostructures of WS/GONRs.

Sci Rep 2020 Sep 9;10(1):14799. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Here in this research, room temperature ethanol and humidity sensors were prepared based on two dimensional (2D) hybrid nanostructures of tungsten di-sulfide (WS) nanosheets and graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) as GOWS. The characterization results based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ESD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the hybrid formations. Ethanol sensing of drop-casted GOWS films on SiO substrate indicated increasing in gas response up to 5 and 55 times higher compared to pristine GONRs and WS films respectively. The sensing performance of GOWS hybrid nanostructures was investigated in different concentrations of WS, and the highest response was about 126.5 at 1 ppm of ethanol in 40% relative humidity (R.H.) for WS/GONRs molar ratio of 10. Flexibility of GOWS was studied on Kapton substrate with bending radius of 1 cm, and the gas response decreased less than 10% after 30th bending cycles. The high response and flexibility of the sensors inspired that GOWS are promising materials for fabrication of wearable gas sensing devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71695-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481777PMC
September 2020

Ameliorative effects of histidine on oxidative stress, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and renal histological alterations in streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020 Jun;23(6):714-723

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Objectives: The present study sought to evaluate the beneficial effects of histidine (His) on oxidative stress, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), renal histological alterations and anti-oxidant enzymes gene expressions in type 2 diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: Streptozotocin/nicotinamide (STZ/NA) induced diabetic rats were used as an animal model of type 2 diabetes. One group of rats received daily His (1000 mg/l) in drinking water for 8 weeks, whereas other groups (control and untreated diabetic groups) received only water. Different parameters such as glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, lipid profile, cardiac risk ratios, renal functional markers, and oxidative stress were determined in all groups. Moreover, renal histological alterations, mRNA expressions of anti-oxidant enzymes, and TNF-α were evaluated in the rats.

Results: His exhibited a protective effect on glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, lipid profile, cardiac risk ratios, renal functional markers, oxidative stress, and TNF-α. Furthermore, His restored the renal histological alterations and normalized the augmented mRNA expressions of renal anti-oxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD)) and TNF-α.

Conclusion: His could ameliorate diabetes complications related to oxidative stress, inflammation, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and nephropathy. Hence, the use of this amino acid is recommended for diabetic patients in order to reduce diabetes complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2020.38553.9148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351437PMC
June 2020

Effects of L. leaf extract supplementation on testicular functions in diabetic rats.

Biotech Histochem 2021 Jan 1;96(1):41-47. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences , Sari, Iran.

Testicular dysfunction is a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). L. (JRL) leaf extract is a source of phenolic compounds that exhibits hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. We investigated whether JRL leaf extract could inhibit the adverse effects of DM on oxidative stress, testis histology and testosterone hormone production. We used four groups of male rats: control group (non-diabetic) given saline, diabetic group, diabetic + JRL group that received JRL leaf extract, and JRL group (nondiabetic) that received JRL leaf extract only. To evaluate the effects of JRL leaf extract on testicular functions in diabetic animals, we evaluated histopathological and histomorphometric changes; serum testosterone; and malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. Decreased of MDA along with improved antioxidant status in the testis of diabetic rats; these abnormalities were attenuated by JRL leaf extract. We detected significantly decreased antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, SOD, CAT) and testosterone levels in the diabetic rats; these levels were normalized after JRL leaf extract administration. The MDA level and improved antioxidant status in the testis of diabetic rats was detected after JRL leaf extract administration. Our findings suggest that JRL leaf extract exerts preventive effects against diabetic dysfunction in the testis, which might be due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10520295.2020.1755893DOI Listing
January 2021

Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning in a rat model of cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020 Mar;23(3):321-328

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: Cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating side effect in patients receiving this drug. Recent studies suggest hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy as a new treatment approach for models of neural injury. The aim of the current study was to determine the protective effects of HBO preconditioning against peripheral neuropathy induced by Cisplatin (CDDP).

Materials And Methods: The present study was conducted on 4 groups of rats: Sham group; HBO group (60 min/d); Control group (CDDP 2 mg/kg/d); Precondition group (HBO+CDDP). Mechanical threshold testing was weekly carried out using von Frey filament. Sciatic nerve and associated ganglia were removed five weeks after the first CDDP injection for biochemical evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, immunohistochemistry of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), TNF-α, caspase-3 and iNOS, and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) assessments.

Results: MDA levels and MPO activities were significantly decreased in preconditioned rats. Attenuated TUNEL reaction along with attenuated caspase-3, TNF-α, and iNOS expression could be significantly detected in preconditioned rats. Also, HBO preconditioning improved the nociceptive threshold.

Conclusion: The results suggest that HBO preconditioning can attenuate peripheral neuropathy caused by cisplatin in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2019.40095.9504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229505PMC
March 2020

Protective Effect of Thioctic Acid on Renal Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Rat.

Int J Prev Med 2019 9;10:176. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: We investigated the effect of thioctic acid (TA) on kidney function, oxidative stress, and inflammatory status in serum and kidney homogenates of a rat subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).

Materials And Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three equal groups: sham, IR, and IR + TA in 50 mg/kg once-daily intraperitoneal injection for 2 weeks, before IR induction. The levels of urea and creatinine (Cr) in the serum of rats were measured. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (NO) as stress oxidative markers; tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and myeloperoxidase as inflammatory markers, as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and glutathione (GSH) level in both serum and kidney homogenates were determined.

Results: Cr and urea increased in serum of IR group. Furthermore, levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in serum and kidney homogenates of the cited group were higher than the sham group. TA not only decreased the levels of Cr, urea, oxidative stress, and inflammation but also elevated the level of GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: The findings showed that TA protected IR rat against kidney dysfunction and IRI due to reinforcing endogenous antioxidant and subtracting of inflammatory markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_396_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6826679PMC
October 2019

Investigating the sperm parameters, oxidative stress and histopathological effects of salvia miltiorrhiza hydroalcoholic extract in the prevention of testicular ischemia reperfusion damage in rats.

Theriogenology 2020 Mar 3;144:98-106. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

Aims: One of the most common urologic emergencies is spermatic cord torsion, which can damage testicular tissue and reduce fertility. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) hydroalcoholic extract possess high antioxidant properties, and its efficacy in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury prevention has been demonstrated in cardiac, renal, and liver tissues. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the protective mechanism of SM extract on testicular I/R damage.

Main Methods: 18 mature male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 3 groups; with six rats in each group: Group 1 (Sham) was sham-operated. Group 2 (T-D): torsion was performed, and after 2 hours (h) detorsion was done. Group 3 (SM): (200 mg kg) SM was intraperitoneally injected thirty minutes before detorsion. Then testicular and epididymal weight and size alterations, sperm parameters (motility, livability, concentration, and morphology), both plasma and testicular tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evaluated. Also, histopathological changes included mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD), testicular capsule thickness (TCT), mean testicular biopsy scoring (MTBS), and germinal epithelial cell thickness (GECT) were examined.

Results: Testicular I/R significantly reduced sperm motility, viability, and normality, while SM extract administration remarkably increased sperm motility, and normality (P < 0.05). Induction of testicular T-D caused a significant increment in the level of MDA and notable decline in the levels of GPX, CAT, and TAC both in plasma and testis tissue, whereas administration of SM extract significantly decreased MDA level and increased GPX, CAT, and TAC levels in plasma and testicular tissue (P < 0.05). Histopathological parameters including MSTD, GECT, MTBS, and TCT were significantly lower in the T-D group, while pretreatment with SM extract remarkably increased MSTD, GECT, and MTBS amounts (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Since the SM extract increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, improved sperm parameters and reduced the damage to testicular tissue, therefore, its use as a potent antioxidant in reducing testicular I/R damage is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2020.01.002DOI Listing
March 2020

Oxidative Stress Status and Liver Markers in Coronary Heart Disease.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Apr;8(1):49-55

Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. An association exists between the alterations of liver markers and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study was designed to investigate the status of oxidative stress and liver markers in patients with CHD.

Methods: This study included 50 CHD patients and 50 healthy volunteers. Serum activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and fasting blood sugar (FBS) concentrations were measured. The Unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze the data.

Results: Serum GSH level and CAT and GPX activities were significantly greater in healthy controls than in CHD patients. Serum MDA, NO, and FBS levels and GGT, ALT, ALP activities were significantly greater in CHD patients than in healthy controls. Serum AST activity was greater in CHD patients than in controls, but the difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that CHD is related to oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and elevated liver enzyme activity. CHD is a deadly disease that requires appropriate medical care. Antioxidant treatment might inhibit disease progression.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6590939PMC
April 2019

The Protective Role of Gallic Acid Pretreatment On Renal Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Rats.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Apr;8(1):42-48

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIR) occurs when there is a temporary restriction of blood flow to the kidneys followed by an influx of blood, re-oxygenating the tissues. This occurs as a severe complication of major surgery. This process causes significant damage to the tissues and is responsible for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI), a life-threatening condition with high mortality rates. Here, we evaluated the potential protective effects of the antioxidant, gallic acid (GA), on RIR in an rat model.

Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (control, n = 8), group 2 (Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) with no-treatment, n = 7), and group 3 (IR + daily GA 100 mg/kg i.p, n = 7). The abdomens of the rats in the control group were opened during the surgical procedure, then sutured closed. GA pretreatment began daily 15 days prior to inducing RIR. To induce RIR, the umbilical arteries were obstructed on both sides and clamped with mild pressure for 45 min. Following the 45 min ischemia, the clamps were removed to allow for the induction of reperfusion. The reperfusion phase was 24 hours.

Results: Following IR, the serum levels of urea and creatinine significantly increased compared to the controls. Pretreatment with GA was observed to reduce urea and creatinine levels following IR. However, this decrease was not statistically significant. The serum and renal levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the IR group was significantly elevated compared to the control group. Conversely, glutathione (GSH) levels and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) significantly decreased in the IR group compared to controls. Our findings show GA pretreatment to significantly improve the levels of renal MDA, serum GSH, and GPX activity following RIR.

Conclusion: Our findings highlight the protective role for GA in mitigating the damage caused by RIR and its applications as a potential treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6590945PMC
April 2019

Serum Levels of Chemerin, Apelin, and Adiponectin in Relation to Clinical Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Psychological Factors in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2020 May/Jun;54(5):e40-e49

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences.

Background: Adipokines have endocrine roles in metabolism and immunity. Dysregulation of adipokine levels is associated with several diseases with chronic inflammation. We aimed to assess the serum concentrations of chemerin, apelin, and adiponectin in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Furthermore, we evaluated the possible association of these adipokines with clinical symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and psychological factors.

Materials And Methods: In this case-control study, 114 male and female IBS patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. Along with the IBS patients, 114 sex and age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Patients filled in the questionnaires of the IBS severity scoring system (IBSSS), gastrointestinal (GI) and somatic symptoms, IBS specific QoL (IBS-QoL), and psychological disorders, and went to the lab for blood sampling.

Results: Serum levels of both adiponectin and apelin were significantly (P=0.04, 0.03, respectively) lower, whereas chemerin was significantly (P=0.01) higher in IBS patients. Chemerin was higher in IBS-D compared with both IBS-C and IBS-A, while apelin and adiponectin were not different between subtypes. After adjustments for confounders only, chemerin had a positive association with IB severity scoring system and GI symptoms. Furthermore, chemerin had positive associations, whereas apelin and adiponectin had inverse associations with somatic symptoms and psychological factors. There were no significant associations between adipokines including chemerin, apelin, and adiponectin, and IBS-QoL.

Conclusions: Chemerin had significant associations with both the severity of clinical symptoms and psychological factors in IBS; thus, it could be considered as a potential therapeutic target in these patients; however, further studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000001227DOI Listing
July 2019

Effects of Pistacia atlantica on Oxidative Stress Markers and Antioxidant Enzymes Expression in Diabetic Rats.

J Am Coll Nutr 2019 Mar-Apr;38(3):267-274. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

e Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects many patients all over the world. It involves different parts of the body, such as brain, eyes, kidneys, vessels, and so on. The lack of balance between free radicals and antioxidants is a possible mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Antioxidant treatment, especially natural forms, can be a beneficial solution. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of Pistacia atlantica oleoresin (PAO) on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes expression in diabetic rats.

Method: Fifty adult male Wistar rats were allotted randomly into five groups as follow: control group, diabetic control group, glibenclamide control group, diabetic glibenclamide group, diabetic treated group with 200 mg/kg PAO. Then PAO was prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). LD50 was also estimated for essential oil. Oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme including malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also measured. The expression of GPx, CAT, and SOD genes was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: The main constituents of essential oil gum were beta-pinene (29.38%), followed by alpha-pinene (18.15%), myrcene (7.36%), trans-pinocarveol (7.15%), and camphene (4.12%). Diabetes induced an increased level of MDA (69.92 ± 3.92 vs. 43.76 ± 3.73) and decreased levels of GSH (2.57 ± 0.40 vs. 7.05 ± 1.59), GPx (11.66 ± 2.2 vs. 16.38 ± 2.1), CAT (12.17 ± 3.38 vs. 18.7 ± 2.66), and SOD (0.78 ± 0.67 vs. 2.41 ± 0.46). In contrast, PAO treatment significantly decreased MDA (54.59 ± 12.54 vs. 69.92 ± 3.92) and increased GSH (4.5 ± 0.89 vs. 2.57 ± 0.40), GPx (25.86 ± 5.37 vs. 11.66 ± 2.2), CAT (22.69 ± 0.36 vs. 12.17 ± 3.38), and SOD (3.65 ± 1.08 vs. 0.78 ± 0.67) (p < 0.05). Moreover, our results indicated that both GPx and CAT mRNA levels significantly increased approximately 4.46 and 6.23 times in rats fed with 200 mg/kg of PAO, more than that of the healthy control group, respectively (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). Also, the average expression level of SOD was also significantly 1.57 higher in rats fed with 200 mg/kg of PAO in comparison to the diabetic control group (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The results indicated that PAO could be propose as an agent that protects the body against diseases that are associated with oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2018.1482577DOI Listing
July 2020

Juglans Regia L. Leaf Extract Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in Experimental Diabetes: An Immunohistochemical Study.

Iran J Med Sci 2019 Jan;44(1):44-52

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: There is accumulating evidence that Juglans regia L. (GRL) leaf extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of GRL leaf extract against diabetic nephropathy (DN).

Methods: In total, 28 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The DN rat model was generated by intraperitoneal injection of a single 55 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin (STZ). A subset of the STZ-induced diabetic rats received intragastric administration of GRL leaf extract (200 mg/kg/day) starting 1 week (preventive group) and 4 weeks (curative group) after the onset of hyperglycemia up to the end of the 8th week, whereas other diabetic rats received only isotonic saline (diabetic group) as the same volume of GRL leaf extract. To evaluate the effects of GRL leaf extract on the diabetic nephropathy, various parameters of apoptosis and inflammation were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 15.0. The data were compared between the groups using the Tukey's multiple comparison test and the analysis of the variance. P values ˂0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: Fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels (P=0.001) and histopathological changes in the kidney of diabetic rats attenuated after GRL leaf extract consumption. Greater caspase-3 (P=0.004), COX-2 (P=0.008), PARP (P=0.007), and iNOS (P=0.005) expression could be detected in the STZ-diabetic rats, which were significantly (P=0.009) attenuated after GRL leaf extract consumption. In addition, attenuation of lipid peroxidation in the diabetic rats was detected after GRL consumption (P=0.01).

Conclusion: GRL leaf extract exerts preventive and curative effects against diabetic nephropathy.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330519PMC
January 2019

The effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on miR-126 promoter DNA methylation status and VEGF protein expression in the colorectal cancer cells.

Genes Nutr 2018 18;13:32. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

5Functional Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: There is increasing evidence indicating an aberrant expression of miRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Growing evidence has suggested that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could modulate the remodeling of the epigenome. No study has yet been published to examine the direct effect of PUFA on the promoter methylation of miRNAs. This study aimed to examine the potential clinical application of PUFA on the promoter DNA methylation of miR-126 and its angiogenic target molecule (VEGF) in the CRC cells.

Methods: We investigated the direct effect of 100 μM EPA, DHA, and LA for 24 h on promoter methylation status of miR-126 in a panel of five CRC cell lines (HCT116, HT29/219, Caco2, SW742, and LS180) by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). We also quantified the miR-126 and VEGF transcript expression levels in five CRC cell lines affected by PUFA by real-time PCR. Moreover, we analyzed the protein expression level of VEGF, as a target of miR-126, by western blotting assay.

Results: MSP analysis showed extensive DNA methylation of the miR-126 promoter in all five CRC cell lines, and among all three PUFAs, only DHA completely demethylated the promoter of miR-126 in HCT116 and Caco2 cell lines. We found that only DHA significantly induces the expression level of miR-126 in HCT116 and Caco2 cell lines, respectively, by 20.1-fold and 1.68-fold ( < 0.05). Our finding indicates that the downregulation of VEGF protein level is also effectively observed only in DHA-treated HCT116 and Caco2 cells compared to control cells ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that -3 PUFAs are able to modulate cellular miR-126 DNA methylation and inhibit VEGF expression level in a cell-type specific manner in colorectal cancer cells. DHA always showed higher efficacy than EPA and LA in our experiment. Overall, our results suggest a potential clinical application of -3 PUFAs as anti-angiogenic agents in CRC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12263-018-0623-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299631PMC
December 2018

The effect of atorvastatin treatment duration on oxidative stress markers and lipid profile in patients with coronary artery diseases: A case series study.

ARYA Atheroscler 2017 Nov;13(6):282-287

Young Researchers, Elite Club Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH), Shahr-e-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The major aim of this study was evaluating the effect of atorvastatin treatment on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), ferric reducing the ability of plasma (FRAP), small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL) and lipid profile in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.

Methods: This study was carried out on 83 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery stenosis (52 men and 31 women) at Shahid Madani Hospital, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2015. The patients were divided into the 3 groups. 27 patients were classified statins consumption less than 6 days, 28 patients for 6 to 90 days, and 28 patients for more than 90 days. The level of sdLDL, lipid profile, TBARS and FRAP were assayed.

Results: FRAP levels of patients that received atorvastatin for more than 90 days (832 ± 101) were significantly elevated (P = 0.01) compared to the patients received atorvastatin less than 6 days (688 ± 75), whereas the levels of TBARS diminished significantly (P = 0.04). Also, the levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C were significantly decreased after 3 months of atorvastatin receiving (158 as compared to patients that consumed atorvastatin less than 6 days), (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). The level of sdLDL was slightly increased with long-time consumption of atorvastatin (37 ± 14) in patients in comparison with patients that received atorvastatin less than 6 days (32 ± 15) (P = 0.06), but was not significant.

Conclusion: The serum level of TBARS decreased and the serum level of FRAP increased in patients with long-time receiving atorvastatin. Therefore, atorvastatin contributes to the lowering oxidative stress in these patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5889919PMC
November 2017

Tumor necrosis factor- α, adiponectin and their ratio in gestational diabetes mellitus.

Caspian J Intern Med 2018 ;9(1):71-79

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: It has been suggested that inflammation might be implicated in the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) complications, including insulin resistance. The aims of the current study were to explore maternal circulating values of TNF-α, adiponectin and the adiponectin/TNF-α ratio in women with GDM compared with normal pregnancy and their relationships with metabolic syndrome biomarkers.

Methods: Forty women with GDM and 40 normal pregnant women were included in the study. Commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to measure serum levels of TNF-α and total adiponectin.

Results: Women with GDM had higher values of TNF-α (225.08±27.35 vs 115.68±12.64 pg/ml, p<0.001) and lower values of adiponectin (4.50±0.38 vs 6.37±0.59 µg/ml, p=0.003) and the adiponectin/TNF-α ratio (4.31±0.05 vs 4.80±0.07, P<0.001) than normal pregnant women. The adiponectin/TNF-α ratio showed negative correlations with insulin resistance (r=-0.68, p<0.001) and triglyceride (r=-0.39, p=0.014) and a positive correlation with insulin sensitivity (r=0.69, p<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that values of the adiponectin /TNF-α ratio were independently associated with insulin resistance. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that GDM was negatively associated with adiponectin /TNF-α ratio.

Conclusions: In summary, the adiponectin/TNF-α ratio decreased significantly in GDM compared with normal pregnancy. The ratio might be an informative biomarker for assessment of pregnant women at high risk of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia and for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring aims in GDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.9.1.71DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5771364PMC
January 2018

Therapeutic potential of L. leaf extract against diabetic retinopathy in rat.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2017 Nov;20(11):1275-1281

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Objectives: Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). . (JRL) leaf extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. This study aimed to determine the ameliorative effects of JRL against diabetic retinopathy.

Materials And Methods: The DR rat model was generated by injection of streptozotocin (STZ). A subset of the diabetic rats received JRL or metformin after the onset of hyperglycemia. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of apoptotic and inflammatory factors were assessed along with biochemical assessments of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status.

Results: Lipid peroxidation level and catalase activity significantly improved after JRL consumption (<0. 001). Degeneration of the retina attenuated after JRL consumption. Attenuation of the caspase-3, COX-2, PARP, and S100B expression could be detected significantly (<0. 001) in the JRL-treated rats. While, blood glucose level decreased after JRL consumption (<0. 001).

Conclusion: JRL leaf extract exert protective effects against diabetic retinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5749363PMC
November 2017

Neuroprotective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against peripheral nerve transection-induced apoptosis.

Nutr Neurosci 2019 Aug 2;22(8):578-586. Epub 2018 Jan 2.

a Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine , Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences , Sari , Iran.

Recent studies revealed the neuroprotective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on a variety of neural injury models. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effects of EGCG following sciatic nerve transection (SNT). Rats were randomly divided into four groups each as follows: Sham-operated group, SNT group, and Pre-EGCG (50-mg/kg, i.p., 30 minutes before nerve transection and followed for 3 days) and Post-EGCG (50-mg/kg, i.p., 1 hour after nerve transection and followed for 3 days) groups. Spinal cord segments of the sciatic nerve and related dorsal root ganglions were removed four weeks after nerve transection for the assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, immunohistochemistry of caspase-3, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), S100beta (S100B), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). MDA levels were significantly decreased, and SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased in EGCG-treated rats after nerve transection. Attenuated caspase-3 and COX-2 expression, and TUNEL reaction could be significantly detected in the EGCG-treated rats after nerve transection. Also, EGCG significantly increased S100B expression. We propose that EGCG may be effective in the protection of neuronal cells against retrograde apoptosis and may enhance neuronal survival time following nerve transection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2017.1419542DOI Listing
August 2019

Neuroprotective effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on neuronal death induced by sciatic nerve transection in rat.

BMC Neurol 2017 Dec 16;17(1):220. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Recent studies shows that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy exerts some protective effects against neural injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effects of HBO following sciatic nerve transection (SNT).

Methods: Rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 14 per group): Sham-operated (SH) group, SH + HBO group, SNT group, and SNT + pre- and SNT + post-HBO groups (100% oxygen at 2.0 atm absolute, 60 min/day for five consecutive days beginning on 1 day before and immediately after nerve transaction, respectively). Spinal cord segments of the sciatic nerve and related dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) were removed 4 weeks after nerve transection for biochemical assessment of malodialdehyde (MDA) levels in spinal cord, biochemical assessment of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalse (CAT) activities in spinal cord, immunohistochemistry of caspase-3, cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2), S100beta (S100ß), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in spinal cord and DRG.

Results: The results revealed that MDA levels were significantly decreased in the SNT + pre-HBO group, while SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased in SNT + pre- and SNT + post-HBO treated rats. Attenuated caspase-3 and COX-2 expression, and TUNEL reaction could be significantly detected in the HBO-treated rats after nerve transection. Also, HBO significantly increased S100ß expression.

Conclusions: Based on these results, we can conclude that pre- and post-HBO therapy had neuroprotective effects against sciatic nerve transection-induced degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-017-1004-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5732534PMC
December 2017

Deltamethrin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Virgin Olive Oil Consumption: An Experimental Study.

Iran J Med Sci 2017 Nov;42(6):586-592

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Deltamethrin (DM) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide which can lead to pathological effects in mammals through oxidative stress. On the other hand, virgin olive oil (VOO) is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to determine the protective effects of VOO against DM-induced hepatotoxicity.

Methods: Thirty-six mice were randomly separated into 4 groups: vehicle group, VOO group, DM group, and DM plus VOO group. Immunohistochemistry of PARP, COX-2, and caspase-3 with the biochemical analysis of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity levels were performed in the liver samples 5 weeks after gavaging. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. The data were compared between the groups using the Tukey multiple comparison tests and the analysis of the variance. A P value <0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The malondialdehyde level in the liver was increased in the DM group (71.18±0.01), whereas it was significantly (P=0.001) decreased after VOO administration in the DM plus VOO group (39.59±2.43). While the total antioxidant capacity level in the liver was decreased in the DM group (3.05±0.05), it was significantly increased (P=0.03) after VOO administration in the DM plus VOO group (3.95±0.04). A greater expression of caspase-3 (P=0.008), COX-2 (P =0.004), and PARP (P 0.006) could be detected in the DM group, while it was significantly (P=0.009) attenuated in the DM plus VOO group. Also, the degeneration of hepatocytes, which was detected in the DM group, was attenuated after VOO consumption.

Conclusions: VOO exerted protective effects against DM-induced hepatotoxicity, which might be associated with its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5684380PMC
November 2017

Paraoxonase 1 Activity, Lipid Profile, and Atherogenic Indexes Status in Coronary Heart Disease.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Oct;6(1):1-7

Razi Herbal Researches Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Dyslipidemia is considered an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). In the present study, we examined lipid profiles and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and atherogenic indexes status and the relationship of PON1 activity by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and atherogenic indexes in CHD patients and healthy people.

Methods: The aim of the study was to compare PON1, lipid profiles, and atherogenic indexes in CHD patients and healthy people as controls. This study enrolled 50 CHD patients and 50 matched healthy controls. Serum activities of PON1 and levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and atherogenic indexes were analyzed. Data were analyzed by unpaired Student's t tests. Coefficients of correlation were calculated using Pearson's correlation analysis.

Results: Levels of TG, TC, LDL, VLDL, FBG, and atherogenic indexes, atherogenic coefficients, and cardiac risk ratios were significantly greater in CHD patients than in controls. Paraoxonase 1 activity and HDL-C levels were significantly less in CHD patients than in controls. Also, PON1 activity correlated positively with HDLC and negatively with atherogenic coefficient, and cardiac risk ratios 1 and 2 in CHD patients.

Conclusion: This study showed that CHD is associated with high lipid levels and atherogenic indexes, and low PON1 activity and HDL-C concentrations. Coronary heart disease is a pernicious disease requiring prolonged medical management and hypolipidemic drugs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5643455PMC
October 2017

Protective effects of oleuropein against renal injury oxidative damage in alloxan-induced diabetic rats; a histological and biochemical study.

J Nephropathol 2017 Jul 20;6(3):204-209. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Razi Herbal Researches Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Oleuropein is a potent antioxidant and free-radical scavenger with antiinflammatory properties.

Objectives: In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of oleuropein on myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitrite, urea, creatinine and glomerulosclerosis in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: group 1 as control; group 2 as untreated diabetic; and group 3 as treated with oleuropein 15 mg/kg i.p daily. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by subcutaneous alloxan injection. After 48 days, the animals were anaesthetized and then the livers and kidneys were removed immediately and used fresh or kept frozen until MPO activity analysis. Blood samples were also collected before sacrificing to measure nitrite, urea, and creatinine. Kidney paraffin sections were prepared to estimate glomerular volume, leukocyte infiltration, and glomerulosclerosis.

Results: Oleuropein significantly decreased leukocyte infiltration and glomerulosclerosis in the treated group compared with the diabetic untreated group. Oleuropein significantly decreased the levels of urea, nitrite, and creatinine in the treated group compared with the diabetic untreated group. Moreover, oleuropein significantly decreased MPO activity in the treated group compared with the diabetic untreated group.

Conclusions: Oleuropein has antioxidative and antiatherogenic activities and exerts beneficial effects on inflammation and kidney function test and decreases diabetic complication in diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/jnp.2017.34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5607984PMC
July 2017

Protective effects of methanolic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Oct 2;17(1):476. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

Immunogenetic Research Center and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the most common and debilitating complications of diabetes mellitus. There is accumulating evidence that Juglans regia L. (GRL) leaf extract, a rich source of phenolic components, has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of Juglans regia L. leaf extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rat.

Methods: The DPN rat model was generated by intraperitoneal injection of a single 55 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin (STZ). A subset of the STZ-induced diabetic rats intragastically administered with GRL leaf extract (200 mg/kg/day) before or after the onset of neuropathy, whereas other diabetic rats received only isotonic saline as the same volume of GRL leaf extract. To evaluate the effects of GRL leaf extract on the diabetic neuropathy various parameters, including histopathology and immunohistochemistry of apoptotic and inflammatory factors were assessed along with nociceptive and biochemical assessments.

Results: Degeneration of the sciatic nerves which was detected in the STZ-diabetic rats attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Greater caspase-3, COX-2, and iNOS expression could be detected in the STZ-diabetic rats, which were significantly attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Also, attenuation of lipid peroxidation and nociceptive response along with improved antioxidant status in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats were detected after GRL leaf extract administration. In other word, GRL leaf extract ameliorated the behavioral and structural indices of diabetic neuropathy even after the onset of neuropathy, in addition to blood sugar reduction.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that GRL leaf extract exert preventive and curative effects against STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats which might be due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. Protection against neuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1983-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5625610PMC
October 2017

Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) improved non-specific immune parameters and bactericidal activity of skin mucus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 May 19;64:320-324. Epub 2017 Mar 19.

Razi Herbal Researches Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khoram Abad, Iran.

The present study examined the effects of dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) on non-specific immune parameters and bactericidal activity of skin mucus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. Three hundred and sixty fingerlings (6.50 ± 0.55 g (were distributed in twelve cages (65 × 65 × 65 cm) with a metal framework. The study included four treatments repeated in triplicates. The treatments were feeding trouts with experimental diets containing different levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of Myrtle powder. The fingerlings were fed on experimental diet for sixty days and then skin mucus non-specific immune parameters as well as bactericidal activity were measured. At the end of the trial, the highest skin mucus soluble protein level was observed in group fed with 1.5% Myrtle (P < 0.05). The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was significantly increased in fish groups fed 1 and 1.5% Myrtle compared with the control group (P < 0.05). However, evaluation of skin mucus lysozyme activity showed no significant difference between treatments and control group (P > 0.05). Also, no antibacterial activity was detected against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica in all treatments and control group. Whereas skin mucus of rainbow trout showed antimicrobial activity against fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri) in 1 and 1.5% Myrtle treatments. These results indicated beneficial effects of dietary Myrtle on mucosal immune parameters of fingerling rainbow trout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2017.03.034DOI Listing
May 2017

Virgin olive oil ameliorates deltamethrin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice: A biochemical and immunohistochemical assessment.

Toxicol Rep 2016 30;3:584-590. Epub 2016 Jul 30.

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objective: A major class of synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin (DM), can elicit pathophysiological effects through oxidative stress in non-targeted organisms such as mammals. There is accumulating evidence that virgin olive oil (VOO), a rich source of polyphenolic components, have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. This study aimed to determine the protective and ameliorative effects of VOO against DM-induced nephrotoxicity.

Methods & Materials: Mice were randomly divided into four equal groups: DM group, DM plus VOO group, VOO group, and vehicle group. Five weeks after gavaging, kidney samples were taken for biochemical assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT), and for immunohistochemical assessment of caspase-3, cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP).

Results: The MDA level in kidney was increased in the DM group, which was significantly decreased after VOO administration in the DM plus VOO group. The GSH level and CAT activiy in kidney were decreased in the DM group, which were significantly increased after VOO administration in the DM plus VOO group. Greater expression of caspase-3, cox-2, and PARP could be detected in the DM group, which was significantly attenuated in the DM plus VOO group. Also, the histopathological changes which were detected in the DM group attenuated after VOO consumption.

Conclusion: Virgin olive oil exerted protective effects against deltamethrin-induced nephrotoxicity, which might be associated with its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2016.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5616020PMC
July 2016

Biochemical effects of oleuropein in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

ARYA Atheroscler 2016 Mar;12(2):87-93

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Oleuropein is a natural antioxidant and scavenging free radicals. In the present study, we examined effect of oleuropein on the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, atherogenic indexes, and relationship of PON1 activity by high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and atherogenic indices in gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Methods: This is a lab trial study in Khorramabad, Lorestan province of Iran (2013). 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups to receive saline; GM, 100 mg/kg/day; and GM plus oleuropein by 15 mg/kg intraperitoneal daily, respectively. After 12 days, animals were anesthetized, blood samples were also collected before killing to measure the levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very LDL (VLDL), HDL-C, atherogenic index, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of PON1 of all groups were analyzed. Data were analyzed, and P < 0.050 was considered significant.

Results: Oleuropein significantly decreased lipid peroxidation, TG, TC, LDL, VLDL, atherogenic index, atherogenic coefficient (AC), and cardiac risk ratio (CRR). HDL-C level was significantly increased when treated with oleuropein. The activity of PON1 in treated animals was (62.64 ± 8.68) that it was significantly higher than untreated animals (47.06 ± 4.10) (P = 0.047). The activity of PON1 in the untreated nephrotoxic rats was significantly lower than that of control animals (77.84 ± 9.43) (P = 0.030). Furthermore, the activity of PON1 correlated positively with HDL-C and negatively with AC, CRR 1, and CRR 2 in the treated group with oleuropein.

Conclusion: This study showed that oleuropein improves PON1 activity, lipid profile, and atherogenic index and can probably decrease the risk of cardiovascular death in nephrotoxic patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4933747PMC
March 2016

Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Withania somnifera root in fructose fed male rats.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2016 Jun;27(4):387-91

Background: Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder which affects the diabetes mellitus pathophysiology and alters the cell excitability. This study has been designed to evaluate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of chronic administration of Withania somnifera root (WSR) in fructose drinking water rats.

Methods: An experiment was carried out on 48 Wistar-Albino male rats, weighting 200±30 g, which were divided into six groups (n=8): control group (C), control morphine (CM), W. somnifera group (WS) which received WSR (62.5 mg/g diet), W. somnifera naloxone group (WSN) which received WSR and naloxone, fructose (F) group which received fructose drinking water and FWS group which received fructose-enriched drinking water and WSR during the trial period. A biphasic pain response was induced after intraplantar injection of formalin (50 μL, 1%). Pain behavior was measured using Dubuisson methods. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software V. 18, using ANOVA and Tukey test. Results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05.

Results: The results showed that the insulin resistance index, blood sugar, insulin, IL-6, TNF-α, and acute and chronic pain score in the F group were significantly increased in comparison with the control group, but these parameters in the FWS group were significantly decreased compared with the F group (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that chronic oral administration of WSR has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in fructose drinking water rats and causes improved insulin resistance index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0053DOI Listing
June 2016

Protective effects of Withania somnifera root on inflammatory markers and insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2015 Apr;3(2):62-7

Department of Pharmacology, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Background: We investigated the effects of Withania somnifera root (WS) on insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in fructose-fed rats.

Methods: Forty-eight Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12); Group I as control, Group II as sham-treated with WS by 62.5mg/g per diet, Group III fructose-fed rats received 10%W/V fructose, and Group IV fructose- and WS-fed rats. After eight weeks blood samples were collected to measure glucose, insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in sera.

Results: Blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R), IL-6, and TNF-α levels were all significantly greater in the fructose-fed rats than in the controls. Treatment with WS significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the fructose-induced increases in glucose, insulin, HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that WS normalizes hyperglycemia in fructose-fed rats by reducing inflammatory markers and improving insulin sensitivity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4757043PMC
April 2015