Publications by authors named "Hashika Rijhumal"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Large nested melanoma: a clinicopathological, morphometric and cytogenetic study of 12 cases.

Pathology 2020 Jun 21;52(4):431-438. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Anatomical Pathology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine, Perth, WA, Australia; Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia. Electronic address:

A group of melanomas characterised by predominant growth as large nests within the epidermis has been described. These cases present a diagnostic challenge, as many traditional architectural criteria for the recognition of melanoma are absent. We report the clinical, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric and cytogenetic features of a series of 12 cases of large nested melanoma. In this series, large nested melanoma accounted for 0.2% of cases of melanoma. The majority occurred on the trunk of middle aged patients with absent or minimal solar elastosis and 42% were associated with a component of benign intradermal melanocytic naevus, speaking to classification of these melanomas as falling within the spectrum of lesions developing in skin with low cumulative sun damage. In 67% of cases invasive melanoma was present. Criteria such as asymmetry, variation in nest size and intraepidermal nests with an underlying rim of junctional keratinocytes appear to be highly specific, and are strongly predictive of typical cytogenetic abnormalities of melanoma, which were identified in 92% of cases. Conversely, in addition to features which are definitionally absent or limited, features such as solar elastosis and cytological atypia do not appear to be particularly helpful in recognition of this variant.
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June 2020

Atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications between LCR22B and LCR22D are associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes including autism spectrum disorder with incomplete penetrance.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2019 02 4;7(2):e00507. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute and Sarich Neuroscience Institute, Curtin University, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Chromosome 22q11.2 is susceptible to genomic rearrangements and the most frequently reported involve deletions and duplications between low copy repeats LCR22A to LCR22D. Atypical nested deletions and duplications are rarer and can provide a valuable opportunity to investigate the dosage effects of a smaller subset of genes within the 22q11.2 genomic disorder region.

Methods: We describe thirteen individuals from six families, each with atypical nested duplications within the central 22q11.2 region between LCR22B and LCR22D. We then compared the molecular and clinical data for patients from this study and the few reported atypical duplication cases, to the cases with larger typical duplications between LCR22A and LCR22D. Further, we analyzed genes with the nested region to identify candidates highly enriched in human brain tissues.

Results: We observed that atypical nested duplications are heterogeneous in size, often familial, and associated with incomplete penetrance and highly variable clinical expressivity. We found that the nested atypical duplications are a possible risk factor for neurodevelopmental phenotypes, particularly for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities. In addition, we analyzed genes within the nested region between LCR22B and LCR22D to identify nine genes (ZNF74, KLHL22, MED15, PI4KA, SERPIND1, CRKL, AIFM3, SLC7A4, and BCRP2) with enriched expression in the nervous system, each with unique spatiotemporal patterns in fetal and adult brain tissues. Interestingly, PI4KA is prominently expressed in the brain, and this gene is included either partially or completely in all of our subjects.

Conclusion: Our findings confirm variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance for atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications and identify genes such as PI4KA to be directly relevant to brain development and disorder. We conclude that further work is needed to elucidate the basis of variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes and to exclude the presence of a second disorder. Our findings contribute to the genotype-phenotype data for atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications, with implications for genetic counseling.
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February 2019