Publications by authors named "Hasan Eftekhar"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Students' concerns about the pre-internship objective structured clinical examination in medical education.

Educ Health (Abingdon) 2014 May-Aug;27(2):188-92

Department of Emergency Medicine, Imam Khomeini Hospital; Clinical Skills Development Center, Medical Faculty, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Despite several studies on implementation, reliability and validity of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), the perceptions of examinees toward this evaluation tool remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to assess students' perceptions of the OSCE.

Methods: All students in their final year of studies, who participated in the pre-internship OSCE in September 2010, were included in the study. A 16-item questionnaire was designed to assess: Characteristics of respondents; organization, content and structure of the OSCE; and perceptions of validity, reliability and rating of the OSCE with respect to other assessment methods. Questionnaires were administered immediately after all students had finished the OSCE and before leaving the examination venue.

Results: Response rate was 86.2%, with 77% of the students indicating the OSCE as a useful learning experience. A majority of the students (62%) agreed that a wide range of clinical skills was covered in this exam. However, 66% had concerns about the wide coverage of knowledge assessed. A total of 81% of students did not prefer the OSCE to multiple choice question exams and 88% found the OSCE intimidating and more stressful than other forms of assessment.

Discussion: Our study demonstrates that although the majority of students believe in the reliability and validity of the OSCE, they have concerns about it and report poor acceptance of the OSCE. Further studies are necessary to assess the important concerns of the students and the effectiveness of interventions in improving the acceptability of the OSCE.
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August 2015

Gender-based sexual roles: A mixed methods study in Iranian families.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2014 Jan;19(1):28-35

Department of Reproductive Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Department of Public Health, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Background: Gender role attitudes toward sexual matters may define suitable and appropriate roles for men and women during a sexual relationship. This study aimed to explore and assess gender-based sexual roles in Iranian families.

Materials And Methods: This was an exploratory mixed methods study in which perceptions and experiences of 21 adult Iranian participants about gender-based sexual roles have been explored in three provinces of Iran in 2010-2011, to generate items for developing a culture-oriented instrument to assess gender role attitudes. The developed and validated instrument, then, was applied to 390 individuals of general population of Tehran, Iran in 2012.

Results: In content analysis of the qualitative phase data, four categories emerged as the main gender-based sexual roles: Decision making, relationships, care, and supervision and control. After passing the stages of item reduction, seven items remained for the instrument. In the quantitative phase, results showed that most of the participants (78.9%) believed in shared sexual roles for both genders. Consideration of a sexual role as "entirely masculine" or "preferably masculine" was the second prevalent attitude in 71.43% of gender-based sexual roles, whereas "entirely" or "preferably feminine role" was the second next most dominant attitude (14.28%).

Conclusions: The results of the present study have revealed some new gender-based sexual roles within Iranian families; which may be applicable to show the capacity for achieving some domains of reproductive rights in Iran.
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January 2014

Association of the pre-internship objective structured clinical examination in final year medical students with comprehensive written examinations.

Med Educ Online 2012 24;17. Epub 2012 Apr 24.

Department of Health Promotion and Education, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of the pre-internship Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in final year medical students with comprehensive written examinations. SUBJECTS AND MATERIAL: All medical students of October 2004 admission who took part in the October 2010 National Comprehensive Pre-internship Examination (NCPE) and pre-internship OSCE were included in the study (n = 130). OSCE and NCPE scores and medical grade point average (GPA) were collected.

Results: GPA was highly correlated with NCPE (r = 0.76 and P<0.001) and moderately with OSCE (r = 0.68 and P < 0.001). Similarly a moderate correlation was observed between NCPE and OSCE scores(r = 0.6 and P < 0.001).Linear stepwise regression shows r(2) of a model applying GPA as predictor of OSCE score is 0.46 (β = 0.68 and P < 0.001), while addition of gender to the model increases r(2) to 0.59 (β = 0.61 and 0.36, for GPA and male gender, respectively and P < 0.001). Logistic forward regression models shows male gender and GPA are the only dependent predictors of high score in OSCE. OR of GPA and male gender for high OSCE score are 4.89 (95% CI = 2.37-10.06) and 6.95 (95% CI = 2.00-24.21), respectively (P < 0.001).

Discussion: Our findings indicate OSCE and examination which mainly evaluate knowledge, judged by GPA and NCPE are moderately to highly correlated. Our results illustrate the interwoven nature of knowledge and clinical skills. In other words, certain level of knowledge is crucial for appropriate clinical performance. Our findings suggest neither OSCE nor written forms of assessments can replace each other. They are complimentary and should also be combined by other evaluations to cover all attributes of clinical competence efficiently.
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September 2012

Predicting health-related quality of life by using a health promotion model among Iranian adolescent girls: a structural equation modeling approach.

Nurs Health Sci 2011 Jun 20;13(2):141-8. Epub 2011 May 20.

Department of Health Education Promotion, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Predicting the significant determinants of health-related quality of life through the application of structural equation modeling in adolescents has received little attention in the health education and health promotion literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-efficacy, barriers, social support, health-promoting lifestyle, and health-related quality of life among Iranian adolescent girls. Pender's health promotion model guided this study. This was a cross-sectional survey of 500 students who were recruited in Kashan, Iran. Their health-related quality of life was measured by using the Short Form Health Survey. A path analysis was conducted to predict the health-related quality of life determinants. The results indicated that 71% of the variance in health-related quality of life could be predicted by the variables. The results affirmed that self-efficacy was the most significant predictor of the students' health-related quality of life. It was concluded that interventions that are aimed at improving self-efficacy can lead to the enhancement of health-related quality of life among adolescent girls in the developing country of Iran.
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June 2011

Comparison of maternal and neonatal outcomes of group versus individual prenatal care: a new experience in Iran.

Health Care Women Int 2010 Jul;31(7):571-84

Department of Health Services, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The majority of perinatal deaths occur in developing countries. Pragmatic reality in developing countries dictates the need for implementation of evidence-based, cost-effective interventions to improve child health outcomes. In this article we describe the implementation and evaluation of group prenatal care in Iran. Group prenatal care ideally may be suited for mothers in developing countries where lack of support, cultural and traditional practices, and low-quality health services interfere with satisfactory implementation of prenatal care. We believe that provision of prenatal care by group model improves perinatal outcomes. In developing countries such an approach is feasible and practical.
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July 2010

Low-dose oral contraceptive to re-induce menstrual bleeding in amenorrheic women on DMPA treatment: a randomized clinical trial.

Med Sci Monit 2006 Oct 25;12(10):CR420-5. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

Deputy for Research, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Raheh Daneshgah Ave, Ardabil, Iran.

Background: Depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) is one of the most reliable contraceptive methods with a failure rate less than 0.3 percent. It is injected every three months and Although it has many advantages over many other hormonal contraceptives, But a major disadvantage of it is bleeding disorders which comprise most of the discontinuance reasons. Our Aim was to study bleeding complications of DMPA when used as a contraceptive in Ardabil district and clinical trial of LD and Ethynil oestradiol in controlling these complications.

Material/methods: All the 917 women who referred to ardabil's health centers for having a DMPA injection for the first time, were entered into a longitudinal study. Those complaining of menstrual cessation were entered into a double blinded randomized clinical trial. Data were collected by means of 9 questionnaires 7 of them used for descriptive and 2 for clinical trial study. Data was analyzed by SPSS statistical package.

Results: Those DMPA users with a cesarean section history had a higher chance of bleeding complications. Four hundred forty-four of the 917 women receiving the injection discontinued using it before the end of the study period. The main reason for discontinuation (in 70%) was irregular menstrual bleedings and menstrual cessation. In the clinical trial of women with bleeding cessation, 70% of those receiving the LD-OC pill experienced menstrual bleedings again, compared with only 22.7% in the placebo group. The discontinuation rate in the drug group was lower than in the placebo group as well (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Treating menstrual cessation caused by DMPA with LDs, improves the complication and decreases the discontinuance rate.
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October 2006

Congenital rubella syndrome in Iran.

BMC Infect Dis 2005 Jun 6;5:44. Epub 2005 Jun 6.

Institute for Health Sciences Research, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can be prevented with appropriate vaccination programs. The prevalence rates of rubella and CRS in Iran are unknown; therefore, the risk of exposure in pregnant women is not clear. The prevalence of CRS in the pre-vaccine period can be estimated by evaluating the proportion of children in the population with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella.

Methods: This was a case-control study to estimate prevalence of CRS in Tehran (Iran) by evaluating the proportion of children with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella. The study used rubella antibody titer as an indicator, and compared the prevalence of rubella antibody between children with and without sensorineural hearing loss. Using these findings, the proportion of cases of sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella was estimated.

Results: A total of 225 children aged 1 to 4 years were entered into the study (113 cases and 112 controls). There was a significant difference between cases and controls with regard to rubella antibody seropositivity (19.5% vs. 8.9%, respectively, odds ratio = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.04-5.97). The proportion of sensorineural hearing loss cases attributable to rubella was found to be 12%, corresponding to a CRS prevalence of 0.2/1000.

Conclusion: The prevalence of CRS was approximately 0.2/1000 before rubella vaccination in Iran, Moreover; the results suggest that implementation of appropriate rubella vaccination programs could potentially prevent about 12% of cases of sensorineural hearing loss in Iranian children. This data could potentially be used as baseline data, which in conjunction with an appropriate method, to establish a surveillance system for rubella vaccination in Iran. An appropriate surveillance system is needed, because the introduction of a rubella vaccine without epidemiological data and an adequate monitoring program could result in the shifting of rubella cases to higher ages, and increasing the incidence of CRS.
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June 2005