Publications by authors named "Harvey D White"

500 Publications

Cardiac death should be the primary endpoint for revascularization trials and meta-analyses.

Authors:
Harvey D White

Eur Heart J 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Green Lane Cardiovascular Research Unit, Auckland City Hospital, Private Bag 92024, Victoria St West, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab676DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of initial invasive vs. initial conservative treatment strategies on recurrent and total cardiovascular events in the ISCHEMIA trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Duke Clinical Research Institute and Duke University, 300 W. Morgan Street, Durham, NC, USA.

Aims: The International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) trial prespecified an analysis to determine whether accounting for recurrent cardiovascular events in addition to first events modified understanding of the treatment effects.

Methods And Results: Patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and moderate or severe ischaemia on stress testing were randomized to either initial invasive (INV) or initial conservative (CON) management. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), and hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or cardiac arrest. The Ghosh-Lin method was used to estimate mean cumulative incidence of total events with death as a competing risk. The 5179 ISCHEMIA patients experienced 670 index events (318 INV, 352 CON) and 203 recurrent events (102 INV, 101 CON). A single primary event was observed in 9.8% of INV and 10.8% of CON patients while ≥2 primary events were observed in 2.5% and 2.8%, respectively. Patients with recurrent events were older; had more frequent hypertension, diabetes, prior MI, or cerebrovascular disease; and had more multivessel CAD. The average number of primary endpoint events per 100 patients over 4 years was 18.2 in INV [95% confidence interval (CI) 15.8-20.9] and 19.7 in CON (95% CI 17.5-22.2), difference -1.5 (95% CI -5.0 to 2.0, P = 0.398). Comparable results were obtained when all-cause death was substituted for cardiovascular death and when stroke was added as an event.

Conclusions: In stable CAD patients with moderate or severe myocardial ischaemia enrolled in ISCHEMIA, an initial INV treatment strategy did not prevent either net recurrent events or net total events more effectively than an initial CON strategy.

Clinical Trial Registration: ISCHEMIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01471522, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01471522.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab509DOI Listing
September 2021

The genomics of heart failure: design and rationale of the HERMES consortium.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: The HERMES (HEart failure Molecular Epidemiology for Therapeutic targetS) consortium aims to identify the genomic and molecular basis of heart failure.

Methods And Results: The consortium currently includes 51 studies from 11 countries, including 68 157 heart failure cases and 949 888 controls, with data on heart failure events and prognosis. All studies collected biological samples and performed genome-wide genotyping of common genetic variants. The enrolment of subjects into participating studies ranged from 1948 to the present day, and the median follow-up following heart failure diagnosis ranged from 2 to 116 months. Forty-nine of 51 individual studies enrolled participants of both sexes; in these studies, participants with heart failure were predominantly male (34-90%). The mean age at diagnosis or ascertainment across all studies ranged from 54 to 84 years. Based on the aggregate sample, we estimated 80% power to genetic variant associations with risk of heart failure with an odds ratio of ≥1.10 for common variants (allele frequency ≥ 0.05) and ≥1.20 for low-frequency variants (allele frequency 0.01-0.05) at P < 5 × 10 under an additive genetic model.

Conclusions: HERMES is a global collaboration aiming to (i) identify the genetic determinants of heart failure; (ii) generate insights into the causal pathways leading to heart failure and enable genetic approaches to target prioritization; and (iii) develop genomic tools for disease stratification and risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13517DOI Listing
September 2021

Interleukin 6 and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Chronic Coronary Syndrome.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Importance: Inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease and anti-inflammatory treatment reduces cardiovascular events in patients with chronic coronary syndrome. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is unclear how inflammation mediated by interleukin 6 (IL-6) in patients with CKD is linked to cardiovascular disease.

Objective: To investigate associations between IL-6 and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic coronary syndrome in association with kidney function.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This multicenter cohort study included patients enrolled at 663 centers in 39 countries with chronic coronary syndrome who were included in the Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy (STABILITY) trial. Patients were enrolled between December 2008 and April 2010 and were followed up for a median length of 3.7 years. Analysis in this substudy began September 2020.

Exposures: Exposures were IL-6 and creatinine estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), which were collected at baseline. Associations between continuous and categorical levels (<2.0 ng/L vs ≥2.0 ng/L) of IL-6 and cardiovascular outcomes were tested in association with eGFR cutoffs (normal eGFR level [≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2], mildly decreased eGFR level [60-90 mL/min/1.73 m2], and moderately to severely decreased eGFR level [<60 mL/min/1.73 m2]).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Main outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke.

Results: This substudy of the STABILITY trial included 14 611 patients with available IL-6 levels at baseline. The median (interquartile range) age was 65 (59-71) years, and 2700 (18.5%) were female. During follow-up, MACE occurred in 1459 individuals (10.0%). Higher levels of IL-6 were in continuous models independently associated with risk of MACE (P < .001) in all CKD strata. Using predefined strata, elevated IL-6 level (≥2.0 vs <2.0 ng/L) was associated with increased risk of MACE at normal kidney function (2.9% vs 1.9% events/y [hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.02-1.78]), mild CKD (3.3% vs 1.9% [hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.35-1.83]), and moderate to severe CKD (5.0% vs 2.9% [hazard ratio, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.28-1.99]).

Conclusions And Relevance: In patients with chronic coronary syndrome, elevated levels of IL-6 were associated with risk of MACE in all CKD strata. Thus, IL-6 and CKD stage may help when identifying patients with chronic coronary syndrome for anti-inflammatory treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.3079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387946PMC
August 2021

Lipoprotein(a) and Benefit of PCSK9 Inhibition in Patients With Nominally Controlled LDL Cholesterol.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Aug;78(5):421-433

Université de Paris, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials, and INSERM U1148, Paris, France; Imperial College, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/gabrielsteg.

Background: Guidelines recommend nonstatin lipid-lowering agents in patients at very high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) if low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains ≥70 mg/dL on maximum tolerated statin treatment. It is uncertain if this approach benefits patients with LDL-C near 70 mg/dL. Lipoprotein(a) levels may influence residual risk.

Objectives: In a post hoc analysis of the ODYSSEY Outcomes (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) trial, the authors evaluated the benefit of adding the proprotein subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor alirocumab to optimized statin treatment in patients with LDL-C levels near 70 mg/dL. Effects were evaluated according to concurrent lipoprotein(a) levels.

Methods: ODYSSEY Outcomes compared alirocumab with placebo in 18,924 patients with recent acute coronary syndromes receiving optimized statin treatment. In 4,351 patients (23.0%), screening or randomization LDL-C was <70 mg/dL (median 69.4 mg/dL; interquartile range: 64.3-74.0 mg/dL); in 14,573 patients (77.0%), both determinations were ≥70 mg/dL (median 94.0 mg/dL; interquartile range: 83.2-111.0 mg/dL).

Results: In the lower LDL-C subgroup, MACE rates were 4.2 and 3.1 per 100 patient-years among placebo-treated patients with baseline lipoprotein(a) greater than or less than or equal to the median (13.7 mg/dL). Corresponding adjusted treatment hazard ratios were 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.90) and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.83-1.49), with treatment-lipoprotein(a) interaction on MACE (P = 0.017). In the higher LDL-C subgroup, MACE rates were 4.7 and 3.8 per 100 patient-years among placebo-treated patients with lipoprotein(a) >13.7 mg/dL or ≤13.7 mg/dL; corresponding adjusted treatment hazard ratios were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72-0.92) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.75-1.06), with P = 0.43.

Conclusions: In patients with recent acute coronary syndromes and LDL-C near 70 mg/dL on optimized statin therapy, proprotein subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibition provides incremental clinical benefit only when lipoprotein(a) concentration is at least mildly elevated. (ODYSSEY Outcomes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.102DOI Listing
August 2021

Waiting room computer tablets to improve health literacy and cardiovascular outcomes.

Authors:
Harvey D White

Heart 2021 10 28;107(20):1607-1608. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Cardiology Department, Green Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2021-319756DOI Listing
October 2021

The impact of a national COVID-19 lockdown on acute coronary syndrome hospitalisations in New Zealand (ANZACS-QI 55).

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2020 Dec 20;5:100056. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Greenlane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Countries with a high incidence of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) reported reduced hospitalisations for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) during the pandemic. This study describes the impact of a nationwide lockdown on ACS hospitalisations in New Zealand (NZ), a country with a low incidence of COVID-19.

Methods: All patients admitted to a NZ Hospital with ACS who underwent coronary angiography in the All NZ ACS Quality Improvement registry during the lockdown (23 March - 26 April 2020) were compared with equivalent weeks in 2015-2019. Ambulance attendances and regional community troponin-I testing were compared for lockdown and non-lockdown (1 July 2019 to 16 February 2020) periods.

Findings: Hospitalisation for ACS was lower during the 5-week lockdown (105 vs. 146 per-week, rate ratio 0•72 [95% CI 0•61-0•83],  = 0.003). This was explained by fewer admissions for non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS;  = 0•002) but not ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI;  = 0•31). Patient characteristics and in-hospital mortality were similar. For STEMI, door-to-balloon times were similar (70 vs. 72 min,  = 0•52). For NSTE-ACS, there was an increase in percutaneous revascularisation (59% vs. 49%, <0•001) and reduction in surgical revascularisation (9% vs. 15%,  = 0•005). There were fewer ambulance attendances for cardiac arrests (98 vs. 110 per-week,  = 0•04) but no difference for suspected ACS (408 vs. 420 per-week,  = 0•44). Community troponin testing was lower throughout the lockdown (182 vs. 394 per-week, <0•001).

Interpretation: Despite the low incidence of COVID-19, there was a nationwide decrease in ACS hospitalisations during the lockdown. These findings have important implications for future pandemic planning.

Funding: The ANZACS-QI registry receives funding from the New Zealand Ministry of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2020.100056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7677076PMC
December 2020

Myocardial Infarction and Evolocumab.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Oct;6(10):1220-1221

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.1994DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparison of Days Alive Out of Hospital With Initial Invasive vs Conservative Management: A Prespecified Analysis of the ISCHEMIA Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Sep;6(9):1023-1031

Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Importance: Traditional time-to-event analyses rate events occurring early as more important than later events, even if later events are more severe, eg, death. Days alive out of hospital (DAOH) adds a patient-focused perspective beyond trial end points.

Objective: To compare DAOH between invasive management and conservative management, including invasive protocol-assigned stays, in the International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) randomized clinical trial.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this prespecified analysis of the ISCHEMIA trial, DAOH was compared between 5179 patients with stable coronary disease and moderate or severe ischemia randomized to invasive management or conservative management. Participants were recruited from 320 sites in 37 countries. Stays included overnight stays in hospital or extended care facility (skilled nursing facility, rehabilitation, or nursing home). DAOH was separately analyzed excluding invasive protocol-assigned procedures. Data were collected from July 2012 to June 2019, and data were analyzed from July 2020 to April 2021.

Interventions: Invasive management with angiography and revascularization if feasible or conservative management, with both groups receiving optimal medical therapy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The hypothesis was formulated before data lock in July 2020. The primary end point was mean DAOH per patient between randomization and 4 years. Initial stays for invasive protocol-assigned procedures were prespecified to be excluded.

Results: Of 5179 included patients, 1168 (22.6%) were female, and the median (interquartile range) age was 64 (58-70) years. The average DAOH was higher in the conservative management group compared with the invasive management group at 1 month (30.8 vs 28.4 days; P < .001), 1 year (362.2 vs 355.9 days; P < .001), and 2 years (718.4 vs 712.1 days; P = .001). At 4 years, the 2 groups' DAOH were not significantly different (1415.0 vs 1412.2 days; P = .65). In the invasive management group, 2434 of 4002 stays (60.8%) were for protocol-assigned procedures. There were no clear differences at any time point in DAOH when protocol-assigned procedures were excluded from the invasive management group. There were more hospital and extended care stays in the invasive management vs conservative management group during follow-up (4002 vs 1897; P < .001). Excluding protocol-assigned procedures, there were fewer stays in the invasive vs conservative group (1568 vs 1897; P = .001). Cardiovascular stays following the initial assigned procedures were lower in the invasive management group (685 of 4002 [17.1%] vs 1095 of 1897 [57.8%]; P < .001) due to decreased spontaneous myocardial infarction stays (65 [1.6%] vs 123 [6.5%]; P < .001) and unstable angina stays (119 [3.0%] vs 216 [11.4%]; P < .001).

Conclusions And Relevance: DAOH was higher for patients in the conservative management group in the first 2 years but not different at 4 years. DAOH was decreased early in the invasive management group due to protocol-assigned procedures. Hospital stays for myocardial infarction and unstable angina during follow-up were lower in the invasive management group. DAOH provides a patient-focused metric that can be used by clinicians and patients in shared decision-making for management of stable coronary artery disease.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01471522.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.1651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8094032PMC
September 2021

Intensity of statin treatment after acute coronary syndrome, residual risk, and its modification by alirocumab: insights from the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 03 27;28(1):33-43. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Université de Paris, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, FACT (French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials), and INSERM, France.

Aims: Statins are pivotal to the secondary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events, but some patients are statin-intolerant. We examined the effects of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor alirocumab on the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events according to the intensity of background statin treatment.

Methods And Results: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial compared alirocumab with placebo in 18,924 patients with acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidaemia despite intensive or maximum-tolerated statin treatment (including no statin if intolerance was documented). The primary outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events) comprised coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Baseline statin treatment was high-intensity (88.8%), low/moderate-intensity (8.7%) or none (2.4%). Median baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 86, 89 and 139 mg/dL (P < 0.001) in these statin treatment categories, respectively. Alirocumab produced similar relative reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from baseline across statin treatment subgroups, but the mean absolute reductions differed (52.9, 56.7 and 86.1 mg/dL, respectively; P < 0.001). With placebo, the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events was highest in the no statin subgroup (10.8%, 10.7% and 26.0% respectively). Alirocumab reduced major adverse cardiovascular events in each statin subgroup (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.96; 0.68, 0.49-0.94; and 0.65, 0.44-0.97, respectively; Pinteraction = 0.14) with a gradient of absolute risk reduction: 1.25%, 95% CI 0.34-2.16; 3.16%, 0.38-5.94; 7.97%, 0.42-15.51; Pinteraction = 0.106).

Conclusions: PCSK9 inhibition with alirocumab reduces the relative risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndrome irrespective of background statin treatment. However, patients on no statin are at high absolute risk for recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events; alirocumab substantially reduces that risk. PCSK9 inhibition may be an important therapeutic strategy for statin-intolerant patients with acute coronary syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487320941987DOI Listing
March 2021

Relation of Lipoprotein(a) Levels to Incident Type 2 Diabetes and Modification by Alirocumab Treatment.

Diabetes Care 2021 05 15;44(5):1219-1227. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Green Lane Cardiovascular Services, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

Objective: In observational data, lower levels of lipoprotein(a) have been associated with greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Whether pharmacologic lowering of lipoprotein(a) influences incident type 2 diabetes is unknown. We determined the relationship of lipoprotein(a) concentration with incident type 2 diabetes and effects of treatment with alirocumab, a PCSK9 inhibitor.

Research Design And Methods: In the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial alirocumab was compared with placebo in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Incident diabetes was determined from laboratory, medication, and adverse event data.

Results: Among 13,480 patients without diabetes at baseline, 1,324 developed type 2 diabetes over a median 2.7 years. Median baseline lipoprotein(a) was 21.9 mg/dL. With placebo, 10 mg/dL lower baseline lipoprotein(a) was associated with hazard ratio 1.04 (95% CI 1.02-1.06, < 0.001) for incident type 2 diabetes. Alirocumab reduced lipoprotein(a) by a median 23.2% with greater absolute reductions from higher baseline levels and no overall effect on incident type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.85-1.05). At low baseline lipoprotein(a) levels, alirocumab tended to reduce incident type 2 diabetes, while at high baseline lipoprotein(a) alirocumab tended to increase incident type 2 diabetes compared with placebo (treatment-baseline lipoprotein(a) interaction = 0.006). In the alirocumab group, a 10 mg/dL decrease in lipoprotein(a) from baseline was associated with hazard ratio 1.07 (95% CI 1.03-1.12; = 0.0002) for incident type 2 diabetes.

Conclusions: In patients with acute coronary syndrome, baseline lipoprotein(a) concentration associated inversely with incident type 2 diabetes. Alirocumab had neutral overall effect on incident type 2 diabetes. However, treatment-related reductions in lipoprotein(a), more pronounced from high baseline levels, were associated with increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes. Whether these findings pertain to other therapies that reduce lipoprotein(a) is undetermined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-2842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132323PMC
May 2021

High flow oxygen and risk of mortality in patients with a suspected acute coronary syndrome: pragmatic, cluster randomised, crossover trial.

BMJ 2021 03 2;372:n355. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Hauroa Tairāwhiti, Gisborne and Heart Foundation of New Zealand, Gisborn, New Zealand.

Objective: To determine the association between high flow supplementary oxygen and 30 day mortality in patients presenting with a suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Design: Pragmatic, cluster randomised, crossover trial.

Setting: Four geographical regions in New Zealand.

Participants: 40 872 patients with suspected or confirmed ACS included in the All New Zealand Acute Coronary Syndrome Quality Improvement registry or ambulance ACS pathway during the study periods. 20 304 patients were managed using the high oxygen protocol and 20 568 were managed using the low oxygen protocol. Final diagnosis of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI were determined from the registry and ICD-10 discharge codes.

Interventions: The four geographical regions were randomly allocated to each of two oxygen protocols in six month blocks over two years. The high oxygen protocol recommended oxygen at 6-8 L/min by face mask for ischaemic symptoms or electrocardiographic changes, irrespective of the transcapillary oxygen saturation (SpO). The low oxygen protocol recommended oxygen only if SpO was less than 90%, with a target SpO of less than 95%.

Main Outcome Measure: 30 day all cause mortality determined from linkage to administrative data.

Results: Personal and clinical characteristics of patients managed under both oxygen protocols were well matched. For patients with suspected ACS, 30 day mortality for the high and low oxygen groups was 613 (3.0%) and 642 (3.1%), respectively (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.86 to 1.08). For 4159 (10%) patients with STEMI, 30 day mortality for the high and low oxygen groups was 8.8% (n=178) and 10.6% (n=225), respectively (0.81, 0.66 to 1.00) and for 10 218 (25%) patients with non-STEMI was 3.6% (n=187) and 3.5% (n=176), respectively (1.05, 0.85 to 1.29).

Conclusion: In a large patient cohort presenting with suspected ACS, high flow oxygen was not associated with an increase or decrease in 30 day mortality.

Trial Registration: ANZ Clinical Trials ACTRN12616000461493.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923953PMC
March 2021

Plasma proteins associated with cardiovascular death in patients with chronic coronary heart disease: A retrospective study.

PLoS Med 2021 01 13;18(1):e1003513. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Uppsala Clinical Research Center (UCR), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Circulating biomarkers are associated with the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its complications by reflecting pathophysiological pathways and/or organ dysfunction. We explored the associations between 157 cardiovascular (CV) and inflammatory biomarkers and CV death using proximity extension assays (PEA) in patients with chronic CHD.

Methods And Findings: The derivation cohort consisted of 605 cases with CV death and 2,788 randomly selected non-cases during 3-5 years follow-up included in the STabilization of Atherosclerotic plaque By Initiation of darapLadIb TherapY (STABILITY) trial between 2008 and 2010. The replication cohort consisted of 245 cases and 1,042 non-cases during 12 years follow-up included in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study between 1997 and 2000. Biomarker levels were measured with conventional immunoassays and/or with the OLINK PEA panels CVD I and Inflammation. Associations with CV death were evaluated by Random Survival Forest (RF) and Cox regression analyses. Both cohorts had the same median age (65 years) and 20% smokers, while there were slight differences in male sex (82% and 76%), hypertension (70% and 78%), and diabetes (39% and 30%) in the respective STABILITY and LURIC cohorts. The analyses identified 18 biomarkers with confirmed independent association with CV death by Boruta analyses and statistical significance (all p < 0.0001) by Cox regression when adjusted for clinical characteristics in both cohorts. Most prognostic information was carried by N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), hazard ratio (HR for 1 standard deviation [SD] increase of the log scale of the distribution of the biomarker in the replication cohort) 2.079 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.799-2.402), and high-sensitivity troponin T (cTnT-hs) HR 1.715 (95% CI 1.491-1.973). The other proteins with independent associations were growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) HR 1.728 (95% CI 1.527-1.955), transmembrane immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein (TIM-1) HR 1.555 (95% CI 1.362-1.775), renin HR 1.501 (95% CI 1.305-1.727), osteoprotegerin (OPG) HR 1.488 (95% CI 1.297-1.708), soluble suppression of tumorigenesis 2 protein (sST2) HR 1.478 (95% CI 1.307-1.672), cystatin-C (Cys-C) HR 1.370 (95% CI 1.243-1.510), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) HR 1.205 (95% CI 1.131-1.285), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA-125) HR 1.347 (95% CI 1.226-1.479), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) HR 1.399 (95% CI 1.255-1.561), interleukin 6 (IL-6) HR 1.478 (95% CI 1.316-1.659), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) HR 1.259 (95% CI 1.134-1.396), spondin-1 HR 1.295 (95% CI 1.156-1.450), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) HR 1.349 (95% CI 1.237-1.472), chitinase-3 like protein 1 (CHI3L1) HR 1.284 (95% CI 1.129-1.461), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) HR 1.486 (95% CI 1.307-1.689), and adrenomedullin (AM) HR 1.750 (95% CI 1.490-2.056). The study is limited by the differences in design, size, and length of follow-up of the 2 studies and the lack of results from coronary angiograms and follow-up of nonfatal events.

Conclusions: Profiles of levels of multiple plasma proteins might be useful for the identification of different pathophysiological pathways associated with an increased risk of CV death in patients with chronic CHD.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00799903.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817029PMC
January 2021

Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab After Acute Coronary Syndrome According to Achieved Level of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Trial.

Circulation 2021 Mar 13;143(11):1109-1122. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora (G.G.S., M.S.).

Background: Recent international guidelines have lowered recommended target levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for patients at very high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). However, uncertainty persists whether additional benefit results from achieved LDL-C levels below the conventional targets. Inferences from previous analyses are limited because patients who achieve lower versus higher LDL-C on lipid-lowering therapy differ in other characteristics prognostic for MACE and because few achieved very low LDL-C levels. To overcome these limitations, we performed a propensity score-matching analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) which compared alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome receiving intensive or maximum-tolerated statin treatment.

Methods: Patients on alirocumab were classified in prespecified strata of LDL-C achieved at 4 months of treatment: <25 (n=3357), 25 to 50 (n=3692), or >50 mg/dL (n=2197). For each stratum, MACE (coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) after month 4 was compared in patients receiving placebo with similar baseline characteristics and adherence by using 1:1 propensity score matching.

Results: Across achieved LDL-C strata of the alirocumab group, patients differed by baseline LDL-C, lipoprotein(a), use of intensive statin therapy, study medication adherence, and other demographic, medical history, biometric, and laboratory criteria. After propensity score matching, characteristics were similar in corresponding patients of the alirocumab and placebo groups. Treatment hazard ratio, 95% CI, and absolute risk reduction (number per 100 patient-years) for MACE were similar in those with achieved LDL-C <25 mg/dL (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.62-0.89]; absolute risk reduction, 0.92) or 25 to 50 mg/dL (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.64-0.87]; absolute risk reduction, 1.05). Patients with achieved LDL-C >50 mg/dL had poorer adherence and derived less benefit (hazard ratio, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.73-1.04]; absolute risk reduction, 0.62). No safety concerns were associated with a limited period of LDL-C levels <15 mg/dL.

Conclusions: After accounting for differences in baseline characteristics and adherence, patients treated with alirocumab who achieved LDL-C levels <25 mg/dL had a reduction in the risk of MACE that was similar to that of patients who achieved LDL-C levels of 25 to 50 mg/dL. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01663402.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.049447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969166PMC
March 2021

Risk markers of incident atrial fibrillation in patients with coronary heart disease.

Am Heart J 2021 03 2;233:92-101. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology, Uppsala University, Sweden; Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: In patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We investigated the associations between clinical risk factors and biomarkers with incident AF in patients with CHD.

Methods And Results: Around 13,153 patients with optimally treated CHD included in the STabilization of Atherosclerotic plaque By Initiation of darapLadIb TherapY (STABILITY) trial with plasma samples obtained at randomization. Mean follow-up time was 3.5 years. The association between clinical risk factors and biomarkers with incident AF was estimated with Cox-regression models. Validation was performed in 1,894 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome included in the FRISC-II trial. The median (min-max) age was 64 years (range 26-92) and 2,514 (19.1%) were women. A total of 541 patients, annual incidence rate of 1.2%, developed AF during follow-up. In multivariable models, older age, higher levels of NT-proBNP, higher body mass index (BMI), male sex, geographic regions, low physical activity, and heart failure were independently associated with increased risk of incident AF with hazard ratios ranging from 1.04 to 1.79 (P ≤ .05). NT-proBNP improved the C-index from 0.70 to 0.71. In the validation cohort, age, BMI, and NT-proBNP were associated with increased risk of incident AF with similar hazard ratios.

Conclusions: In patients with optimally treated CHD, the incidence of new AF was 1.2% per year. Age, NT-proBNP as a marker of impaired cardiac function, and BMI were the strongest factors, independently and consistently associated with incident AF. Male sex and low physical activity may also contribute to the risk of AF in patients with CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.12.016DOI Listing
March 2021

Adding Insult to Injury: Are There Treatments for Myocardial Injury and Type 2 Myocardial Infarction?

Authors:
Harvey D White

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 01 29;10(1):e019796. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Green Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital and University of Auckland Auckland New Zealand.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955487PMC
January 2021

Myocardial Infarction in the ISCHEMIA Trial: Impact of Different Definitions on Incidence, Prognosis, and Treatment Comparisons.

Circulation 2021 Feb 3;143(8):790-804. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York (J.S.B., H.R.R., S.B., J.S.H.).

Background: In the ISCHEMIA trial (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches), an initial invasive strategy did not significantly reduce rates of cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality in comparison with a conservative strategy in patients with stable ischemic heart disease and moderate/severe myocardial ischemia. The most frequent component of composite cardiovascular end points was myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods: ISCHEMIA prespecified that the primary and major secondary composite end points of the trial be analyzed using 2 MI definitions. For procedural MI, the primary MI definition used creatine kinase-MB as the preferred biomarker, whereas the secondary definition used cardiac troponin. Procedural thresholds were >5 times the upper reference level for percutaneous coronary intervention and >10 times for coronary artery bypass grafting. Procedural MI definitions included (1) a category of elevated biomarker only events with much higher biomarker thresholds, (2) new ST-segment depression of ≥1 mm for the primary and ≥0.5 mm for the secondary definition, and (3) new coronary dissections National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute grade 3. We compared MI type, frequency, and prognosis by treatment assignment using both MI definitions.

Results: Procedural MIs accounted for 20.1% of all MI events with the primary definition and 40.6% of all MI events with the secondary definition. Four-year MI rates in patients undergoing revascularization were more frequent with the invasive versus conservative strategy using the primary (2.7% versus 1.1%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.98 [95% CI, 1.87-4.73]) and secondary (8.2% versus 2.0%; adjusted HR, 5.04 [95% CI, 3.64-6.97]) MI definitions. Type 1 MIs were less frequent with the invasive versus conservative strategy using the primary (3.40% versus 6.89%; adjusted HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.41-0.69]; <0.0001) and secondary (3.48% versus 6.89%; adjusted HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.41-0.69]; <0.0001) definitions. The risk of subsequent cardiovascular death was higher after a type 1 MI than after no MI using the primary (adjusted HR, 3.38 [95% CI, 2.03-5.61]; <0.001) or secondary MI definition (adjusted HR, 3.52 [2.11-5.88]; <0.001).

Conclusions: In ISCHEMIA, type 1 MI events using the primary and secondary definitions during 5-year follow-up were more frequent with an initial conservative strategy and associated with subsequent cardiovascular death. Procedural MI rates were greater in the invasive strategy and with the use of the secondary MI definition. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01471522.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902479PMC
February 2021

Research in the Antipodes at Green Lane.

Authors:
Harvey D White

Eur Heart J 2020 11;41(42):4081-4084

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa303DOI Listing
November 2020

Meta-analysis uncovers genome-wide significant variants for rapid kidney function decline.

Kidney Int 2021 04 31;99(4):926-939. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Division of Nephrology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Kidney Research Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Rapid decline of glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine (eGFRcrea) is associated with severe clinical endpoints. In contrast to cross-sectionally assessed eGFRcrea, the genetic basis for rapid eGFRcrea decline is largely unknown. To help define this, we meta-analyzed 42 genome-wide association studies from the Chronic Kidney Diseases Genetics Consortium and United Kingdom Biobank to identify genetic loci for rapid eGFRcrea decline. Two definitions of eGFRcrea decline were used: 3 mL/min/1.73m/year or more ("Rapid3"; encompassing 34,874 cases, 107,090 controls) and eGFRcrea decline 25% or more and eGFRcrea under 60 mL/min/1.73m at follow-up among those with eGFRcrea 60 mL/min/1.73m or more at baseline ("CKDi25"; encompassing 19,901 cases, 175,244 controls). Seven independent variants were identified across six loci for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25: consisting of five variants at four loci with genome-wide significance (near UMOD-PDILT (2), PRKAG2, WDR72, OR2S2) and two variants among 265 known eGFRcrea variants (near GATM, LARP4B). All these loci were novel for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25 and our bioinformatic follow-up prioritized variants and genes underneath these loci. The OR2S2 locus is novel for any eGFRcrea trait including interesting candidates. For the five genome-wide significant lead variants, we found supporting effects for annual change in blood urea nitrogen or cystatin-based eGFR, but not for GATM or LARP4B. Individuals at high compared to those at low genetic risk (8-14 vs. 0-5 adverse alleles) had a 1.20-fold increased risk of acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). Thus, our identified loci for rapid kidney function decline may help prioritize therapeutic targets and identify mechanisms and individuals at risk for sustained deterioration of kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.09.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010357PMC
April 2021

Lipoprotein(a) lowering by alirocumab reduces the total burden of cardiovascular events independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial.

Eur Heart J 2020 11;41(44):4245-4255

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Box B130, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Aims: Lipoprotein(a) concentration is associated with first cardiovascular events in clinical trials. It is unknown if this relationship holds for total (first and subsequent) events. In the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor alirocumab reduced lipoprotein(a), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and cardiovascular events compared with placebo. This post hoc analysis determined whether baseline levels and alirocumab-induced changes in lipoprotein(a) and LDL-C [corrected for lipoprotein(a) cholesterol] independently predicted total cardiovascular events.

Methods And Results: Cardiovascular events included cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure, ischaemia-driven coronary revascularization, peripheral artery disease events, and venous thromboembolism. Proportional hazards models estimated relationships between baseline lipoprotein(a) and total cardiovascular events in the placebo group, effects of alirocumab treatment on total cardiovascular events by baseline lipoprotein(a), and relationships between lipoprotein(a) reduction with alirocumab and subsequent risk of total cardiovascular events. Baseline lipoprotein(a) predicted total cardiovascular events with placebo, while higher baseline lipoprotein(a) levels were associated with greater reduction in total cardiovascular events with alirocumab (hazard ratio Ptrend = 0.045). Alirocumab-induced reductions in lipoprotein(a) (median -5.0 [-13.6, 0] mg/dL) and corrected LDL-C (median -51.3 [-67.1, -34.0] mg/dL) independently predicted lower risk of total cardiovascular events. Each 5-mg/dL reduction in lipoprotein(a) predicted a 2.5% relative reduction in cardiovascular events.

Conclusion: Baseline lipoprotein(a) predicted the risk of total cardiovascular events and risk reduction by alirocumab. Lipoprotein(a) lowering contributed independently to cardiovascular event reduction, supporting the concept of lipoprotein(a) as a treatment target after ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724642PMC
November 2020

Long-Term Bleeding Risk Prediction with Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Acute Coronary Syndromes Treated Without Revascularization.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2020 09 31;13(9):e006582. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (G.M.G., M.L.N., R.A., E.M.O., M.T.R.).

Background: Longitudinal bleeding risk scores have been validated in patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) following percutaneous coronary intervention. How these scores apply to the population of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated without revascularization remains unknown. The objective was to evaluate and compare the performances of the PRECISE-DAPT, PARIS, and DAPT (bleeding component) bleeding risk scores in the medically managed patients with ACS treated with DAPT.

Methods And Results: TRILOGY ACS (Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted from 2008 to 2012 over a median follow-up of 17.0 months in 966 sites (52 countries). High-risk patients with unstable angina or non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction who did not undergo revascularization were randomized to prasugrel or clopidogrel. The PRECISE-DAPT, PARIS, and DAPT (bleeding component) risk scores were applied in the TRILOGY ACS population to evaluate their performance to predict adjudicated non-coronary artery bypass grafting-related GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) severe/life-threatening/moderate and TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) major/minor bleeding with time-dependent c-indices. Among the 9326 participants, median age was 66 years (interquartile range, 59-74 years), and 3650 were females (39.1%). A total of 158 (1.69%) GUSTO severe/life-threatening/moderate and 174 (1.87%) TIMI major/minor non-coronary artery bypass grafting bleeding events occurred. The c-indices (95% CI) of the PRECISE-DAPT, PARIS, and DAPT (bleeding component) scores through 12 months were 0.716 (0.677-0.758), 0.693 (0.658-0.733), and 0.674 (0.637-0.713), respectively, for GUSTO bleeding and 0.624 (0.582-0.666), 0.612 (0.578-0.651), and 0.608 (0.571-0.649), respectively, for TIMI bleeding. There was no significant difference in the c-indices of each score based upon pairwise comparisons.

Conclusions: Among medically managed patients with ACS treated with DAPT, the performances of the PRECISE-DAPT, PARIS, and DAPT (bleeding component) scores were reasonable and similar to their performances in the derivation percutaneous coronary intervention populations. Bleeding risk scores may be used to predict longitudinal bleeding risk in patients with ACS treated with DAPT without revascularization and help support shared decision making. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00699998.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.006582DOI Listing
September 2020

Effect of alirocumab on major adverse cardiovascular events according to renal function in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome: prespecified analysis from the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES randomized clinical trial.

Eur Heart J 2020 11;41(42):4114-4123

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Aims: Statins reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and normal-to-moderately impaired renal function. It is not known whether proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors provide similar benefit across a range of renal function. We determined whether effects of the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab to reduce cardiovascular events and death after ACS are influenced by renal function.

Methods And Results: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared alirocumab with placebo in patients with recent ACS and dyslipidaemia despite intensive statin treatment. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 was exclusionary. In 18 918 patients, baseline eGFR was 82.8 ± 17.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was 92 ± 31 mg/dL. At 36 months, alirocumab decreased LDL-C by 48.5% vs. placebo but did not affect eGFR (P = 0.65). Overall, alirocumab reduced risk of the primary outcome (coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization) with fewer deaths. There was no interaction between continuous eGFR and treatment on the primary outcome or death (P = 0.14 and 0.59, respectively). Alirocumab reduced primary outcomes in patients with eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 7470; hazard ratio 0.784, 95% confidence interval 0.670-0.919; P = 0.003) and 60 to <90 (n = 9326; 0.833, 0.731-0.949; P = 0.006), but not in those with eGFR < 60 (n = 2122; 0.974, 0.805-1.178; P = 0.784). Adverse events other than local injection-site reactions were similar in both groups across all categories of eGFR.

Conclusions: In patients with recent ACS, alirocumab was associated with fewer cardiovascular events and deaths across the range of renal function studied, with larger relative risk reductions in those with eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700757PMC
November 2020

Clinically Important Improvements in Risk Assessment by Adding High-Sensitivity Troponin Level to Cholesterol Guidelines.

Authors:
Harvey D White

JAMA Cardiol 2020 11;5(11):1263-1264

Green Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital and University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.2996DOI Listing
November 2020

Post-Discharge Bleeding and Mortality Following Acute Coronary Syndromes With or Without PCI.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 07;76(2):162-171

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina; Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Background: The long-term prognostic impact of post-discharge bleeding in the unique population of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unexplored.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association between post-discharge bleeding and subsequent mortality after ACS according to index strategy (PCI or no PCI) and to contrast with the association between post-discharge myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequent mortality.

Methods: In a harmonized dataset of 4 multicenter randomized trials (APPRAISE-2 [Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic Events-2], PLATO [Study of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes], TRACER [Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome], and TRILOGY ACS [Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes]), the association between post-discharge noncoronary artery bypass graft-related GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) moderate, severe, or life-threatening bleeding (landmark 7 days post-ACS) and subsequent all-cause mortality was evaluated in a time-updated Cox proportional hazards analysis. Interaction with index treatment strategy was assessed. Results were contrasted with risk for mortality following post-discharge MI.

Results: Among 45,011 participants, 1,133 experienced post-discharge bleeding events (2.6 per 100 patient-years), and 2,149 died during follow-up. The risk for mortality was significantly higher <30 days (adjusted hazard ratio: 15.7; 95% confidence interval: 12.3 to 20.0) and 30 days to 12 months (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 3.4) after bleeding, and this association was consistent in participants treated with or without PCI for their index ACS (p for interaction = 0.240). The time-related association between post-discharge bleeding and mortality was similar to the association between MI and subsequent mortality in participants treated with and without PCI (p for interaction = 0.696).

Conclusions: Post-discharge bleeding after ACS is associated with a similar increase in subsequent all-cause mortality in participants treated with or without PCI and has an equivalent prognostic impact as post-discharge MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.05.031DOI Listing
July 2020

In patients with stable coronary heart disease, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels < 70 mg/dL and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c < 7% are associated with lower major cardiovascular events.

Am Heart J 2020 07 18;225:97-107. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: In patients with stable coronary heart disease, it is not known whether achievement of standard of care (SOC) targets in addition to evidence-based medicine (EBM) is associated with lower major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE): cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke.

Methods: EBM use was recommended in the STabilisation of Atherosclerotic plaque By Initiation of darapLadIb TherapY trial. SOC targets were blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mm Hg and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dL and <70 mg/dL. In patients with diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7% and BP of <130/80 mm Hg were recommended. Feedback to investigators about rates of EBM and SOC was provided regularly.

Results: In 13,623 patients, 1-year landmark analysis assessed the association between EBM, SOC targets, and MACE during follow-up of 2.7 years (median) after adjustment in a Cox proportional hazards model. At 1 year, aspirin was prescribed in 92.5% of patients, statins in 97.2%, β-blockers in 79.0%, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor blockers in 76.9%. MACE was lower with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) compared with LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL (hazard ratio [HR] 0.694, 95% CI 0.594-0.811) and lower with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) (HR 0.834, 95% CI 0.708-0.983). MACE was lower with HbA1c < 7% compared with HbA1c ≥ 7% (HR 0.705, 95% CI 0.573-0.866). There was no effect of BP targets on MACE.

Conclusions: MACE was lower with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) and even lower with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. MACE in patients with diabetes was lower with HbA1c < 7%. Achievement of targets is associated with improved patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.04.004DOI Listing
July 2020

Cost-Effectiveness of Alirocumab in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Trial.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 05;75(18):2297-2308

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, Université de Paris, French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1148, Paris, France; National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/gabrielsteg.

Background: Cholesterol reduction with proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitors reduces ischemic events; however, the cost-effectiveness in statin-treated patients with recent acute coronary syndrome remains uncertain.

Objectives: This study sought to determine whether further cholesterol reduction with alirocumab would be cost-effective in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome on optimal statin therapy.

Methods: A cost-effectiveness model leveraging patient-level data from ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) was developed to estimate costs and outcomes over a lifetime horizon. Patients (n = 18,924) had a recent acute coronary syndrome and were on high-intensity or maximum-tolerated statin therapy, with a baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level ≥70 mg/dl, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dl, or apolipoprotein B ≥80 mg/l. Alirocumab 75 mg or placebo was administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Alirocumab was blindly titrated to 150 mg if LDL-C remained ≥50 mg/dl or switched to placebo if 2 consecutive LDL-C levels were <15 mg/dl. Incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) was determined with the addition of alirocumab versus placebo and, based on clinical efficacy findings from the trial, was stratified by baseline LDL-C levels ≥100 mg/dl and <100 mg/dl.

Results: Across the overall population recruited to the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial, using an annual treatment cost of US$5,850, the mean overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$92,200 per QALY (base case). The cost was US$41,800 per QALY in patients with baseline LDL-C ≥100 mg/dl, whereas in those with LDL-C <100 mg/dl the cost per QALY was US$299,400. Among patients with LDL-C ≥100 mg/dl, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios remained below US$100,000 per QALY across a wide variety of sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: In patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome on optimal statin therapy, alirocumab improves cardiovascular outcomes at costs considered intermediate value, with good value in patients with baseline LDL-C ≥100 mg/dl but less economic value with LDL-C <100 mg/dl. (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab [ODYSSEY OUTCOMES]; NCT01663402).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.03.029DOI Listing
May 2020

Deconstructing the Paradox of Smoking and Improved Short-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes After Myocardial Infarction.

Authors:
Harvey D White

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 04;75(15):1755-1757

Green Lane Cardiovascular Services, Auckland City Hospital and University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.02.044DOI Listing
April 2020

Circulating MicroRNA Profiling in Non-ST Elevated Coronary Artery Syndrome Highlights Genomic Associations with Serial Platelet Reactivity Measurements.

Sci Rep 2020 04 10;10(1):6169. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Changes in platelet physiology are associated with simultaneous changes in microRNA concentrations, suggesting a role for microRNA in platelet regulation. Here we investigated potential associations between microRNA and platelet reactivity (PR), a marker of platelet function, in two cohorts following a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) event. First, non-targeted microRNA concentrations and PR were compared in a case (N = 77) control (N = 76) cohort within the larger TRILOGY-ACS trial. MicroRNA significant in this analysis plus CVD-associated microRNAs from the literature were then quantified by targeted rt-PCR in the complete TRILOGY-ACS cohort (N = 878) and compared with matched PR samples. Finally, microRNA significant in the non-targeted & targeted analyses were verified in an independent post NSTE-ACS cohort (N = 96). From the non-targeted analysis, 14 microRNAs were associated with PR (Fold Change: 0.91-1.27, p-value: 0.004-0.05). From the targeted analysis, five microRNAs were associated with PR (Beta: -0.09-0.22, p-value: 0.004-0.05). Of the 19 significant microRNAs, three, miR-15b-5p, miR-93 and miR-126, were consistently associated with PR in the TRILOGY-ACS and independent Singapore post-ACS cohorts, suggesting the measurement of circulating microRNA concentrations may report on dynamic changes in platelet biology following a cardiovascular ischemic event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63263-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7148370PMC
April 2020

Initial Invasive or Conservative Strategy for Stable Coronary Disease.

N Engl J Med 2020 04 30;382(15):1395-1407. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

From the Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (D.J.M., R.A.H.), and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (D.S.B.) - both in California; New York University Grossman School of Medicine (J.S.H., H.R.R., S. Bangalore, J.S.B., J.D.N., S.M.), Weill Cornell Medicine/New York-Presbyterian Hospital (L.J.S.), Cleerly (J.K.M.), the Cardiovascular Research Foundation (Z.A.A., G.W.S.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York-Presbyterian Hospital (Z.A.A.), and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (G.W.S.), New York, Albany Medical College and Albany Medical Center, Albany (M.S.S.), and St. Francis Hospital, Roslyn (Z.A.A.) - all in New York; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham (S.M.O., K.P.A., R.D.L., D.B.M., F.W.R., S. Broderick), and Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville (T.B.F.) - both in North Carolina; Veterans Affairs (VA) New England Healthcare System and Boston University School of Medicine (W.E.B.), Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (M.H.P.), and Brigham and Women's Hospital (R.Y.K., D.O.W.) - all in Boston; Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis (B.R.C.), and the Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute and the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (J.A.S.); Northwick Park Hospital (R.S., A.E.) and Imperial College London and Royal Brompton Hospital (R.S.) - all in London; Hospital Universitario La Paz, Instituto de Investigación de La Paz, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Cardiovascular, Madrid (J.L.-S.), and Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruna, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Cardiovascular, A Coruna (J.P.) - all in Spain; Canadian Heart Research Centre and St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (S.G.G.), Montreal Heart Institute Research Center, Montreal (G.G.), and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver (G.B.J.M.) - all in Canada; the Department of Coronary and Structural Heart Diseases (M.D.), National Institute of Cardiology (W.R., M.D., H.S.), Warsaw, Poland; Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri, Florence, Italy (A.P.M.); Auckland Hospital Green Lane Cardiovascular Services, Auckland, New Zealand (H.D.W.); All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (B.B.), Government Medical College Kozhikode, Kerala (M.N.K.), and Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Research, Bangalore (N.M.) - all in India; Instituto do Coração, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (W.A.H.); Emory University School of Medicine-Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, Georgia (K.M.); the National Research Center for Cardiovascular Surgery, Moscow (O.B.); Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (T.D.M.); Praxisklinik Herz und Gefaesse, Dresden, Germany (R.D.); Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary (M.K.); Flinders University, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, SA, Australia (J.B.S.); Université de Paris, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, and INSERM Unité 1148, Paris (P.G.S.); the Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology, Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden (C.H.); Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo (S.K.); the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (R.K., N.O.J., Y.R.); and Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville (F.E.H.).

Background: Among patients with stable coronary disease and moderate or severe ischemia, whether clinical outcomes are better in those who receive an invasive intervention plus medical therapy than in those who receive medical therapy alone is uncertain.

Methods: We randomly assigned 5179 patients with moderate or severe ischemia to an initial invasive strategy (angiography and revascularization when feasible) and medical therapy or to an initial conservative strategy of medical therapy alone and angiography if medical therapy failed. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest. A key secondary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or myocardial infarction.

Results: Over a median of 3.2 years, 318 primary outcome events occurred in the invasive-strategy group and 352 occurred in the conservative-strategy group. At 6 months, the cumulative event rate was 5.3% in the invasive-strategy group and 3.4% in the conservative-strategy group (difference, 1.9 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8 to 3.0); at 5 years, the cumulative event rate was 16.4% and 18.2%, respectively (difference, -1.8 percentage points; 95% CI, -4.7 to 1.0). Results were similar with respect to the key secondary outcome. The incidence of the primary outcome was sensitive to the definition of myocardial infarction; a secondary analysis yielded more procedural myocardial infarctions of uncertain clinical importance. There were 145 deaths in the invasive-strategy group and 144 deaths in the conservative-strategy group (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.32).

Conclusions: Among patients with stable coronary disease and moderate or severe ischemia, we did not find evidence that an initial invasive strategy, as compared with an initial conservative strategy, reduced the risk of ischemic cardiovascular events or death from any cause over a median of 3.2 years. The trial findings were sensitive to the definition of myocardial infarction that was used. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ISCHEMIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01471522.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1915922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263833PMC
April 2020

Peripheral Artery Disease and Venous Thromboembolic Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome: Role of Lipoprotein(a) and Modification by Alirocumab: Prespecified Analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Randomized Clinical Trial.

Circulation 2020 05 29;141(20):1608-1617. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Brigham and Women's Hospital Heart & Vascular Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (D.L.B.).

Background: Patients with acute coronary syndrome are at risk for peripheral artery disease (PAD) events and venous thromboembolism (VTE). PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitors reduce lipoprotein(a) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Our objective was to ascertain whether PCSK9 inhibition reduces the risk of PAD events or VTE after acute coronary syndrome, and if such effects are related to levels of lipoprotein(a) or LDL-C.

Methods: This was a prespecified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES randomized clinical trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome), which was conducted in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome on intensive or maximum-tolerated statin treatment who were randomized to the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab or placebo. In a prespecified analysis, PAD events (critical limb ischemia, limb revascularization, or amputation for ischemia) and VTE (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) were assessed. LDL-C was corrected (LDL-C) for cholesterol content in lipoprotein(a).

Results: At baseline, median lipoprotein(a) and LDL-C were 21 and 75 mg/dL, respectively; with alirocumab, median relative reductions were 23.5% and 70.6%, respectively. PAD events and VTE occurred in 246 and 92 patients, respectively. In the placebo group, risk of PAD events was related to baseline quartile of lipoprotein(a) (=0.0021), and tended to associate with baseline quartile of LDL-C (=0.06); VTE tended to associate with baseline quartile of lipoprotein(a) (=0.06), but not LDL-C (=0.85). Alirocumab reduced risk of PAD events (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.54-0.89]; =0.004), with nonsignificantly fewer VTE events (HR, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.44-1.01]; =0.06). Reduction in PAD events with alirocumab was associated with baseline quartile of lipoprotein(a) (=0.03), but not LDL-C (=0.50). With alirocumab, the change from baseline to Month 4 in lipoprotein(a), but not LDL-C, was associated with the risk of VTE and the composite of VTE and PAD events.

Conclusions: In statin-treated patients with recent acute coronary syndrome, risk of PAD events is related to lipoprotein(a) level and is reduced by alirocumab, particularly among those with high lipoprotein(a). Further study is required to confirm whether risk of VTE is related to lipoprotein(a) level and its reduction with alirocumab. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01663402.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.046524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242174PMC
May 2020
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