Publications by authors named "Haruka Murakami"

88 Publications

Mother-to-infant transmission of the carcinogenic colibactin-producing bacteria.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Aug 24;21(1):235. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 422-8526, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background: The Escherichia coli strain that is known to produce the genotoxic secondary metabolite colibactin is linked to colorectal oncogenesis. Therefore, understanding the properties of such colibactin-positive E. coli and the molecular mechanism of oncogenesis by colibactin may provide us with opportunities for early diagnosis or prevention of colorectal oncogenesis. While there have been major advances in the characterization of colibactin-positive E. coli and the toxin it produces, the infection route of the clb + strain remains poorly characterized.

Results: We examined infants and their treatments during and post-birth periods to examine potential transmission of colibactin-positive E. coli to infants. Here, analysis of fecal samples of infants over the first month of birth for the presence of a colibactin biosynthetic gene revealed that the bacterium may be transmitted from mother to infant through intimate contacts, such as natural childbirth and breastfeeding, but not through food intake.

Conclusions: Our finding suggests that transmission of colibactin-positive E. coli appears to be occurring at the very early stage of life of the newborn and hints at the possibility of developing early preventive measures against colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02292-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8386082PMC
August 2021

Stool pattern is associated with not only the prevalence of tumorigenic bacteria isolated from fecal matter but also plasma and fecal fatty acids in healthy Japanese adults.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Jun 28;21(1):196. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Tokyo, 162-8636, Japan.

Background: Colibactin-producing Escherichia coli containing polyketide synthase (pks E. coli) has been shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) development through gut microbiota analysis in animal models. Stool status has been associated with potentially adverse gut microbiome profiles from fecal analysis in adults. We examined the association between stool patterns and the prevalence of pks E. coli isolated from microbiota in fecal samples of 224 healthy Japanese individuals.

Results: Stool patterns were determined through factorial analysis using a previously validated questionnaire that included stool frequency, volume, color, shape, and odor. Factor scores were classified into tertiles. The prevalence of pks E. coli was determined by using specific primers for pks E. coli in fecal samples. Plasma and fecal fatty acids were measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The prevalence of pks E. coli was 26.8%. Three stool patterns identified by factorial analysis accounted for 70.1% of all patterns seen (factor 1: lower frequency, darker color, and harder shape; factor 2: higher volume and softer shape; and factor 3: darker color and stronger odor). Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the prevalence of pks E. coli for the highest versus the lowest third of the factor 1 score was 3.16 (1.38 to 7.24; P for trend = 0.006). This stool pattern exhibited a significant positive correlation with fecal isobutyrate, isovalerate, valerate, and hexanoate but showed a significant negative correlation with plasma eicosenoic acid and α-linoleic acid, as well as fecal propionate and succinate. No other stool patterns were significant.

Conclusions: These results suggest that stool patterns may be useful in the evaluation of the presence of tumorigenic bacteria and fecal fatty acids through self-monitoring of stool status without the requirement for specialist technology or skill. Furthermore, it may provide valuable insight about effective strategies for the early discovery of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02255-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240356PMC
June 2021

Comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota of a healthy population and covariates affecting microbial variation in two large Japanese cohorts.

BMC Microbiol 2021 05 20;21(1):151. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, 162-8636, Japan.

Background: Inter-individual variations in gut microbiota composition are observed even among healthy populations. The gut microbiota may exhibit a unique composition depending on the country of origin and race of individuals. To comprehensively understand the link between healthy gut microbiota and host state, it is beneficial to conduct large-scale cohort studies. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the integrated and non-redundant factors associated with gut microbiota composition within the Japanese population by 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples and questionnaire-based covariate analysis.

Results: A total of 1596 healthy Japanese individuals participated in this study via two independent cohorts, NIBIOHN cohort (n = 954) and MORINAGA cohort (n = 642). Gut microbiota composition was described and the interaction of these microorganisms with metadata parameters such as anthropometric measurements, bowel habits, medical history, and lifestyle were obtained. Thirteen genera, including Alistipes, Anaerostipes, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Eubacterium halli group, Faecalibacterium, Fusicatenibacter, Lachnoclostridium, Parabacteroides, Prevotella_9, Roseburia, and Subdoligranulum were predominant among the two cohorts. On the basis of univariate analysis for overall microbiome variation, 18 matching variables exhibited significant association in both cohorts. A stepwise redundancy analysis revealed that there were four common covariates, Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) scores, gender, age, and defecation frequency, displaying non-redundant association with gut microbial variance.

Conclusions: We conducted a comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota in healthy Japanese individuals, based on two independent cohorts, and obtained reliable evidence that questionnaire-based covariates such as frequency of bowel movement and specific dietary habit affects the microbial composition of the gut. To our knowledge, this was the first study to investigate integrated and non-redundant factors associated with gut microbiota among Japanese populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02215-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139087PMC
May 2021

[Investigation of the reproducibility and validity of a questionnaire on usual bowel movement patterns and stool characteristics compared to an evacuation diary].

Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2021 Feb 26;68(2):92-104. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN).

Objective Stool reflect our dietary and nutritional status as well as the characteristics of gut microbiota; thus, stool can be a convenient, noninvasive index for the evaluation of physical health and nutritional intake. However, there are few studies on appropriate tools for comprehensive and easy-to-perform objective assessments of stool. Therefore, there is a need for an effective questionnaire to accurately ascertain daily bowel movement patterns ("usual evacuation") and stool characteristics. Herein, we have created an assessment tool to determine stool characteristics (volume, color, form, etc.). To investigate the validity of this tool, we compared the results with evacuation diary data wherein the participants were asked to record the number of evacuations and stool characteristics.Methods This study included 35 adult men and women, aged 22-78 years (45.2±17.1years). A questionnaire was administered to the subjects on usual stool characteristics for the most recent month, including the average number of evacuations, stool volume per evacuation, stool color and form, stool float, and abdominal bloating. To confirm the reproducibility of each item of this questionnaire, the survey was performed twice. Thereafter, an evacuation diary was used, wherein the subjects recorded the daily number of evacuations and stool characteristics for one week. Using the evacuation diary as the valid criterion for the number of evacuations and stool characteristics, we compared responses between the diary and the usual stool questionnaire. Additionally, the questionnaire had two types of responses for the number of evacuations, namely, multiple choice for categories indicating the number of evacuations and open answers using numerical values.Results Assessment of the reproducibility of the questionnaire on usual stool by Spearman rank correlation coefficients showed a significant correlation (ρ=0.431-0.911) for all items. The weighted κ coefficient also showed high coincidence (weighted κ=0.348-0.841). Validity was assessed by comparing the number of evacuations per one-week period between the evacuation diary and the usual stool questionnaire. A higher correlation (ρ=0.855) was observed in the open responses for the number of evacuations per one-week period. Assessment of the correlations between median values for responses to stool characteristics in the one-week evacuation diary and the usual stool questionnaire showed significant correlation (ρ=0.429-0.800) for all items except for "stool float".Conclusion We confirmed the high reproducibility and validity of the questionnaire created in this study for the assessment of usual bowel movement patterns and stool characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11236/jph.20-037DOI Listing
February 2021

MANTA, an integrative database and analysis platform that relates microbiome and phenotypic data.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(12):e0243609. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Artificial Intelligence Center for Health and Biomedical Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Ibaraki, Osaka, Japan.

With an ever-increasing interest in understanding the relationships between the microbiota and the host, more tools to map, analyze and interpret these relationships have been developed. Most of these tools, however, focus on taxonomic profiling and comparative analysis among groups, with very few analytical tools designed to correlate microbiota and the host phenotypic data. We have developed a software program for creating a web-based integrative database and analysis platform called MANTA (Microbiota And pheNoType correlation Analysis platform). In addition to storing the data, MANTA is equipped with an intuitive user interface that can be used to correlate the microbial composition with phenotypic parameters. Using a case study, we demonstrated that MANTA was able to quickly identify the significant correlations between microbial abundances and phenotypes that are supported by previous studies. Moreover, MANTA enabled the users to quick access locally stored data that can help interpret microbiota-phenotype relations. MANTA is available at https://mizuguchilab.org/manta/ for download and the source code can be found at https://github.com/chenyian-nibio/manta.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243609PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717536PMC
January 2021

Omega-3 fatty acid prevents the development of heart failure by changing fatty acid composition in the heart.

Sci Rep 2020 09 23;10(1):15553. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

Some clinical trials showed that omega-3 fatty acid (FA) reduced cardiovascular events, but it remains unknown whether omega-3 FA supplementation changes the composition of FAs and their metabolites in the heart and how the changes, if any, exert beneficial effects on cardiac structure and function. To clarify these issues, we supplied omega-3 FA to mice exposed to pressure overload, and examined cardiac structure and function by echocardiography and a proportion of FAs and their metabolites by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, and reduced concentration of all FAs' components and increased free form arachidonic acid and its metabolites, precursors of pro-inflammatory mediators in the heart. Omega-3 FA supplementation increased both total and free form of eicosapentaenoic acid, a precursor of pro-resolution mediators and reduced free form arachidonic acid in the heart. Omega-3 FA supplementation suppressed expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the heart and ameliorated cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis. These results suggest that omega-3 FA-induced changes of FAs composition in the heart have beneficial effects on cardiac function via regulating inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72686-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7512019PMC
September 2020

Rupture of aneurysmal coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistula in a 96-year-old female; report of a case.

Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Mar 16;69(3):601-604. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Asahikawa Medical University, Midorigaoka Higashi 2-1-1-1, Asahikawa, 078-8510, Japan.

Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is a relatively rare congenital abnormality of the coronary arteries; typically, patients who undergo surgery for CAFs are relatively young because it is a congenital disease. Here we present a case of an aneurysmal coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistula rupture in a 96-year-old female. Considering her extreme high age and missing preoperative diagnostics, only local hemostasis without anatomical repair was performed but the patient is still doing well 1 year after the operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11748-020-01488-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Association between dietary intake and the prevalence of tumourigenic bacteria in the gut microbiota of middle-aged Japanese adults.

Sci Rep 2020 09 16;10(1):15221. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8636, Japan.

The relative contribution of diet to colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence is higher than that for other cancers. Animal models have revealed that Escherichia coli containing polyketide synthase (pks E. coli) in the gut participates in CRC development. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between dietary intake and the prevalence of pks E. coli isolated from the microbiota in faecal samples of 223 healthy Japanese individuals. Dietary intake was assessed using a previously validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. The prevalence of pks E. coli was evaluated using faecal samples collected from participants and specific primers that detected pks E. coli. The prevalence of pks E. coli was 26.9%. After adjusting for baseline confounders, the prevalence of pks E. coli was negatively associated with the intake of green tea (odds ratio [OR], 0.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.88] per 100 g/1,000 kcal increment) and manganese (OR, 0.43 [95% CI 0.22-0.85] per 1 mg/1,000 kcal increment) and was positively associated with male sex (OR, 2.27 [95% CI 1.05-4.91]). While futher studies are needed to validate these findings, these results provide insight into potential dietary interventions for the prevention of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72245-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495490PMC
September 2020

Clinical importance of respiratory muscle fatigue in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Aug;99(34):e21794

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo.

Patients with cardiovascular diseases frequently experience exertional dyspnea. However, the relationship between respiratory muscle strength including its fatigue and cardiovascular dysfunctions remains to be clarified.The maximal inspiratory pressure/maximal expiratory pressure (MIP/MEP) before and after cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) in 44 patients with heart failure and ischemic heart disease were measured. Respiratory muscle fatigue was evaluated by calculating MIP (MIPpost/MIPpre) and MEP (MEPpost/MEPpre) changes.The mean MIPpre and MEPpre values were 67.5 ± 29.0 and 61.6 ± 23.8 cm H2O, respectively. After CPX, MIP decreased in 25 patients, and MEP decreased in 22 patients. We evaluated the correlation relationship between respiratory muscle function including respiratory muscle fatigue and exercise capacity evaluated by CPX such as peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope. Among MIP, MEP, change in MIP, and change in MEP, only the value of change in MIP had an association with the value of VE/VCO2 slope (R = -0.36, P = .017). In addition, multivariate analysis for determining factor of change in MIP revealed that the association between the change in MIP and eGFR was independent from other confounding parameters (beta, 0.40, P = .017). The patients were divided into 2 groups, with (MIP change < 0.9) and without respiratory muscle fatigue (MIP change > 0.9), and a significant difference in peak VO2 (14.2 ± 3.4 [with fatigue] vs 17.4 ± 4.7 [without fatigue] mL/kg/min; P = .020) was observed between the groups.Respiratory muscle fatigue demonstrated by the change of MIP before and after CPX significantly correlated with exercise capacity and renal function in patients with cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7447364PMC
August 2020

Gut microbial composition in patients with atrial fibrillation: effects of diet and drugs.

Heart Vessels 2021 Jan 18;36(1):105-114. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 6500017, Japan.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) reduces the quality of life by triggering stroke and heart failure. The association between AF onset and gut metabolites suggests a causal relationship between AF and gut microbiota dysbiosis; however, the relationship remains poorly understood. We prospectively enrolled 34 hospitalized patients with AF and 66 age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched control subjects without a history of AF. Gut microbial compositions were evaluated by amplicon sequencing targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. We assessed differences in dietary habits by using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Gut microbial richness was lower in AF patients, although the diversity of gut microbiota did not differ between the two groups. At the genus level, Enterobacter was depleted, while Parabacteroides, Lachnoclostridium, Streptococcus, and Alistipes were enriched in AF patients compared to control subjects. The BDHQ revealed that the intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and eicosadienoic acid was higher in AF patients. Our results suggested that AF patients had altered gut microbial composition in connection with dietary habits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-020-01669-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788021PMC
January 2021

Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals a Novel Association Between MYBPC3 Gene Polymorphism, Endurance Athlete Status, Aerobic Capacity and Steroid Metabolism.

Front Genet 2020 16;11:595. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Biomedical Research Institute (BRC), Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Background: The genetic predisposition to elite athletic performance has been a controversial subject due to the underpowered studies and the small effect size of identified genetic variants. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with endurance athlete status in a large cohort of elite European athletes using GWAS approach, followed by replication studies in Russian and Japanese elite athletes and functional validation using metabolomics analysis.

Results: The association of 476,728 SNPs of Illumina DrugCore Gene chip and endurance athlete status was investigated in 796 European international-level athletes (645 males, 151 females) by comparing allelic frequencies between athletes specialized in sports with high ( = 662) and low/moderate ( = 134) aerobic component. Replication of results was performed by comparing the frequencies of the most significant SNPs between 242 and 168 elite Russian high and low/moderate aerobic athletes, respectively, and between 60 elite Japanese endurance athletes and 406 controls. A meta-analysis has identified rs1052373 (GG homozygotes) in Myosin Binding Protein (; implicated in cardiac hypertrophic myopathy) gene to be associated with endurance athlete status ( = 1.43 × 10, odd ratio 2.2). Homozygotes carriers of rs1052373 G allele in Russian athletes had significantly greater VO than carriers of the AA + AG ( = 0.005). Subsequent metabolomics analysis revealed several amino acids and lipids associated with rs1052373 G allele (1.82 × 10) including the testosterone precursor androstenediol (3beta,17beta) disulfate.

Conclusions: This is the first report of genome-wide significant SNP and related metabolites associated with elite athlete status. Further investigations of the functional relevance of the identified SNPs and metabolites in relation to enhanced athletic performance are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308547PMC
June 2020

Total Synthesis of Sophoraflavanone H and Confirmation of Its Absolute Configuration.

Org Lett 2020 05 23;22(10):3820-3824. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.

Sophoraflavanone H () is a polyphenol with a hybrid-type structure containing 2,3-diaryl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran and flavanone ring moieties. This compound and related analogues are promising leads for antimicrobial and antitumor drug development. Here we describe a total synthesis of and its diastereomer. The dihydrobenzofuran and flavanone rings were constructed by a Rh-catalyzed asymmetric C-H insertion reaction and selective oxy-Michael reaction. The absolute configuration of was established by X-ray crystallographic analysis and CD spectral investigation of synthetic derivatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c01063DOI Listing
May 2020

The association of HFE gene H63D polymorphism with endurance athlete status and aerobic capacity: novel findings and a meta-analysis.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2020 Mar 22;120(3):665-673. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow, Russia.

Purpose: Iron is an important component of the oxygen-binding proteins and may be critical to optimal athletic performance. Previous studies have suggested that the G allele of C/G rare variant (rs1799945), which causes H63D amino acid replacement, in the HFE is associated with elevated iron indexes and may give some advantage in endurance-oriented sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the HFE H63D polymorphism and elite endurance athlete status in Japanese and Russian populations, aerobic capacity and to perform a meta-analysis using current findings and three previous studies.

Methods: The study involved 315 international-level endurance athletes (255 Russian and 60 Japanese) and 809 healthy controls (405 Russian and 404 Japanese). Genotyping was performed using micro-array analysis or by PCR. VO in 46 male Russian endurance athletes was determined using gas analysis system.

Results: The frequency of the iron-increasing CG/GG genotypes was significantly higher in Russian (38.0 vs 24.9%; OR 1.85, P = 0.0003) and Japanese (13.3 vs 5.0%; OR 2.95, P = 0.011) endurance athletes compared to ethnically matched controls. The meta-analysis using five cohorts (two French, Japanese, Spanish, and Russian; 586 athletes and 1416 controls) showed significant prevalence of the CG/GG genotypes in endurance athletes compared to controls (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.58-2.45; P = 1.7 × 10). Furthermore, the HFE G allele was associated with high V̇O in male athletes [CC: 61.8 (6.1), CG/GG: 66.3 (7.8) ml/min/kg; P = 0.036].

Conclusions: We have shown that the HFE H63D polymorphism is strongly associated with elite endurance athlete status, regardless ethnicities and aerobic capacity in Russian athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04306-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042188PMC
March 2020

Accuracy of 12 Wearable Devices for Estimating Physical Activity Energy Expenditure Using a Metabolic Chamber and the Doubly Labeled Water Method: Validation Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2019 08 2;7(8):e13938. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Self-monitoring using certain types of pedometers and accelerometers has been reported to be effective for promoting and maintaining physical activity (PA). However, the validity of estimating the level of PA or PA energy expenditure (PAEE) for general consumers using wearable devices has not been sufficiently established.

Objective: We examined the validity of 12 wearable devices for determining PAEE during 1 standardized day in a metabolic chamber and 15 free-living days using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method.

Methods: A total of 19 healthy adults aged 21 to 50 years (9 men and 10 women) participated in this study. They followed a standardized PA protocol in a metabolic chamber for an entire day while simultaneously wearing 12 wearable devices: 5 devices on the waist, 5 on the wrist, and 2 placed in the pocket. In addition, they spent their daily lives wearing 12 wearable devices under free-living conditions while being subjected to the DLW method for 15 days. The PAEE criterion was calculated by subtracting the basal metabolic rate measured by the metabolic chamber and 0.1×total energy expenditure (TEE) from TEE. The TEE was obtained by the metabolic chamber and DLW methods. The PAEE values of wearable devices were also extracted or calculated from each mobile phone app or website. The Dunnett test and Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to examine the variables estimated by wearable devices.

Results: On the standardized day, the PAEE estimated using the metabolic chamber (PAEEcha) was 528.8±149.4 kcal/day. The PAEEs of all devices except the TANITA AM-160 (513.8±135.0 kcal/day; P>.05), SUZUKEN Lifecorder EX (519.3±89.3 kcal/day; P>.05), and Panasonic Actimarker (545.9±141.7 kcal/day; P>.05) were significantly different from the PAEEcha. None of the devices was correlated with PAEEcha according to both Pearson (r=-.13 to .37) and Spearman (ρ=-.25 to .46) correlation tests. During the 15 free-living days, the PAEE estimated by DLW (PAEEdlw) was 728.0±162.7 kcal/day. PAEE values of all devices except the Omron Active style Pro (716.2±159.0 kcal/day; P>.05) and Omron CaloriScan (707.5±172.7 kcal/day; P>.05) were significantly underestimated. Only 2 devices, the Omron Active style Pro (r=.46; P=.045) and Panasonic Actimarker (r=.48; P=.04), had significant positive correlations with PAEEdlw according to Pearson tests. In addition, 3 devices, the TANITA AM-160 (ρ=.50; P=.03), Omron CaloriScan (ρ=.48; P=.04), and Omron Active style Pro (ρ=.48; P=.04), could be ranked in PAEEdlw.

Conclusions: Most wearable devices do not provide comparable PAEE estimates when using gold standard methods during 1 standardized day or 15 free-living days. Continuous development and evaluations of these wearable devices are needed for better estimations of PAEE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/13938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696858PMC
August 2019

Effects of 1-year weight loss intervention on abdominal skeletal muscle mass in Japanese overweight men and women.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2019 ;28(1):72-78

Department of Health Promotion, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan.

Background And Objectives: Limited information is available on how weight loss intervention programs affect skeletal muscle mass especially in trunk.

Methods And Study Design: A total of 235 overweight Japanese men and women aged 40-64 years with a body mass index of 28.0 to 44.8 kg/m2 participated in this randomized controlled intervention study. They were randomly divided into a lifestyle intervention group and control group. Before and after the one-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss an abdominal transverse image was acquired by computed tomography. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and skeletal muscle of rectus abdominis, abdominal oblique, iliopsoas, and erector spinae muscle were calculated.

Results: The body weight changed by approximately -5% in the intervention groups. The corresponding values for subcutaneous fat and visceral fat CSAs were -10.8 to -17.5% in both sexes. The reductions observed in skeletal muscle CSAs were significantly less (-6.0% and -7.2% in the men and women intervention groups respectively) than those in fat tissue CSAs. The CSA of each of the four skeletal muscle groups also significantly decreased; however, after adjustments for body weight at each time point, only reductions in the iliopsoas muscle in both sex and abdominal oblique muscles in men remained significant.

Conclusions: The lifestyle weight loss intervention might reduce the relative amount of the abdominal skeletal muscles especially in iliopsoas muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.201903_28(1).0011DOI Listing
August 2019

Validity of an observational assessment tool for multifaceted evaluation of faecal condition.

Sci Rep 2019 03 6;9(1):3760. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, NIBIOHN, Tokyo, 162-8636, Japan.

Faecal volume, form, colour, and odour are associated with various diseases, dietary habits, and the gut microbiome. Multifaceted assessment of faecal condition will be needed for future research and practice. Faecal observation has advantages, as it is non-invasive, frequent, and easy. We have developed and validated an illustrative card tool for comprehensively faecal assessment. In 38 healthy adults, observations of volume, form, colour, and odour of faeces using the tool were compared to the objective characteristics of the actual faeces determined using a weighing scale, moisture meter, hardness meter, colourimeter, and odour measuring device. A significant positive correlation (ρ = 0.778) was observed between the number of faecal model (2 cm × 10 cm) units and the actual weight. The Bristol Stool Form Scale showed a significant positive correlation with the moisture content (ρ = 0.717) and negative correlations with faecal hardness (ρ = -0.843) and adhesiveness (ρ = -0.761). The L*a*b* colour space values of the stool differed significantly among observational judgments using the colour card tool. No significant correlation was observed between the observation of odour and the measured odour index. In conclusion, the faecal volume, form, and colour can be estimated by observation using the multifaceted assessment card tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40178-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403287PMC
March 2019

AGTR2 and sprint/power performance: a case-control replication study for rs11091046 polymorphism in two ethnicities.

Biol Sport 2018 Jun 23;35(2):105-109. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, Chiba, Japan.

We aimed to replicate, in a specific athletic event cohort (only track and field) and in two different ethnicities (Japanese and East European, i.e. Russian and Polish), original findings showing the association of the angiotensin-II receptor type-2 gene () rs11091046 A>C polymorphism with athlete status. We compared genotypic frequencies of the rs11091046 polymorphism among 282 track and field sprint/power athletes (200 men and 82 women), including several national record holders and Olympic medallists (214 Japanese, 68 Russian and Polish), and 2024 control subjects (842 men and 1182 women) (804 Japanese, 1220 Russian and Polish). In men, a meta-analysis from the two combined cohorts showed a significantly higher frequency of the C allele in athletes than in controls (odds ratio: 1.62, =0.008, heterogeneity index =0%). With regard to respective cohorts, C allele frequency was higher in Japanese male athletes than in controls (67.7% vs. 55.9%, =0.022), but not in Russian/Polish male athletes (61.9% vs. 51.0%, =0.172). In women, no significant results were obtained by meta-analysis for the two cohorts combination (=0.850). The AC genotype frequency was significantly higher in Russian/Polish women athletes than in controls (69.2% vs. 42.1%, =0.022), but not in Japanese women athletes (=0.226). Our results, in contrast to previous findings, suggested by meta-analysis that the C allele of the rs11091046 polymorphism is associated with sprint/power track and field athlete status in men, but not in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2018.71599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234304PMC
June 2018

Targeting Vascular Inflammaging with Amlodipine for Atherosclerosis Prevention.

Int Heart J 2018;59(3):465-466

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.18-212DOI Listing
August 2018

Simultaneous Validation of Seven Physical Activity Questionnaires Used in Japanese Cohorts for Estimating Energy Expenditure: A Doubly Labeled Water Study.

J Epidemiol 2018 Oct 28;28(10):437-442. Epub 2018 Apr 28.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition.

Background: Physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) used in large-scale Japanese cohorts have rarely been simultaneously validated against the gold standard doubly labeled water (DLW) method. This study examined the validity of seven PAQs used in Japan for estimating energy expenditure against the DLW method.

Methods: Twenty healthy Japanese adults (9 men; mean age, 32.4 [standard deviation {SD}, 9.4] years, mainly researchers and students) participated in this study. Fifteen-day daily total energy expenditure (TEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were measured using the DLW method and a metabolic chamber, respectively. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as TEE - BMR - 0.1 × TEE. Seven PAQs were self-administered to estimate TEE and AEE.

Results: The mean measured values of TEE and AEE were 2,294 (SD, 318) kcal/day and 721 (SD, 161) kcal/day, respectively. All of the PAQs indicated moderate-to-strong correlations with the DLW method in TEE (rho = 0.57-0.84). Two PAQs (Japan Public Health Center Study [JPHC]-PAQ Short and JPHC-PAQ Long) showed significant equivalence in TEE and moderate intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). None of the PAQs showed significantly equivalent AEE estimates, with differences ranging from -547 to 77 kcal/day. Correlations and ICCs in AEE were mostly weak or fair (rho = 0.02-0.54, and ICC = 0.00-0.44). Only JPHC-PAQ Short provided significant and fair agreement with the DLW method.

Conclusions: TEE estimated by the PAQs showed moderate or strong correlations with the results of DLW. Two PAQs showed equivalent TEE and moderate agreement. None of the PAQs showed equivalent AEE estimation to the gold standard, with weak-to-fair correlations and agreements. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20170129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143378PMC
October 2018

Caffeine Consumption Is Associated With Higher Level of Physical Activity in Japanese Women.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Sep 23;28(5):474-479. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

2 National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition.

Caffeine has been described as a sports performance-enhancing substance. However, it is unclear whether it can increase the level of physical activity (PA) in nonathletic individuals. This study investigates the relationship between daily caffeine consumption and (a) daily PA/fitness or (b) intervention-induced changes in PA in women and men. On the basis of responses to a dietary habit questionnaire, which included items on caffeinated beverages, 1,032 Japanese adults, were categorized into lower or higher caffeine consumption groups (relative to the median caffeine consumption). In each group, daily step count; sedentary time; and light, moderate, and vigorous PA outcomes were objectively measured. Physical fitness, including peak oxygen consumption, was also evaluated. The relationship between daily caffeine consumption and the change in the levels of PA was investigated in a subgroup of 202 subjects who participated in a 1-year PA counseling intervention. Women in the higher caffeine consumption group presented higher moderate-to-vigorous PA and step count compared with their counterparts in the lower consumption group (4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 3.3 ± 2.1 MET-hr/day, p < .001; 10,335 ± 3,499 vs. 9,375 ± 3,527 steps/day, p < .001). A significant positive correlation was noted between caffeine consumption and peak oxygen consumption among women (r = .15, p < .001). No caffeine-related effects were noted in men. The lower and higher caffeine consumption groups showed no significant differences in their levels of PA at the end of the 1-year intervention. Therefore, caffeine consumption appears to be associated with higher levels of PA in Japanese women. Further studies are needed to clarify this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0428DOI Listing
September 2018

Large-scale GWAS identifies multiple loci for hand grip strength providing biological insights into muscular fitness.

Nat Commun 2017 07 12;8:16015. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK.

Hand grip strength is a widely used proxy of muscular fitness, a marker of frailty, and predictor of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. To investigate the genetic determinants of variation in grip strength, we perform a large-scale genetic discovery analysis in a combined sample of 195,180 individuals and identify 16 loci associated with grip strength (P<5 × 10) in combined analyses. A number of these loci contain genes implicated in structure and function of skeletal muscle fibres (ACTG1), neuronal maintenance and signal transduction (PEX14, TGFA, SYT1), or monogenic syndromes with involvement of psychomotor impairment (PEX14, LRPPRC and KANSL1). Mendelian randomization analyses are consistent with a causal effect of higher genetically predicted grip strength on lower fracture risk. In conclusion, our findings provide new biological insight into the mechanistic underpinnings of grip strength and the causal role of muscular strength in age-related morbidities and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms16015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5510175PMC
July 2017

Epistasis, physical capacity-related genes and exceptional longevity: FNDC5 gene interactions with candidate genes FOXOA3 and APOE.

BMC Genomics 2017 Nov 14;18(Suppl 8):803. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

European University and Research Institute i+12, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Forkhead box O3A (FOXOA3) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) are arguably the strongest gene candidates to influence human exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., being a centenarian), but inconsistency exists among cohorts. Epistasis, defined as the effect of one locus being dependent on the presence of 'modifier genes', may contribute to explain the missing heritability of complex phenotypes such as EL. We assessed the potential association of epistasis among candidate polymorphisms related to physical capacity, as well as antioxidant defense and cardiometabolic traits, and EL in the Japanese population. A total of 1565 individuals were studied, subdivided into 822 middle-aged controls and 743 centenarians.

Results: We found a FOXOA3 rs2802292 T-allele-dependent association of fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FDNC5) rs16835198 with EL: the frequency of carriers of the FOXOA3 rs2802292 T-allele among individuals with the rs16835198 GG genotype was significantly higher in cases than in controls (P < 0.05). On the other hand, among non-carriers of the APOE 'risk' ε4-allele, the frequency of the FDNC5 rs16835198 G-allele was higher in cases than in controls (48.4% vs. 43.6%, P < 0.05). Among carriers of the 'non-risk' APOE ε2-allele, the frequency of the rs16835198 G-allele was higher in cases than in controls (49% vs. 37.3%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The association of FDNC5 rs16835198 with EL seems to depend on the presence of the FOXOA3 rs2802292 T-allele and we report a novel association between FNDC5 rs16835198 stratified by the presence of the APOE ε2/ε4-allele and EL. More research on 'gene*gene' and 'gene*environment' effects is needed in the field of EL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-017-4194-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688477PMC
November 2017

The contribution of Nintendo series in the field of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

PeerJ 2017 5;5:e3600. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical innovation, Health and Nutrition, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: was originally designed as a health and fitness interactive training experience for the general public. There are, however, many examples of being utilized in clinical settings. This article aims to identify the contribution of in the field of health promotion and rehabilitation by: (1) identifying the health-related domains for which the series has been tested, (2) clarifying the effect of in those identified health-related domains and (3) quantifying this effect.

Method: A systematic literature review was undertaken. The MEDLINE database and published content were explored using the search term "Wii-Fit." Occurrences resulting from manual searches on Google and material suggested by experts in the field were also considered. Included articles were required to have measurements from activities for at least one relevant health indicator. The effect of interventions was assessed using meta-analyses for the following outcomes: activity-specific balance confidence score, Berg balance score (BBC) and time-up-and-go test (TUG).

Findings: A total of 115 articles highlighted that the has been tested in numerous healthy and pathological populations. Out of these, only a few intervention studies have focused on the prevention of chronic diseases. A large proportion of the studies focus on balance training ( = 55). This systematic review highlights several potential benefits of interventions and these positive observations are supported by meta-analyses data ( = 25). For example, the BBC and the TUG respond to a similar extend to interventions compared with traditional training.

Conclusion: has the potential to be used as a rehabilitation tool in different clinical situations. However, the current literature includes relatively few randomized controlled trials in each population. Further research is therefore required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5590553PMC
September 2017

Development of prediction equations for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass in Japanese men and women.

J Physiol Anthropol 2017 Aug 29;36(1):34. Epub 2017 Aug 29.

College of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577, Japan.

Background: This study aimed to develop and cross-validate prediction equations for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and to examine the relationship between sarcopenia defined by the prediction equations and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) or osteoporosis in Japanese men and women.

Methods: Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20-90 years, who were randomly allocated to the following two groups: the development group (D group; 257 men, 913 women) and the cross-validation group (V group; 119 men, 112 women). To develop prediction equations, stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed on data obtained from the D group, using ASM measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a dependent variable and five easily obtainable measures (age, height, weight, waist circumference, and handgrip strength) as independent variables.

Results: When the prediction equations for ASM estimation were applied to the V group, a significant correlation was found between DXA-measured ASM and predicted ASM in both men and women (R  = 0.81 and R  = 0.72). Our prediction equations had higher R values compared to previously developed equations (R  = 0.75-0.59 and R  = 0.69-0.40) in both men and women. Moreover, sarcopenia defined by predicted ASM was related to risk factors for osteoporosis and CVD, as well as sarcopenia defined by DXA-measured ASM.

Conclusions: In this study, novel prediction equations were developed and cross-validated in Japanese men and women. Our analyses validated the clinical significance of these prediction equations and showed that previously reported equations were not applicable in a Japanese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40101-017-0150-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576125PMC
August 2017

Greater Progression of Age-Related Aortic Stiffening in Adults with Poor Trunk Flexibility: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.

Front Physiol 2017 30;8:454. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, NIBIOHNTokyo, Japan.

Having a low level of physical fitness, especially cardiorespiratory fitness, appears to accelerate age-related aortic stiffening. Whereas, some studies have reported that trunk flexibility is a component of physical fitness, it is also negatively associated with arterial stiffening independent of cardiorespiratory fitness in cross-sectional studies. However, no long-term longitudinal study has determined whether poor trunk flexibility accelerates the progression of age-related aortic stiffening. We examined trunk flexibility and aortic stiffness progression in a 5-year longitudinal study. A total of 305 apparently healthy men and women participated in this study (49.6 ± 9.5 years of age). Trunk flexibility was measured using a sit-and-reach test. Aortic stiffness was assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) at baseline and after 5 years. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess the association of the annual rate of cfPWV across flexibility levels (low, middle, high). There were no significant differences in baseline cfPWV among the three groups (835 ± 164, 853 ± 140, 855 ± 2.68 cm/s; = 0.577). Annual ΔcfPWV was significantly higher in the low-flexibility group than in the high-flexibility group ( = 0.009). ANCOVA revealed an inverse relationship between flexibility level and annual ΔcfPWV (14.41 ± 2.73, 9.79 ± 2.59, 2.62 ± 2.68 cm/s/year; for trend = 0.011). Multiple regression analysis revealed that baseline sit and reach (β = -0.12, -0.70 to -0.01) was independently correlated with ΔcfPWV following adjustment for baseline peak oxygen uptake, age, sex, body fat, heart rate, and cfPWV. The 5-year change in cfPWV was not significantly correlated with 5-year change in sit-and-reach performance ( = 0.859). Poor trunk flexibility is associated with greater progression of age-related aortic stiffening in healthy adults. However, we failed to confirm a significant association between 5-year change in aortic stiffness and 5-year change in trunk flexibility. The association between increased age-related increase in aortic stiffness and deterioration in flexibility due to age may require observation for more than 5 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5491599PMC
June 2017

Method for preparing DNA from feces in guanidine thiocyanate solution affects 16S rRNA-based profiling of human microbiota diversity.

Sci Rep 2017 06 28;7(1):4339. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Laboratory of Vaccine Materials and Laboratory of Gut Environmental System, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Osaka, 567-0085, Japan.

Metagenomic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene is generally performed to examine the diversity and abundance of commensal bacteria in feces, which is now recognized to be associated with human health and diseases. Guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN) solution is used as a less onerous way compared with a frozen method to transport and stock fecal samples at room temperature for DNA analysis; however, optimal methods to measure fecal bacterial composition in GuSCN solution remain to be investigated. Here, we examined the influence of various factors such as pretreatment (e.g., removing GuSCN solution and washing feces with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) before mechanical lysis), fecal concentration in the GuSCN solution, storage time, and position of fecal subsampling on the 16S rRNA-based analysis of fecal bacteria in GuSCN solution. We found that pretreatment and fecal concentration affected the bacterial composition, and a little change was noted with subsampling position. Based on these results, we propose a basic protocol, including fecal sampling, sample storage, and DNA extraction, for the 16S rRNA-based analysis of bacterial composition in feces suspended in GuSCN solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04511-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5489508PMC
June 2017

Rapid Improvement of thyroid storm-related hemodynamic collapse by aggressive anti-thyroid therapy including steroid pulse: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jun;96(22):e7053

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Therapeutic Strategy for Heart Failure Department of Endocrinology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Rationale: Heart failure is relatively common in patients with hyperthyroidism, but thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy with poor left ventricular (LV) systolic function is very rare.

Patient Concerns: We experienced a representative case of a patient who presented with severe LV dysfunction related to thyroid storm and needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) temporally.

Diagnosis: Thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy.

Interventions And Outcomes: Aggressive antithyroid therapy, including steroid pulse to hyperthyroidism, leads to the dramatic improvement of cardiac function and she was successfully weaned from ECMO.

Lessons: The most outstanding feature of the current case was the rapid decrease of cardiac injury and improvement of cardiac function by strengthening antithyroid therapy, including steroid pulse, without thyroid hormone level normalization. In thyroid storm, various systemic inflammatory reactions have different time courses and among them, the cardiac phenotype emerges in most striking and critical ways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000007053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5459733PMC
June 2017

Appropriate control time constant in relation to characteristics of the baroreflex vascular system in 1/R control of the total artificial heart.

J Artif Organs 2017 Sep 17;20(3):200-205. Epub 2017 May 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

1/R control is a physiological control method of the total artificial heart (TAH) with which long-term survival was obtained with animal experiments. However, 1/R control occasionally diverged in the undulation pump TAH (UPTAH) animal experiment. To improve the control stability of the 1/R control, appropriate control time constant in relation to characteristics of the baroreflex vascular system was investigated with frequency analysis and numerical simulation. In the frequency analysis, data of five goats in which the UPTAH was implanted were analyzed with first Fourier transform technique to examine the vasomotion frequency. The numerical simulation was carried out repeatedly changing baroreflex parameters and control time constant using the elements-expanded Windkessel model. Results of the frequency analysis showed that the 1/R control tended to diverge when very low frequency band that was an indication of the vasomotion frequency was relative high. In numerical simulation, divergence of the 1/R control could be reproduced and the boundary curves between the divergence and convergence of the 1/R control varied depending on the control time constant. These results suggested that the 1/R control tended to be unstable when the TAH recipient had high reflex speed in the baroreflex vascular system. Therefore, the control time constant should be adjusted appropriately with the individual vasomotion frequency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10047-017-0965-6DOI Listing
September 2017

Association between ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism and Trunk Flexibility in 2 Different Cohorts.

Int J Sports Med 2017 May 16;38(5):402-406. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

Health Promotion and Exercise Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, NIBIOHN, Tokyo, Japan.

α-Actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism is associated with muscular strength and power. This study was performed to investigate the association between ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and flexibility as another component of fitness in 2 cohorts. Cohort 1 consisted of 208 men and 568 women (ages 23-88), while Cohort 2 consisted of 529 men and 728 women (ages 23-87). All participants were recruited from the Tokyo metropolitan area and underwent a battery of tests to assess their grip strength and sit-and-reach flexibility. Genotyping results were analyzed for ACTN3 (rs1815739) polymorphism using the TaqMan approach. In Cohort 1, sit-and-reach in the RR genotype (35.3±0.7 cm) was significantly lower than those in the RX and XX genotypes (37.2±0.3 cm) even after adjusting for sex, age, and exercise habit as covariates (P<0.01). In Cohort 2, sit-and-reach tended to be lower in RR (38.1±0.6 cm) than in RX and XX (39.1±0.3 cm), but the differences were not significant (P=0.114). Analysis in pooled subjects indicated that RR was associated with significantly lower flexibility than RX and XX (P=0.009). The RR genotype of ACTN3 R577X in the general Japanese population showed lower flexibility compared to the RX and XX genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-118649DOI Listing
May 2017

Comparison between clinical significance of height-adjusted and weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass.

J Physiol Anthropol 2017 Feb 13;36(1):15. Epub 2017 Feb 13.

College of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577, Japan.

Background: This study aimed to compare relationships between height- or weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM/Ht or ASM/Wt) and risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases or osteoporosis in Japanese men and women.

Methods: Subjects were healthy Japanese men (n = 583) and women (n = 1218). The study population included a young group (310 men and 357 women; age, 18-40 years) and a middle-aged and elderly group (273 men and 861 women; age, ≥41 years). ASM was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The reference values for class 1 and 2 sarcopenia in each sex were defined as values one and two standard deviations below the sex-specific means of the young group, respectively.

Results: The reference values for class 1 and 2 sarcopenia defined by ASM/Ht were 7.77 and 6.89 kg/m in men and 6.06 and 5.31 kg/m in women, respectively. The reference values for ASM/Wt were 35.0 and 32.0% in men and 29.6 and 26.4% in women, respectively. In both men and women, ASM/Wt was negatively correlated with higher triglycerides (TG) and positively correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), but these associations were not found in height-adjusted ASM. In women, TG, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure in sarcopenia defined by ASM/Wt were significantly higher than those in normal subjects, but these associations were not found in sarcopenia defined by ASM/Ht. Whole-body and regional bone mineral density in sarcopenia defined by ASM/Ht were significantly lower than those in normal subjects, but these associations were not found in sarcopenia defined by ASM/Wt.

Conclusions: Weight-adjusted definition was able to identify cardiometabolic risk factors such as TG and HDL-C while height-adjusted definition could identify factors for osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40101-017-0130-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5307800PMC
February 2017
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