Publications by authors named "Harriet von Koskull"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prenatal diagnosis of 17p13.1p13.3 duplication.

Case Rep Med 2012 17;2012:840538. Epub 2012 Oct 17.

Department of Genetics, United Medix Laboratories Ltd., 00380 Helsinki, Finland ; Department of Clinical Genetics, Helsinki University Central Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, Finland.

We present here the first prenatal diagnosis of 17p13.1p13.3 duplication. 17p13.3 duplication has recently been defined as a new distinctive syndrome with several diagnosed patients. In the current case prenatal chromosome analysis (G-banding) performed on cultured amniocytes revealed additional material in chromosome 19p. This was further defined as a chromosome 17p13.1p13.3 duplication by FISH and genomic microarray analysis (GMA). In addition Prenatal BACs-on-Beads (PN_BoBs) assay was performed, which detected the duplication clearly. This enables rapid prenatal diagnosis of the duplication for this family in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/840538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3483775PMC
November 2012

Further evidence for a relationship between the 5p15 chromosome region and the oculoauriculovertebral anomaly.

Am J Med Genet A 2008 Oct;146A(19):2490-4

Department of Clinical Genetics, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

The oculoauriculovertebral anomaly (OAV) or Goldenhar syndrome is a malformation complex that has been described in several chromosomal rearrangements. Among them a deletion of the terminal 5p has recurred in seven previous patients. We wish to report on an additional such patient in order to reinforce the significance of this genomic region in the cause of at least a subgroup of OAV cases. Future studies, particularly in the OAV patients with a lateral facial cleft, might define one genetic background of the disorder. Our patient had a complex translocation chromosome 45,XX, inv(2) (q32q37)mat, dic(5;21) (p15.3;q22.3)dn, resulting in a terminal 5p deletion, a terminal deletion of 21q demonstrated by FISH studies, and a duplication of 21q22.11-q22.12 documented by molecular karyotyping. In addition to OAV she developed myelodysplasia treated with bone marrow transplantation. We discuss her clinical findings with reference to her karyotype findings and review the patients with OAV and a terminal deletion of 5p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.32479DOI Listing
October 2008

PAK3 related mental disability: further characterization of the phenotype.

Am J Med Genet A 2007 Oct;143A(20):2406-16

Department of Medical Genetics, Family Federation of Finland, Helsinki, Finland.

We report clinical, neuropsychological and molecular findings in affected males and carrier females in the fourth reported family with mental retardation caused by mutation in the PAK3 gene (Xq22.3-q23), W446S. In contrast to previous reports, carrier females manifested learning problems and mild mental disability. Skewed X-inactivation was observed here for the first time in carriers of PAK3 mutation. Neuropsychological tests in affected males and carrier females suggested a common neuropsychological profile of impaired spatial cognitive abilities and defects in attentional and executive functions. The five affected males examined herein had a proportionally small head size or microcephaly, large ears, oral motor hypotonia with drooling and inarticulate speech and short attention span, anxiety, restlessness, and aggression. Brain imaging showed signs of chronic non-progressive hydrocephalus in one patient who manifested psychosis and fluctuant gait deterioration, while two other patients showed no abnormalities. EEG recordings were available from four affected males and one carrier female, and all showed similar posterior slow wave activity without epileptic discharges. Only one affected male in the family suffered from epilepsy. When comparing the affected males in this family and the three previously reported families with mental retardation due to a PAK3 mutation, similarities in their characteristics were small head size or microcephaly, large ears, speech defects, behavioral abnormalities, and psychiatric disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.31956DOI Listing
October 2007

Identification of antibodies against HAI-1 and integrin alpha6beta4 as immunohistochemical markers of human villous cytotrophoblast.

J Histochem Cytochem 2006 Jul 22;54(7):745-52. Epub 2006 Feb 22.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Division of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Syncytiotrophoblast and invasive extravillous trophoblast arise from a common stem cell, namely villous cytotrophoblast, but have very different characteristics. The study of the differentiation process relies on the availability of suitable markers for these different cell types of developing placenta. In this work, we have produced monoclonal antibodies that are specific to human villous cytotrophoblast. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) MG2 was specific to villous cytotrophoblast across gestation, and recognizes hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1. MAb MD10 stained villous cytotrophoblast across gestation and also some endothelial cells, particularly in the second or third trimester. MAb MD10 recognizes human integrin alpha6beta4. As a test for specificity, the novel MAbs were also used for staining of frozen tissue from human colon carcinoma. The results show that the two antibodies can be used as tools to study human villous cytotrophoblasts and also human tumors. The MG2 antibody seems most specific and promising for the study of various aspects of human villous cytotrophoblast.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/jhc.5A6816.2006DOI Listing
July 2006

MECP2 mutation analysis in patients with mental retardation.

Am J Med Genet A 2005 Jan;132A(2):121-4

Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

Mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene are known to underlie Rett' syndrome, the most common cause of mental retardation (MR) in girls. Since the original report, phenotypes resulting from MECP2 mutations have been shown to extend, for example, to several Rett variants, autism, atypical Angelman syndrome, and nonspecific MR. It was earlier proposed that MECP2 mutations might account for approximately 2% of the male cases with nonspecific MR. Thereby, the frequency of MECP2 mutations in the mentally retarded population would be comparable to that of Fragile-X syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze well-characterized cases with MR and to clarify the role of the MECP2 gene in the etiology of MR and atypical Angelman syndrome. The coding sequence of the MECP2 gene was analyzed in a sample of 118 patients (103 males, 15 females) by direct sequencing. Two coding sequence variants, 602C > T (A201V) and 1189G > A (E397K), were identified. In addition, we identified four variants in the intronic or 3'UTR regions. None of these variants is likely to be causal. We conclude that the evidence across all the mutation screening studies implies that MECP2 mutations do not represent a major cause of nonspecific MR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.30416DOI Listing
January 2005

Expansion of the fragile X CGG repeat in females with premutation or intermediate alleles.

Am J Hum Genet 2003 Feb 14;72(2):454-64. Epub 2003 Jan 14.

Department of Human Genetics, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA.

The CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) exhibits remarkable instability upon transmission from mothers with premutation alleles. A collaboration of 13 laboratories in eight countries was established to examine four issues concerning FMR1 CGG-repeat instability among females with premutation (approximately 55-200 repeats) and intermediate (approximately 46-60 repeats) alleles. Our central findings were as follows: (1) The smallest premutation alleles that expanded to a full mutation (>200 repeats) in one generation contained 59 repeats; sequence analysis of the 59-repeat alleles from these two females revealed no AGG interruptions within the FMR1 CGG repeat. (2) When we corrected for ascertainment and recalculated the risks of expansion to a full mutation, we found that the risks for premutation alleles with <100 repeats were lower than those previously published. (3) When we examined the possible influence of sex of offspring on transmission of a full mutation-by analysis of 567 prenatal fragile X studies of 448 mothers with premutation and full-mutation alleles-we found no significant differences in the proportion of full-mutation alleles in male or female fetuses. (4) When we examined 136 transmissions of intermediate alleles from 92 mothers with no family history of fragile X, we found that, in contrast to the instability observed in families with fragile X, most (99/136 [72.8%]) transmissions of intermediate alleles were stable. The unstable transmissions (37/136 [27.2%]) in these families included both expansions and contractions in repeat size. The instability increased with the larger intermediate alleles (19% for 49-54 repeats, 30.9% for 55-59, and 80% for 60-65 repeats). These studies should allow improved risk assessments for genetic counseling of women with premutation or intermediate-size alleles.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC379237PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/367713DOI Listing
February 2003

Prenatally detected trisomy 7 mosaicism in a dysmorphic child.

Prenat Diagn 2002 Jul;22(7):541-4

Department of Clinical Genetics, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Trisomy 7 mosaicism was detected prenatally in cultured amniocytes but not in fetal lymphocytes. The child that was born had pigmentary changes of the skin and facial asymmetry suggestive of a chromosomal mosaicism. Skin fibroblasts were studied and trisomy 7 mosaicism was confirmed. At 3 years of age the boy had developed mentally within normal limits. However, dysmorphic findings include sparse hair, short left palpebral fissure, ptosis of the left eyelid, strabismus, enamel dysplasia, low-set and posteriorly rotated ears and undescended testes. These findings share some common features with previously reported cases of trisomy 7 mosaicism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.348DOI Listing
July 2002
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