Publications by authors named "Harpreet Kaur"

386 Publications

Explicating the molecular level drug-polymer interactions at the interface of supersaturated solution of the model drug: Albendazole.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Oct 10:106014. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab, 160062, India. Electronic address:

Supersaturation phenomenon addresses aqueous solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. However, supersaturation state of drugs tends to crystallize because of its thermodynamic instability thereby compromising the solubility and biopharmaceutical performance of drugs. The present study aims to investigate the supersaturation potential of albendazole (ABZ) and its precipitation via nucleation and crystal growth. We hypothesized the use of polymers as precipitation inhibitors and drug polymer interactions are characterized using conventional methods of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Polarized light microscopy (PLM). We used a new method of sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopic in exploring the drug polymer interactions at air-water interface, which we reported elsewhere in the case of rifaximin-polymer interactions (Singh et al., 2021). The supersaturation assay, saturation solubility studies and nucleation induction time analysis revealed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K30) as effective precipitation inhibitors thereby enhancing the ABZ equilibrium solubility and in vitro supersaturation maintenance of ABZ. Further, modification in the solid state of ABZ revealed influence of polymers on its precipitation behaviour. We conclude that PVA and PVP K30 act as nucleation and crystal growth inhibitor, respectively in the precipitation inhibition of ABZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2021.106014DOI Listing
October 2021

Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain lineage in mixed tribal population across India and Andaman Nicobar Island.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Oct 12;37(11):192. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Social and Behavioural Research, Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600031, India.

In India, the tribal population constitutes almost 8.6% of the nation's total population. Despite their large presence, there are only a few reports available on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) strain prevalence in Indian tribal communities considering the mobile nature of this population and also the influence of the mainstream populations they coexist within many areas for their livelihood. This study attempts to provide critical information pertaining to the TB strain diversity, its public health implications, and distribution among the tribal population in eleven Indian states and Andaman & Nicobar (A&N) Island. The study employed a population-based molecular approach. Clinical isolates were received from 66 villages (10 states and Island) and these villages were selected by implying situation analysis. A total of 78 M. tb clinical isolates were received from 10 different states and A&N Island. Among these, 16 different strains were observed by spoligotyping technique. The major M. tb strains spoligotype belong to the Beijing, CAS1_DELHI, and EAI5 family of M. tb strains followed by EAI1_SOM, EAI6_BGD1, LAM3, LAM6, LAM9, T1, T2, U strains. Drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results showed almost 15.4% of clinical isolates found to be resistant to isoniazid (INH) or rifampicin (RMP) + INH. Predominant multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) isolates seem to be Beijing strain. Beijing, CAS1_DELHI, EAI3_IND, and EAI5 were the principal strains infecting mixed tribal populations across India. Despite the small sample size, this study has demonstrated higher diversity among the TB strains with significant MDR-TB findings. Prevalence of Beijing MDR-TB strains in Central, Southern, Eastern India and A&N Island indicates the transmission of the TB strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-021-03164-6DOI Listing
October 2021

Multi-echelon agri-food supply chain network design integrating operational and strategic objectives: a case of public distribution system in India.

Ann Oper Res 2021 Oct 5:1-58. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India.

The global concern to ensure the availability of food for the growing world's population draws urgent attention towards the inefficiencies in agri-food supply chains. Agri-food supply chains are inherently complex to manage than other supply chains mainly because of their multi-echelon structure, deteriorating product quality with time and changes in storage conditions which leads to significant amount of food loss and wastage. Additionally, any natural or man-made disaster further disrupts the chain and leads to high food loss, high supply chain costs, reduced food availability and poor food quality. Hence, there is a need to design resilient and efficient agri-food supply chain network for optimal multi-echelon storage and distribution to reduce food loss and quality degradation. For this purpose, a Fuzzy Multi Objective Linear Program (FMOLP) is proposed in this paper for integrated food procurement, storage and distribution under cost, resilience and quality considerations. The proposed model integrates the short-term operational objective of cost optimization with the long-term sustainable objectives of food loss minimization and resilience maximization. The proposed FMOLP is illustrated using a realistic case of Public Distribution System using the data benchmarked with the numbers reported by the Food corporation of India. The detailed computational analysis carried out in the paper in investigates three categories of problem sizes to compare and contrast the decisions using different strategies and to provide organizational, operational and policy insights on the trade-off between cost, food loss and resilience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10479-021-04240-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8491605PMC
October 2021

Peritoneal malignant mesothelioma: Slippery like an eel to diagnose on cytology-case series of 3 cases.

J Am Soc Cytopathol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Pathology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India.

Introduction: Peritoneal malignant mesothelioma is an extremely rare tumor and is a difficult diagnosis to be made on cytology alone. We report 3 cases where the cytologic features were misdiagnosed as carcinoma/lymphoma but histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) established the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma.

Clinical Details: Case 1 was a 60-year-old man with multiloculated ascites and omental caking. Peritoneal fluid was reported as malignant on cytology but was misclassified as adenocarcinoma. Case 2, a 45-year-old man with ascites and peritoneal nodularity, radiologically mimicking peritoneal carcinomatosis, was also reported positive for malignancy on ascitic fluid cytology. Fine-needle aspiration (FNAC) from omental fat revealed signet ring cells, thus misleading to cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Case 3 was a 63-year-old man with perisplenic mass with extensive omental caking and peritoneal nodularity that was also suspected to be peritoneal carcinomatosis on radiology. FNAC smears from perisplenic mass showed sheets of plasmacytoid cells. On cytology, the differential diagnoses offered were neuroendocrine tumor or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma was established only after IHC on histopathologic sections in all these cases. None of our patients had history of prior asbestos exposure.

Conclusion: In such clinical scenarios, with radiology suggesting peritoneal carcinomatosis, the cytologic features need corroboration by IHC/fluorescence in situ hybridization on cell block or biopsy to correctly identify malignant mesothelioma and differentiate it from metastatic carcinomatous deposits and benign mesothelial proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jasc.2021.08.007DOI Listing
September 2021

Network theory reveals principles of spliceosome structure and dynamics.

Structure 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA; Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Cryoelectron microscopy has revolutionized spliceosome structural biology, and structures representing much of the splicing process have been determined. Comparison of these structures is challenging due to extreme dynamics of the splicing machinery and the thousands of changing interactions during splicing. We have used network theory to analyze splicing factor interactions by constructing structure-based networks from protein-protein, protein-RNA, and RNA-RNA interactions found in eight different spliceosome structures. Our analyses reveal that connectivity dynamics result in step-specific impacts of factors on network topology. The spliceosome's connectivity is focused on the active site, in part due to contributions from nonglobular proteins. Many essential factors exhibit large shifts in centralities during splicing. Others show transiently high betweenness centralities at certain stages, thereby suggesting mechanisms for regulating splicing by briefly bridging otherwise poorly connected network nodes. These observations provide insights into organizing principles of the spliceosome and provide frameworks for comparative analysis of other macromolecular machines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2021.09.003DOI Listing
September 2021

Sex-Dependent Effects of Intestinal Microbiome Manipulation in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Cells 2021 Sep 9;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Dakota, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 1301 N Columbia Road, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9037, USA.

Mechanisms linking intestinal bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still unclear. We hypothesized that intestinal dysbiosis might potentiate AD, and manipulating the microbiome to promote intestinal eubiosis and immune homeostasis may improve AD-related brain changes. This study assessed sex differences in the effects of oral probiotic, antibiotics, and synbiotic treatments in the mouse model of AD. The fecal microbiome demonstrated significant correlations between bacterial genera in mice and Aβ plaque load, gliosis, and memory performance. Female and not male mice fed probiotic but not synbiotic exhibited a decrease in Aβ plaques, microgliosis, brain TNF-α, and memory improvement compared to no treatment controls. Although antibiotics treatment did not produce these multiple changes in brain cytokines, memory, or gliosis, it did decrease Aβ plaque load and colon cytokines in males. The intestinal cytokine milieu and splenocyte phenotype of female but not male mice indicated a modest proinflammatory innate response following probiotic treatment compared to controls, with an adaptive response following antibiotics treatment in male mice. Overall, these results demonstrate the beneficial effects of probiotic only in females, with minimal benefits of antibiotics or synbiotic feeding in male or female mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10092370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8469717PMC
September 2021

Learnings from two independent malaria elimination demonstration projects in India.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP), Mandla, Madhya Pradesh 481661, India.

Problem: India and sub-Saharan Africa contributes about 85% of the global malaria burden, and India is committed to eliminating malaria by 2030.

Approach: Two novel initiatives-the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) in Madhya Pradesh and Durgama Anchalare Malaria Nirakaran (DAMaN) in Odisha-were initiated independently to demonstrate that indigenous malaria can be eliminated in a short period of time.

Local Setting: These initiatives focused on rural, tribal areas where there is a high malaria burden and complex epidemiology.

Relevant Changes: The case management and vector control strategies used in these programmes were based on the national guidelines, with context-specific changes and introduction of accountability at management, operational, technical and financial levels. The MEDP achieved a 91% reduction in malaria cases and recorded zero transmission for 6 consecutive and a total of 9 mo. The DAMaN project brought about an 88% reduction in malaria cases.

Lessons Learned: Malaria elimination will require robust surveillance and case management, monitoring of vector control interventions, community-centric information education communication and behaviour change communication initiatives and management controls, as well as regular internal and external reviews.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trab148DOI Listing
September 2021

Endovascular Stem Cell Therapy Post Stroke Rescues Neurons from Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis by Modulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase B Signaling.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Oct 23;12(19):3745-3759. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382007, India.

Ischemic stroke is devastating, with serious long-term disabilities affecting millions of people worldwide. Growing evidence has shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) administration after stroke provides neuroprotection and enhances the quality of life in stroke patients. Previous studies from our lab have shown that 1 × 10 MSCs administered intra-arterially (IA) at 6 h post stroke provide neuroprotection through the modulation of inflammasome and calcineurin signaling. Ischemic stroke induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which exacerbates the pathology. The current study intends to understand the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF/TrkB) signaling in preventing apoptosis induced by ER stress post stroke following IA MSCs administration. Ischemic stroke was induced in ovariectomized female Sprague Dawley rats. The MSCs were administered IA, and animals were sacrificed at 24 h post stroke. Infarct area, neurological deficit score, motor coordination, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. The expression of various genes and proteins was assessed. An inhibition study was also carried out to confirm the involvement of BDNF/TrkB signaling in ER stress-induced apoptosis. IA-administered MSCs improved functional outcomes, reduced infarct area, increased neuronal survival, and normalized biochemical parameters. mRNA and protein expression of ER stress markers were reduced, while those of BDNF and TrkB were increased. Reduction in ER stress-mediated apoptosis was also observed. The present study shows that IA MSCs administration post stroke provides neuroprotection and can modulate ER stress-mediated apoptosis via the BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.1c00506DOI Listing
October 2021

Universal Use of Surgical Masks is Tolerated and Prevents Respiratory Viral Infection in Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.

J Hosp Infect 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Prevention of respiratory viral infection in stem cell transplant patients is important due to its high risk of adverse outcome. This single centre, mixed methods study, conducted before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, explored the barriers and facilitators to a policy of universal mask wearing by visitors and healthcare workers and examined the impact of the first year of introduction of the policy on respiratory viral infection rates compared to preceding years adjusted for overall incidence. Education around universal mask wearing was highlighted as being particularly important in policy implementation. A statistically significant fall in respiratory viral infection was observed following introduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2021.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447542PMC
September 2021

and variants in neonatal-onset versus infantile-onset primary congenital glaucoma.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Advanced Eye Center, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Objective: To compare and variants in a cohort of neonatal-onset (NO) and infantile-onset (IO) primary congenital glaucoma (PCG).

Methods: This prospective observational study included 43 infants with PCG (14 NO and 29 IO) presenting between January 2017 and January 2019 with a minimum 1-year follow-up. and genes were screened using Sanger sequencing with in-silico analysis of the variants using Polymorphism Phenotyping v.2 and Protein Variation Effect Analyser platforms. Allelic frequency was estimated using Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAd). Disease presentation and outcome were correlated to the genetic variants in both groups.

Results: Babies with mutations had more severe disease at presentation and worse outcomes. Six of 14 (42.8%) NO glaucoma and 5 of 29 (17.2%) IO harboured mutations. Five of six babies in the NO group and three of five in the IO group harboured the variant c.1169G>A, [p.R390H]. They required more surgeries and had a poorer outcome. On in-silico analysis c.1169G>A, [p.R390H] scored very likely pathogenic. Two patients in the IO group who had the c.1294C>G, [p.L432V] variant had a good outcome. Five of 14 NO-PCG and 8 of 29 IO-PCG harboured the variant c.227G>A, [p.R76K] in the gene, which was scored benign by in-silico analysis, and was also found in 2 of 15 normal controls.

Conclusions: Patients with pathogenic variants had a poorer outcome than those without. We found more NO PCG babies with mutations compared with IO PCG. This may be one of the reasons for NO PCG having a poorer prognosis compared with IO PCG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-318563DOI Listing
September 2021

Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of Copper nanoparticles from the rhizomes extract of Picrorhiza kurroa.

Pharm Nanotechnol 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University (143005), Amritsar . India.

Background: Green synthesized nanoparticles from the solvent extract of various plant parts show better biological activities as compared to parent solvent plant extract. Traditionally rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa are used to cure various diseases like diarrhea, fever, jaundice, eye infection, skin problems, asthma, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, gastrointestinal problems.

Objectives: Present study describes the synthesis of copper nanoparticles from a hydroethanolic extract of P. kurroa rhizomes (CuNPs-Pk) and their evaluation for antimicrobial activities against gram-negative, gram-positive bacterial, and fungal strains.

Methods: The solution of copper sulfate and hydroethanolic extract of rhizomes of P. kurroa was mixed with help of a magnetic stirrer at 60°C temperature for 1 h. The blue color of CuSO.5HO changed to brownish-black colored copper nanoparticles within 10 minutes. These nanoparticles were centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 20 min, washed with ethanol, followed by deionized water, dried, and were characterized by Ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Different concentrations of hydroethanolic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa rhizomes (HEEPk), CuNPs-Pk and copper oxide nanoparticles (bare CuO) ranging from 100-400 ppm had been studied against selected bacterial and fungal strains by using the well plate diffusion method. Ciprofloxin and fluconazole were used as standard and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a control for selected strains.

Results: The UV-Vis spectral studies confirmed the surface plasmon resonance of green-synthesized CuNPs-Pk. The particle size was found to be 275-285 nm. FTIR analysis of biosynthesis nanoparticles have been confirm the presence of various functional groups (flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, phenols). SEM and TEM of biosynthesized nanoparticles have predicted their spheric al shape and their size (20-40 nm) and These particles have shown effective antimicrobial activities against selected pathogenic organisms viz. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aspergillus niger than that of HEEPk and bare CuO.

Conclusions: The CuNPs-Pk show effective antimicrobial activities against bacterial and fungal pathogens as compared to HEEPk and bare CuO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2211738509666210910142027DOI Listing
September 2021

Potential probiotic Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus MTCC-5897 attenuates Escherichia coli induced inflammatory response in intestinal cells.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Nov 2;203(9):5703-5713. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Animal Biochemistry Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, 132001, India.

Probiotics are microbes having tremendous potential to prevent gastrointestinal disorders. In current investigation, immunomodulatory action of probiotic Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus MTCC-5897 was studied during exclusion, competition and displacement of Escherichia coli on intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. The incubation of intestinal cells with Escherichia coli, enhanced downstream signalling and activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). This significantly increased (p < 0.01) the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-ϒ) expression. While, incubation of epithelial cells with Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus during exclusion and competition with Escherichia coli, counteracted these enhanced expressions. The immunomodulatory feature of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus was also highlighted with increased (p < 0.05) transcription of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) and single Ig IL-1-related receptor (SIGIRR) along with diminished expression of TLR-4. Likewise, attenuation (p < 0.05) of E. coli-mediated enhanced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p-65 subunit by Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus during exclusion was confirmed with western blotting. Thus, present finding establishes the prophylactic potential of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus against exclusion of Escherichia coli in intestinal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02541-xDOI Listing
November 2021

Phylogenetic analysis of (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) infecting snakehead murrel in Himachal Pradesh, India.

J Parasit Dis 2021 Sep 24;45(3):797-805. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014 India.

Till date 34 species of have been validated with almost negligible studies on its molecular phylogeny. The discovered species of the genus are confined only to the Asian continent. Many different species of Acanthocephala infecting commercially important freshwater as well as the marine fishes have been recorded from India mainly on the basis of morphology. The original record of morphological characteristics of (Bhalerao 1931) Baylis, 1933 can be traced back to the Bhalerao, 1931 from () from the state of Uttar Pradesh, India without the separate documentation of male and female characteristics. Same species has also been reported to infect from different parts of India as well as from the Indonesia and Ceylon (Baylis, 1933 and Fernando and Furtado, 1963). The present study compiles the morphological characteristics of male and female along with the comparison with similar species from same geographical region. This study also reports the first record of 18S, 28S rRNA and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 gene sequences of generated for analyzing the phylogeny within this taxonomic group. together with the other species of reported from India distinctly formed a sub-clade separating it from the other members of same genus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-021-01356-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8368655PMC
September 2021

Perfluorocarbons therapeutics in modern cancer nanotechnology for hypoxia-induced anti-tumor therapy.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Aug 29. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab. India.

With an estimated failure rate of about 90%, immunotherapies that are intended for the treatment of solid tumors have caused an anomalous rise in the mortality rate over the past decades. It is apparent that resistance towards such therapies primarily occurs due to elevated levels of HIF-1 (Hypoxia-induced factor) in tumor cells, which are caused by disrupted microcirculation and diffusion mechanisms. With the advent of nanotechnology, several innovative advances were brought to the fore; and, one such promising direction is the use of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles in the management of solid tumors. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles enhance the response of hypoxia-based agents (HBAs) within the tumor cells and have been found to augment the entry of HBAs into the tumor micro-environment. The heightened penetration of HBAs causes chronic hypoxia, thus aiding in the process of cell quiescence. In addition, this technology has also been applied in photodynamic therapy, where oxygen self-enriched photosensitizers loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles are employed. The resulting processes initiate a cascade, depleting tumour oxygen and turning it into a reactive oxygen species eventually to destroy the tumour cell. This review elaborates on the multiple applications of nanotechnology based perfluorocarbon formulations that are being currently employed in the treatment of tumour hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612827666210830100907DOI Listing
August 2021

Assessing community knowledge, attitude and practices to strengthen communication strategy for Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in Mandla.

Malar J 2021 Aug 28;20(1):354. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project, Mandla, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Background: Changes in social, belief, and behavioural practices are essential for the success of any public health delivery programme. In the planning stages of the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP), priority was given to communication with a goal to develop capacity of health workers and to improve the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the people of Mandla. This paper describes the level of community knowledge on malaria, including its prevention, diagnosis, treatment-seeking behaviour, and the level of satisfaction with the services provided by the project.

Methods: A cross sectional survey was undertaken in 1233 villages of Mandla to study the KAP and self-assessed improvement in knowledge and satisfaction level of the community. The goal of the study was to understand whether there is need for strengthening communication strategy of MEDP for better impact. The survey was conducted amongst the head/eligible members of the 733 households located in the nine blocks of the district using clustered random sampling.

Results: Though four-fifths of the respondents were able to correlate the transmission of malaria with mosquitoes, misconceptions existed among them. The types of malaria were not known to everyone. Only 39% were aware of the Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) and 41% understood the value of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN). Around 71% of subjects surveyed were aware of the proper diagnostic tests for malaria. A total of 87% of the respondents knew about the MEDP staff working in their respective villages.

Conclusion: The study reported gaps in knowledge on malaria at community level. The self-assessment of the community revealed that the communication strategy established by MEDP in Mandla district has been useful to them as they are becoming better informed about the prevention and treatment aspects of disease. The lessons learned as revealed in the KAP survey will improve malaria elimination outcomes in a timely manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03884-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403442PMC
August 2021

Electroencephalogram versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain as the Initial Investigation of Choice in Neurologically Normal Children with First Afebrile Seizure in India.

J Epilepsy Res 2021 Jun 30;11(1):56-62. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatrics, ESI PGIMSR, New Delhi, India.

Background And Purpose: To compare the rates of clinically relevant information provided by electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain in first afebrile seizure (FAS) in children.

Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, neurologically normal children between the age of 2 and 14 years, presenting with first episode of unprovoked, afebrile generalized or partial seizures, were included. Enrolled patients were randomized into two groups. After stabilization, initial workup and management, group I-patients underwent an EEG followed by MRI, whereas group II-patients underwent an initial MRI brain followed by an EEG. The patients were followed up after results of both the investigations and then every 3 months for seizure recurrence. The primary outcome was the proportion of investigations, providing clinically relevant information. The secondary outcomes were to determine the etiological diagnosis of FAS and record adverse events associated with EEG and MRI.

Results: Out of 170 enrolled patients, 52 patients (61.2%) in initial EEG group and 53 patients (70.6%) in initial MRI group had abnormal results on first investigation. An etiological diagnosis could not be made in any patient in initial EEG group. Neuroimaging revealed an etiological diagnosis in 53 patients (70.6%) in initial MRI group. Inflammatory granuloma was found to be the most common cause of FAS, followed by idiopathic epilepsy.

Conclusions: The results of our study done in neurologically normal children with FAS showed a high diagnostic yield with an initial MRI. We recommend MRI brain to be considered as the initial investigation for evaluation of FAS in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14581/jer.21008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357547PMC
June 2021

Probing the Bovine Hemoglobin Adsorption Process and its Influence on Interfacial Water Structure at the Air-Water Interface.

Appl Spectrosc 2021 Aug 4:37028211035157. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, India.

*These authors contributed equally to this work.The molecular-level insight of protein adsorption and its kinetics at interfaces is crucial because of its multifold role in diverse fundamental biological processes and applications. In the present study, the sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been employed to demonstrate the adsorption process of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) protein molecules at the air-water interface at interfacial isoelectric point of the protein. It has been observed that surface coverage of BHb molecules significantly influences the arrangement of the protein molecules at the interface. The time-dependent SFG studies at two different frequencies in the fingerprint region elucidate the kinetics of protein denaturation process and its influence on the hydrogen-bonding network of interfacial water molecules at the air-water interface. The initial growth kinetics suggests the synchronized behavior of protein adsorption process with the structural changes in the interfacial water molecules. Interestingly, both the events carry similar characteristic time constants. However, the conformational changes in the protein structure due to the denaturation process stay for a long time, whereas the changes in water structure reconcile quickly. It is revealed that the protein denaturation process is followed by the advent of strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules at the interface. In addition, we have also carried out the surface tension kinetics measurements to complement the findings of our SFG spectroscopic results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00037028211035157DOI Listing
August 2021

Effectiveness of a single dose of Japanese encephalitis vaccine among adults, Assam, India, 2012-2018.

Vaccine 2021 08 26;39(35):4973-4978. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.

Background: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains the major etiology of encephalitis throughout Asia. In India, the state of Assam alone contributes more than one-third of the national burden of JE. Between 2011 and 2014, a single dose of JE vaccine SA 14-14-2 (LAJEV) was administered among adults aged 15-65 years residing in Sivasagar and Dibrugarh districts of Assam, India. We monitored the trend of JE incidence between 2009 and 2018 using JE surveillance data, estimated the long-term effectiveness of the single dose of LAJEV and estimated the coverage of JE vaccine in two districts.

Methods: We compared the JE vaccination status of laboratory-confirmed hospitalized JE patients (case) and age, sex and locality matched healthy individuals (controls) to estimate the effectiveness of single dose of JE vaccine. We used surveillance data for 2009-2018 to calculate the incidence of JE among adults. We conducted a community-based survey to estimate the coverage of JE vaccine in the two districts.

Results: A total of 452 laboratory-confirmed JE case-patients and 904 matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study between 2012 and 2018. The effectiveness of a single dose of JE vaccine over the 7-year period was 77.0 (95% CI: 67.0-83.0). Vaccine effectiveness decreased from 91% (95% CI: 73.0-97.0) in first year of vaccination to 71% (95% CI: 21.0-90.0) at six years post-vaccination. The incidence of adults JE cases declined from 10.5 per 100,000 in the pre-vaccination period to 5.7 per 100,000 in the years following vaccination. The coverage of vaccine among adults in two districts was 40.1% (36.8-43.5).

Conclusions: A single dose of JE vaccine offered adequate protection for at least six years. Conducting mass vaccination campaigns periodically would further reduce the incidence of JE in endemic districts in Assam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.07.041DOI Listing
August 2021

Liver Bile Acid Changes in Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 12;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, 1301 N Columbia Road, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9037, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive impairment. It is hypothesized to develop due to the dysfunction of two major proteins, amyloid-β (Aβ) and microtubule-associated protein, tau. Evidence supports the involvement of cholesterol changes in both the generation and deposition of Aβ. This study was performed to better understand the role of liver cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the pathophysiology of AD. We used male and female wild-type control (C57BL/6J) mice to compare to two well-characterized amyloidosis models of AD, APP/PS1, and . Both conjugated and unconjugated primary and secondary bile acids were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS from livers of control and AD mice. We also measured cholesterol and its metabolites and identified changes in levels of proteins associated with bile acid synthesis and signaling. We observed sex differences in liver cholesterol levels accompanied by differences in levels of synthesis intermediates and conjugated and unconjugated liver primary bile acids in both APP/PS1 and mice when compared to controls. Our data revealed fundamental deficiencies in cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis in the livers of two different AD mouse lines. These findings strengthen the involvement of liver metabolism in the pathophysiology of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303891PMC
July 2021

Effect of lower lid tightening surgery with lateral tarsal strip on intraocular pressure.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Jun 20. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust, Hermitage Lane, Maidstone, Kent ME16 9QQ, UK.

Aim: To determine whether lower lid tightening surgery with the lateral tarsal strip (LTS) technique can lead to a significant increase in intraocular pressure. This could have implications in the management of lower lid laxity in patients with glaucoma.

Methods: Prospective observational study of patients undergoing unilateral LTS for lower lid laxity. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry in the operative and fellow eye immediately preop and post-op, and at 2 weeks and 3 months post-operatively. Results were analysed for a statistically significant change in IOP following surgery.

Results: Thirty-seven patients underwent LTS (mean age 76). Mean preoperative IOP in the operative eye was 13.59 mmHg and 13.89 mmHg in the fellow eye. Mean immediate post-operative IOP was 15.41 mmHg in the operative eye and 14.53 mmHg in the fellow eye. There was a statistically significant increase between immediate pre- and post-operative IOP in the operative eye (P = 0.02), but not in the fellow eye. There was also a statistically significant difference found at 3 months post-operatively.

Conclusion: Lower lid tightening with LTS was associated with a statistically significant increase in IOP immediately post-operatively. In some patients, IOP remained elevated at 3 months after surgery. Lower lid laxity can occur with increasing age and in older patients frequently present with ocular comorbidities, including glaucoma. The results suggest that lower lid tightening surgery in patients with glaucoma or glaucoma suspects, requires careful consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2021.06.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Prevalence of reproductive drugs usage in humans and animals: A pilot study in Patiala city of India.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jul 1;28(7):3727-3734. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, Punjab, India.

Reproductive drugs that include contraceptive and fertility drugs are used to manage reproductive health in both humans and animals. Contraceptive drugs are mainly used by humans for reversible contraception whereas fertility drugs are mainly used in animals to increase milk production, poultry products and meat production. Usage of these drugs has increased manifold in the last decade. These drugs are excreted through body fluids (mainly urine and milk) that lead to contamination of surface water, milk and animal produce. Consumption of such contaminated products or water results in reproductive disorders and different types of cancers in humans. This questionnaire-based study was designed and conducted involving gynecologists, pharmacies, medical stores and veterinarians in Patiala city and its adjoining areas in India to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative aspects of use of these drugs. A total of 150 survey points were identified with random sampling method. Data was analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. The results showed that contraceptive drugs constitute 86% of reproductive drugs usage in humans. Further, steroidal contraceptives constitute a huge 94.7% share of contraceptive drugs, and of these combined oral contraceptives have 79.79% share among which a combination is ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel is the most popular (20.92%). The consumption of COCs is higher than that of progestin only pills (Z = 3.39) as well as estrogen only pills (Z = 4.30). In contrast, usage of non-hormonal fertility drugs (89%) dominates over the hormonal class (11%) in humans. The most widely used non-hormonal fertility drug is clomiphene citrate (73.87%). In animals, the prescription rate of hormonal fertility drugs is higher (83%) than the non-hormonal one, where in the most widely prescribed drug is buserelin acetate. These findings are in consonance with the similar studies carried out in US, Europe and Canada which suggest that reproductive drugs usage pattern is more or less similar across the globe. A careful control to discourage indiscriminate use of such drugs is the need of hour to prevent damage of environment and ultimately to the health of living beings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.04.064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241629PMC
July 2021

Higher CSF Ferritin Heavy-Chain (Fth1) and Transferrin Predict Better Neurocognitive Performance in People with HIV.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Oct 30;58(10):4842-4855. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Genomic Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic/Lerner Research Institute, 9500 Euclid Ave/Mail Code R4-008, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains prevalent despite antiretroviral therapy and involves white matter damage in the brain. Although iron is essential for myelination and myelin maintenance/repair, its role in HAND is largely unexplored. We tested the hypotheses that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) heavy-chain ferritin (Fth1) and transferrin, proteins integral to iron delivery and myelination, are associated with neurocognitive performance in people with HIV (PWH). Fth1, transferrin, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 were quantified in CSF at baseline (entry) in 403 PWH from a prospective observational study who underwent serial, comprehensive neurocognitive assessments. Associations of Fth1 and transferrin with Global Deficit Score (GDS)-defined neurocognitive performance at baseline and 30-42 months of follow-up were evaluated by multivariable regression. While not associated with neurocognitive performance at baseline, higher baseline CSF Fth1 predicted significantly better neurocognitive performance over 30 months in all PWH (p < 0.05), in PWH aged < 50 at 30, 36, and 42 months (all p < 0.05), and in virally suppressed PWH at all three visit time-points (all p < 0.01). Higher CSF transferrin was associated with superior neurocognitive performance at all visits, primarily in viremic individuals (all p < 0.05). All associations persisted after adjustment for neuro-inflammation. In summary, higher CSF Fth1 is neuroprotective over prolonged follow-up in all and virally suppressed PWH, while higher CSF transferrin may be most neuroprotective during viremia. We speculate that higher CSF levels of these critical iron-delivery proteins support improved myelination and consequently, neurocognitive performance in PWH, providing a rationale for investigating their role in interventions to prevent and/or treat HAND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02433-7DOI Listing
October 2021

Primary Extranodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas: A First Tertiary Care Experience from Punjab, North India.

South Asian J Cancer 2020 Oct 14;9(4):230-232. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pathology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

 Primary extranodal lymphomas are less frequently encountered and difficult to diagnose in routine practice. The histopathological and immunohistochemical studies are essential in addition to clinical details to diagnose. The incidence is varied in different parts of India along with variation in histopathological spectrum.  The clinical features and histopathological findings of patients diagnosed with primary extranodal lymphoma over 3-year period were retrieved from archives of pathology department and analyzed.  During the 3-year study period, a total of 135 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas were evaluated, and of these, 41.4% (56/135) of cases presented with primary extranodal involvement. The mean age of primary extranodal lymphoma presentation was 61.3 ± 17.5 with M:F ratio of 1:1.1 Most common extranodal site involved was gastrointestinal tract 32.1%, 18/56 (small intestine [17.8%, 10 cases] and large intestine [8.9%, 5 cases]). Non-Hodgkin lymphomas of B cell type were the predominant subtype (48/56, 85.7%), while 8/56 (14.2%) cases were of T cell lineage. Of the B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma diffuse, large B cell lymphoma was the predominant subtype constituting ~83.3% (40/48).  Primary extranodal lymphomas exhibit varied histomorphological and clinical presentation. The present study is first such analysis from Punjab that intends to compare with studies from other parts of India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1723073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203326PMC
October 2020

Lymphophagocytosis in Pleural and Pericardial Fluids: An Ominous Finding.

J Lab Physicians 2021 Mar 19;13(1):95-96. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Pathology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1727582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154341PMC
March 2021

Coordination networks for the recognition of oxo-anions.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jun;50(24):8273-8291

School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi-175005, HP, India.

Crystalline coordination networks with an infinite extended framework, also known as coordination polymers (CPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), have attracted significant attention owing to their tremendous performance in an extensive range of applications. The unique structural features and high stability of coordination networks are responsible for their utilization and potential in diverse fields especially in the area of sensing using luminescent CPs/MOFs. The recognition of toxic oxo-anions present in water is a crucial and first step towards environmental remediation, mainly in the case of water pollution. Accordingly, the utilization of luminescent coordination networks has received significant interest, particularly for the recognition of various toxic oxo-anions, which are considered a threat to aquatic life and the environment. In this frontier article, we summarize recent reports on luminescent CPs/MOFs, their utilization for the sensing of oxo-anions and the chemistry of the interaction of oxo-anions with CPs/MOFs, which is responsible for tuning their optical signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00411eDOI Listing
June 2021

Protective effects of potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (MTCC-5897) fermented whey on reinforcement of intestinal epithelial barrier function in a colitis-induced murine model.

Food Funct 2021 Jul 28;12(13):6102-6116. Epub 2021 May 28.

Animal Biochemistry Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana 132001, India.

Fermented foods provide essential nutritional components and bioactive molecules that have beneficial effects on several gastrointestinal disorders. In the present investigation, the potential protective effects of whey fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC-5897 on gastrointestinal health in a murine ulcerative colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) were evaluated. Pre-consumption of whey fermented with probiotic L. rhamnosus (PFW) before colitis induction significantly reduced (p < 0.01) the disease activity index and improved (p < 0.05) the hematological parameters and histological scores. The considerably diminished levels (p < 0.01) of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-4, TNF-α, CRP and MPO activity) and the enhanced (p < 0.05) levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β with IgA in the intestine upon feeding PFW appeared to prevent inflammation on colitis induction. Transcriptional modulations in pathogen recognition receptors (TLR-2/4) and tight junctional genes (ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1) along with localized distribution of junctional (claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1) and cytoskeleton (actin) proteins improved immune homeostasis and intestinal barrier integrity. Besides, significantly reduced (p < 0.05) levels of the FITC-dextran marker in serum upon consumption of PFW directly confirmed the healthy status of the host gut.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02641gDOI Listing
July 2021

Understanding health care-seeking behaviour of the tribal population in India among those with presumptive TB symptoms.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(5):e0250971. Epub 2021 May 20.

Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.

Background And Objectives: Understanding the drivers for care-seeking among those who present with symptoms of TB is crucial for early diagnosis of TB and prompt treatment, which will in turn halt further TB transmission. While TB is a challenge among the tribal population, little is known about the care-seeking behaviour and the factors influencing care-seeking behaviour among the tribal population across India.

Methodology: This community-based descriptive study was carried out in 17 states of India across 6 zones, covering 88 villages from tribal districts with over 70% tribal population. The sample population included individuals ≥15 years old who were screened through an interview for symptoms suggestive of pulmonary TB (PTB), currently and/or previously on anti-TB treatment. Those with symptoms were then assessed on their health-seeking behavior using a semi-structured interview schedule.

Results: Among 74532 eligible participants screened for symptoms suggestive of TB, 2675 (3.6%) were found to be presumptive TB cases. Of them, 659 (24.6%) sought care for their symptoms. While 48.2% sought care after a week, 19.3% sought care after one month or more, with no significant difference in the first point of care; 46.9% approaching a private and 46.7% a public facility. The significant factors influencing care-seeking behaviour were knowledge on TB (OR: 4.64 (3.70-5.83), p < 0.001), age<35 years (OR: 1.60 (1.28-2.00), p < 0.001), co-morbidities like asthma (OR: 1.80 (1.38-2.35), p < 0.001) and blood pressure (OR: 2.59 (1.75-3.85), p < 0.001), symptoms such as blood in sputum (OR: 1.69 (1.32-2.16), p < 0.001), shortness of breath (OR: 1.43 (1.19-1.72), p < 0.001) and weight loss (OR: 1.59 (1.33-1.89), p < 0.001). The cough was the most often reported symptom overall. There were gender differences in symptoms that prompted care-seeking: Males were more likely to seek care for weight loss (OR: 1.78 (1.42-2.23), p<0.001), blood in the sputum (OR: 1.69 (1.25-2.28), p<0.001), shortness of breath (OR: 1.49 (1.18-1.88), p<0.001) and fever (OR: 1.32 (1.05-1.65), p = 0.018). Females were more likely to seek care for blood in sputum (OR: 1.68 (1.10-2.58), p = 0.018) and shortness of breath (OR = 1.35, (1.01-1.82), p = 0.048). The cough did not feature as a significant symptom that prompted care-seeking.

Conclusion: Delayed healthcare-seeking behaviour among those with symptoms presumptive of TB in the tribal population is a major concern. Findings point to differences across gender about symptoms that prompt care-seeking in this population. Gender-sensitive interventions with health system strengthening are urgently needed to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment among this population.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250971PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136700PMC
May 2021

Clinical Validation of Global Coagulation Tests to Guide Blood Component Transfusions in Cirrhosis and ACLF.

J Clin Transl Hepatol 2021 Apr 18;9(2):210-219. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Departments of Hepatology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background And Aims: Patients with cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) may have bleeding complications and need for invasive procedures. Point-of-care (POC) coagulation tests like thromboelastography (TEG) and Sonoclot may be better for guiding patient management than the standard coagulation tests (SCTs), like prothrombin time, platelet count and international normalized ratio.

Methods: We prospectively compared and validated the POC tests and SCTs in 70 persons with ACLF and 72 persons with decompensated cirrhosis who had clinical bleeding and checked for episodes of re-bleeding and transfusion requirements. We assessed pre-procedure requirement of blood components when correction was done based on an SCT or POC strategy.

Results: Episodes of bleeding were seen in 45% and 28% of ACLF and cirrhosis patient, respectively (=0.036), with the major site of bleeding being gastrointestinal (31% and 16%, respectively). Platelet counts correlated with TEG-maximum amplitude in cirrhosis (=0.045) and prothrombin time correlated positively with TEG-reaction (R) time (=0.032), TEG-Clot kinetics (K) time (=0.042), Son-activated clotting time (=0.038) and negatively with clot rate (=0.043) in ACLF, making these correctable target variables in POC transfusion algorithms. Of 223 procedures, transfusion of fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrate was reduced by 25% (=0.035) and 20.8% (=0.045) by using a POC strategy in 76 patients. Correction of deranged Son-activated clotting time and TEG-reaction time was noted in 68% and 72% after 24 h of fresh frozen plasma transfusion in ACLF and 85% and 80% in cirrhosis, respectively.

Conclusions: Our study clinically validates that POC tests can better detect coagulation defects and transfusion thresholds in ACLF and cirrhosis, whereas use of conventional tests appear to be less suitable in patients with clinical bleeding.

Trial Registration: NCT04332484.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14218/JCTH.2020.00121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111111PMC
April 2021

Spatial variation in ciliate communities with respect to water quality in the Delhi NCR stretch of River Yamuna, India.

Eur J Protistol 2021 Jun 20;79:125793. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Zoology, SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Electronic address:

The River Yamuna emerges from Saptarishi Kund, Yamunotri and merge with River Ganges at Allahabad, India. Anthropogenic stress has affected the water quality of the river Yamuna drastically in the stretch traversing Delhi and its satellite towns (National Capital Region, NCR). In the present study, effect of water quality on the microbial life in the River Yamuna was analyzed using ciliate communities (Protista, Ciliophora) as bio-indicators. Water samples were collected from six sampling sites chosen according to the levels of pollution along the river and water quality was analysed using standard physicochemical factors. As the river traverses Delhi NCR, water quality deteriorates considerably as indicated by the Water Quality Index at the selected sampling sites. Seventy-four ciliate species representing nine classes were recorded. Based on the Shannon diversity index, maximum species diversity was found at the point where the river enters Delhi. The saprobity index showed the river water was beta-mesosaprobic when the river enters Delhi and alpha-mesosaprobic at downstream sites after the first major drain outfall. Significant relationship between the spatial variation in ciliate communities and abiotic parameters indicate that ciliates can be used as effective bioindicators of pollution in the River Yamuna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejop.2021.125793DOI Listing
June 2021
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