Publications by authors named "Haris Pojskic"

17 Publications

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Acute Exposure to Normobaric Hypoxia Impairs Balance Performance in Sub-elite but Not Elite Basketball Players.

Front Physiol 2021 27;12:748153. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Human Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.

Although high and simulated altitude training has become an increasingly popular training method, no study has investigated the influence of acute hypoxic exposure on balance in team-sport athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia is detrimental to balance performance in highly-trained basketball players. Nine elite and nine sub-elite male basketball players participated in a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study. Subjects performed repeated trials of a single-leg balance test (SLBT) in an altitude chamber in normoxia (NOR; approximately sea level) with FiO 20.9% and PiO ranging from 146.7 to 150.4 mmHg and in normobaric hypoxia (HYP; ~3,800 m above sea level) with FiO 13.0% and PiO ranging from 90.9 to 94.6 mmHg. The SLBT was performed three times: 15 min after entering the environmental chamber in NOR or HYP, then two times more interspersed by 3-min rest. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at four time points: after the initial 15-min rest inside the chamber and immediately after each SLBT. Across the cohort, the balance performance was 7.1% better during NOR than HYP ( < 0.01, = 0.58). However, the performance of the elite group was not impaired by HYP, whereas the sub-elite group performed worse in the HYP condition on both legs (DL: = 0.02, = 1.23; NDL: = 0.01, = 1.43). SpO was lower in HYP than NOR ( < 0.001, = 0.99) with a significant decline over time during HYP. HR was higher in HYP than NOR ( = 0.04, = 0.25) with a significant increase over time. Acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia detrimentally affected the balance performance in sub-elite but not elite basketball players.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.748153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8578732PMC
October 2021

Physiological and Anthropometric Determinants of Performance Levels in Professional Futsal.

Front Psychol 2020 12;11:621763. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

There is an evident lack of studies examining the pursuit of excellence in futsal. The aims of this study were to evaluate anthropometric and physiological variables that may contribute to distinguishing among performance levels in professional futsal players and to evaluate correlates of those variables. The participants were 75 male professionals (age = 25.1 ± 5.1 years, body height = 182.3 ± 6.2 cm, body mass = 80.8 ± 10.4 kg), who were divided into performance levels using two criteria: (i) starters (first teams) vs. non-starters (substitutes) and (ii) top-level players (members of the national team and players who participated in top-level team competition in Europe) vs. high-level players (team players competing at the highest national competitive rank). Variables included anthropometrics (body height and mass, BMI, body fat percentage), generic tests of physiological capacities [5- and 10-m sprints, countermovement jump, broad jump, 20-yard test, reactive strength index (RSI)], and futsal-specific fitness tests [kicking speed by dominant and non-dominant leg, futsal-specific tests of change of direction speed, and reactive agility (FSRAG) involving/not involving dribbling the ball]. Top-level players outperformed high-level players in RSI, broad jump, kicking speed, and FSRAG involving dribbling. Starters achieved better results than non-starters in fewer variables, including kicking speed and RSI. Body fat percentage negatively influenced FSRAG involving dribbling, and RSI. FSRAG, RSI, and kicking speed were significantly correlated, indicating the similar physiological background of these capacities. The findings suggest that enhanced reactive strength and the ability to rapidly change direction speed in response to external stimulus while executing futsal-specific motor tasks (e.g., dribbling), along with players' ability to kick the ball speedily, can be considered essential qualities required for advanced performance in futsal. Consequently, futsal strength and conditioning training should be targeted toward lowering relative body fat, maximizing lower-body reactive strength and including futsal-specific skills (e.g., dribbling, shooting) in reactive agility drills.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.621763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835319PMC
January 2021

Impact of contextual factors on match demands experienced by elite male referees during international basketball tournaments.

J Sports Sci 2021 Apr 25;39(8):936-943. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

VALFIS Research Group, Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), Faculty of Physical Activity and Sports Sciences, University of León, León, Spain.

We aimed to assess the cardiovascular responses and locomotory demands of male referees during diverse elite, international, basketball matches, and to investigate the influence of moderating factors (competition sex, level and stage) on these demands. Cardiovascular and locomotory responses were monitored in 123 elite, male referees while officiating 283 basketball sessions (preparation until match end), during group and playoff stages, of women's and men's FIBA Continental and World Cups at senior and youth level. The total and average session distance and velocity were ~4740 m, 19.0 m·min and 2 km·h . Referees experienced an average relative HR of 60-65% maximum HR with ~85% of each session spent within the very light to moderate HR categories. The average session relative HR was significantly greater for men compared to women competition, during senior compared to youth sessions, and for the group compared to the playoff stage sessions. Mean distance covered was significantly greater during senior and men compared with youth and women sessions. Elite, international male basketball referees experienced moderate cardiovascular load accompanied with intermittent locomotor activities during international sessions when accounting for all occupational activities. International competitions are more demanding for referees based upon competition sex, level and stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1851902DOI Listing
April 2021

The Reliability and Validity of a Novel Sport-Specific Balance Test to Differentiate Performance Levels in Elite Curling Players.

J Sports Sci Med 2020 06 1;19(2):337-346. Epub 2020 May 1.

School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.

Balance as a skill and task-specific capacity is considered an essential physical quality in curling, required for executing effective stone delivery. However, no testing protocols have been developed to test curling-specific balance in the delivery position. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, validity and usefulness of a newly-developed, curling-specific balance test (CSBT) which involved the delivery position. The secondary aim was to examine the differences between elite and sub-elite curlers for core strength and flexibility, which have previously been identified as important qualities in curling and determinants of balance. Twenty curling players (13 females aged 19 ± 3.1 years; 7 males aged 19.6 ± 2.3 years) from five Swedish super-league curling clubs were divided into two groups according to playing level: elite and sub-elite. Variables included body mass, body height, body mass index, age, playing experience, training frequency, plank test, sit and reach test, standing single-leg balance test (SLBT) and CSBT. The CSBT was executed on a multiaxial tilting balance plate while mimicking the curling delivery position (i.e., a deep lunge position with the front foot on the plate). The participants completed the CSBT on three separate occasions, with each test consisting of three, 20-s attempts. Both the relative and absolute reliability were good for the CSBT (ICC = 0.90; CV = 14.5%). The CSBT demonstrated good measurement usefulness, being sensitive to detect moderate changes that exceeded 0.5 times the test standard deviation. Construct validity of the CSBT was evidenced by the large discriminatory capacity to differentiate expertise level in curling players (t-test: 2.85, p < 0.01; large ES), irrespective of other physical capacities (e.g., flexibility and core strength). However, the elite and sub-elite players also differed in age, playing experience and training frequency. Content validity was confirmed by a weak correlation (r = 0.21; 95%CI: -0.26 to 0.60) between the CSBT and SLBT, which suggests that curling-specific and standing balance should be considered as independent and task-specific motor skills. In conclusion, the CSBT can be used as a reliable, valid and useful tool for the assessment of curling-specific balance performance. In addition, longer and more extensive involvement in curling training contributed to superior specific balance in elite curlers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196740PMC
June 2020

A Meta-Analysis on the Effect of Complex Training on Vertical Jump Performance.

J Hum Kinet 2020 Jan 31;71:255-265. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Sports Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.

Complex training (CT) is a strength training intervention performed by completing all the sets of a resistance exercise followed by a series of high-velocity/plyometric exercise/s. The purpose of this novel study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the effect of CT on vertical jump (VJ) performance. Five electronic databases were searched using terms related to CT and the VJ. Studies needed to include randomized trials comparing CT with traditional resistance training (RT)/plyometric training (PLYO)/control (CON) lasting ≥ 4 weeks and the VJ as a dependent variable. Seven studies qualified for the meta-analysis with two studies differentiating VJ performance from CT and RT, two studies comparing VJ performance of CT and PLYO, and two studies establishing the difference in VJ performance between CT and CON. Results indicated similar improvement in VJ performance from CT and RT (p = 0.88). On the other hand, greater VJ performance in CT than PLYO was identified (ES = 0.86; 95% CI 0.24, 1.47; p = 0.01). CT also showed significantly greater enhancement in VJ compared to CON (ES = 1.14; 95% CI 0.60, 1.68; p < 0.01). In conclusion, CT can serve as alternative training from RT in improving VJ performance. On the other hand, CT is a better option in VJ enhancement than PLYO and CON.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2019-0087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7052715PMC
January 2020

Agility Testing in Youth Football (Soccer)Players; Evaluating Reliability, Validity, and Correlates of Newly Developed Testing Protocols.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 01 1;17(1). Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia.

Reactive agility (RAG) and change of direction speed (CODS) are important determinants of success in football (soccer), but there is an evident lack of information on reliable and valid football-specific testing procedures which will be applicable in defining sport-specific RAG and CODS in youth players. This study evaluated reliability and construct validity of newly developed tests of football-specific RAG (FS_RAG) and CODS (FS_CODS), which involved the ball kicking football technique. Additionally, factors associated with FS_RAG and FS_CODS were evaluated. The participants were youth football players (n = 59; age: 13.40 ± 1.25 years) divided according to their age into U13 (11-12 years of age; n = 29), and U15 (13-14 years of age; n = 30) categories. Additionally, performance levels (starters [first-team] vs. non-starters [substitutes]) were observed in each age category. The dependent variables were newly developed FS_RAG and FS_CODS tests. The independent variables were sprinting capacities over 10 and 20 meters (S10M, S20M), countermovement jump (CMJ), the reactive strength index (RSI), and a generic CODS test of 20 yards (20Y). The newly developed FS_CODS and FS_RAG were observed as dependent variables. Results showed appropriate intra-testing and inter-testing reliability of the FS_RAG and FS_CODS, with somewhat better reliability of the FS_CODS (ICC=0.82 and 0.79, respectively). Additionally, better reliability was evidenced in U15 than in U13 (ICC: 0.82-0.85, and 0.78-0.80 for U15 and U13, respectively). Independent samples t-test indicated significant differences between U13 and U15 in S10 (-test: 3.57, < 0.001), S20M (-test: 3.13, < 0.001), 20Y (-test: 4.89, < 0.001), FS_RAG (-test: 3.96, < 0.001), and FS_CODS (-test: 6.42, < 0.001), with better performance in U15. Starters outperformed non-starters in most capacities among U13, but only in FS_RAG among U15 (-test: 1.56, < 0.05). Multiple regression calculations indicated nonsignificant association between independent and dependent variables in U13 (FS_CODS: 19%, FS_RAG: 21% of the explained variance, both > 0.05), but independent variables explained significant proportion of both dependent variables in U15 (FS_CODS: 35%, FS_RAG: 33% explained variance, both < 0.05). The study confirmed the applicability of newly developed tests in distinguishing studied age categories of players. Results indicate that superiority in all studied fitness capacities is translated into performance level in U13. Meanwhile, FS_RAG seems to be important determinant of quality in U15.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981745PMC
January 2020

Reliability, Validity and Usefulness of a New Response Time Test for Agility-Based Sports: A Simple vs. Complex Motor Task.

J Sports Sci Med 2019 12 19;18(4):623-635. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

The importance of response time (RT) in sports is well known, but there is an evident lack of reliable and valid sport-specific measurement tools applicable in the evaluation of RT in trained athletes. This study aimed to identify the validity, reliability, and usefulness of four newly developed RT testing protocols among athletes from agility-saturated (AG) and non-agility-saturated (NAG) sports. Thirty-seven AG and ten NAG athletes (age: 20.9 ± 2.9; eleven females) volunteered to undergo: three randomized simple response time (SRT-1, SRT-2, and SRT-3) protocols that included a single limb movement, and one complex response time (CRT) protocol that included multi joint movements and whole body transition over a short distance (1.5 and 1.8m). Each RT test involved 3 trials with 5 randomized attempts per trial. Two sensors were placed at the left- and right-hand side for SRT-1 and SRT-2. Three sensors were positioned (left, middle, right) in SRT-3 and CRT. The intra-class-correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated as a measure of reliability. Independent sample t-test, effect size (d), and area-under-the-curve (AUC) were calculated to define discriminative validity of the tests. The results showed the newly developed tests were more reliable and useful in the AG than NAG athletes (i.e., ICC between 0.68 and 0.97 versus 0.31-0.90, respectively). The RT of AG athletes was faster than that of NAG athletes in the CRT test from the left (p <0.01, = 2.40, AUC: 0.98), centre (p < 0.01, = 1.57, AUC: 0.89), and right sensor (p < 0.01, = 1.93, AUC: 0.89) locations. In contrast, there were no differences between the groups in the SRT tests. The weak correlation (i.e., r= 0.00-0.33) between the SRT and CRT tests suggests that response time of the single limb and multijoint limb movements should not be considered as a single motor capacity. In conclusion, this study showed that AG athletes had faster response time than their NAG peers during complex motor tasks. Such enhanced ability to rapidly and accurately reprogram complex motor tasks can be considered one of the essential qualities required for advanced performance in agility-based sports.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6873124PMC
December 2019

Are Sports-Related Factors Correlated to the Prevalence and Initiation of Illicit Drug Misuse in Adolescence? Prospective Study in Older Adolescents.

Biomed Res Int 2018 28;2018:1236284. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Linnaeus University, Department for Sports Science, Kalmar 39182, Sweden.

Sport participation is considered as a factor of potential influence on illicit drug misuse (IDM) in adolescence, but there is an evident lack of studies which prospectively investigated this problem. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the sports-related factors related to IDM and the initiation of IDM among older adolescents. The participants were 436 adolescents (202 females; 16 years old at study baseline). They were tested at baseline and follow-up (two years later). The predictors included variables associated with different facets of sports participation and success in sports. The criteria were (i) baseline IDM, (ii) follow-up IDM, and (iii) initiation of IDM between baseline and follow-up. Crude and adjusted (controlled for parental conflict, age, socioeconomic status, and gender) logistic regressions were applied to establish correlations between predictors and criteria. There were higher odds for baseline IDM in adolescents who quit individual sports (OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 1.3-13.9), who had better competitive sports achievements (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3), and those involved in sports for a longer time (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.5). The IDM at follow-up was more prevalent in adolescents who were involved in sports for a longer time (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Initiation of drug use was predicted by longer experience in sports (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). Sports-related factors were more negatively than positively related to illicit drug use. Most probably, the transition from junior to senior level in sports put specific stress on those adolescents who were highly committed to sports until that time, but who then had to question their own sports abilities and future potential in sports. Sport-authorities should be informed on established results and specific public-health efforts aimed at preventing IDM in athletic adolescents are urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1236284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304193PMC
April 2019

Relationship Between Obesity, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels in Children and Adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina: An Analysis of Gender Differences.

Front Physiol 2018 28;9:1734. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department for Health Sciences, Faculty of Human Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.

This study aimed to examine: (i) the level of physical activity (PA), obesity indices and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among boys and girls in primary school, and (ii) to determine the association of obesity indices and PA with CRF for the total number of participants, and then separately for boys and girls. 753 sixth to ninth grade girls and boys aged 10-14 years took part in this cross-sectional study. The PA was assessed by the "Physical Activity Questionnaire - Children" and CRF was assessed by the Maximal multistage a 20 m shuttle run test. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were considered as obesity indices. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of CRF. The results obtained showed the prevalence of general overweight and obesity was 25.5% in our sample which was lower than that in the regional estimate (e.g., ∼28%) for Eastern Europe. Among all participants, CRF was associated with male sex, older age, a lower WC percentile, higher WHtR, and higher level of PA. The model accounted for 24% of the variance. CRF was associated with older age and higher level of PA among girls and boys. Lower WC percentile was a significant determinant of CRF among boys. In conclusion, general overweight/obesity was not independently associated with CRF. Those with better CRF were more likely to be male and older, had a higher level of PA and lower central adiposity. These findings emphasize the importance of supporting school age children to take a part in programmed physical activity regardless of their body composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6279890PMC
November 2018

Association Between Conditioning Capacities and Shooting Performance in Professional Basketball Players: An Analysis of Stationary and Dynamic Shooting Skills.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Jul;32(7):1981-1992

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

Pojskic, H, Sisic, N, Separovic, V, and Sekulic, D. Association between conditioning capacities and shooting performance in professional basketball players: an analysis of stationary and dynamic shooting skills. J Strength Cond Res 32(7): 1981-1992, 2018-Little is known about the influence of conditioning capacities on shooting performance in basketball. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between different conditioning capacities and shooting performance in professional basketball players. In this investigation, we examined 38 males (all perimeter players; height: 185.5 ± 6.73 cm; mass: 78.66 ± 10.35 kg). Conditioning capacities were evaluated by tests of muscular strength, aerobic endurance, jumping and throwing capacities, sprinting speed, preplanned agility, anaerobic endurance, and fatigue resistance. Shooting performance was evaluated using game statistics, as well as 6 tests of shooting performance performed in controlled settings: (a) 3 tests of static (i.e., nonfatigued) shooting performance (standardized execution of 1- [S1], 2- [S2] and 3-point shots [S3] in stationary conditions), and (b) 3 tests of dynamic (i.e., fatigued) shooting performance (standardized execution of 1- [D1], 2- (D2), and 3-point shots [D3] in dynamic conditions). All 3 dynamic shooting tests and the S1 test were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) correlated with corresponding game statistics. Multiple regression indicated that conditioning capacities were significantly related to D1 (R = 0.36; p = 0.03), D2 (R = 0.44; p = 0.03), S3 (R = 0.41; p = 0.02), and D3 (R = 0.39; p = 0.03) tests. Players with a higher fatigue resistance achieved better results on the D1 test (β = -0.37, p = 0.03). Preplanned agility (β = -0.33, p = 0.04), countermovement jump (β = 0.42, p = 0.03), and fatigue resistance (β = -0.37, p = 0.02) were significant predictors of D2 performance. The countermovement jump (β = 0.39, p = 0.04), medicine ball toss (β = 0.34, p = 0.04), and anaerobic endurance (β = 0.46, p = 0.04) predicted the results of D3 performance. Jumping, throwing, and anaerobic endurance capacities were good determinants of the skill of dynamic shooting over a long distance. These findings emphasize the importance of explosive power and anaerobic capacity as determinants of shooting performance in high-level basketball players.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002100DOI Listing
July 2018

Importance of Reactive Agility and Change of Direction Speed in Differentiating Performance Levels in Junior Soccer Players: Reliability and Validity of Newly Developed Soccer-Specific Tests.

Front Physiol 2018 15;9:506. Epub 2018 May 15.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

Agility is a significant determinant of success in soccer; however, studies have rarely presented and evaluated soccer-specific tests of reactive agility (S_RAG) and non-reactive agility (change of direction speed - S_CODS) or their applicability in this sport. The aim of this study was to define the reliability and validity of newly developed tests of the S_RAG and S_CODS to discriminate between the performance levels of junior soccer players. The study consisted of 20 players who were involved at the highest national competitive rank (all males; age: 17.0 ± 0.9 years), divided into three playing positions (defenders, midfielders, and forwards) and two performance levels (U17 and U19). Variables included body mass (BM), body height, body fat percentage, 20-m sprint, squat jump, countermovement jump, reactive-strength-index, unilateral jump, 1RM-back-squat, S_CODS, and three protocols of S_RAG. The reliabilities of the S_RAG and S_CODS were appropriate to high (ICC: 0.70 to 0.92), with the strongest reliability evidenced for the S_CODS. The S_CODS and S_RAG shared 25-40% of the common variance. Playing positions significantly differed in BM (large effect-size differences [ES]; midfielders were lightest) and 1RM-back-squat (large ES; lowest results in midfielders). The performance levels significantly differed in age and experience in soccer; U19 achieved better results in the S_CODS (-test: 3.61, < 0.05, large ES) and two S_RAG protocols (-test: 2.14 and 2.41, < 0.05, moderate ES). Newly developed tests of soccer-specific agility are applicable to differentiate U17 and U19 players. Coaches who work with young soccer athletes should be informed that the development of soccer-specific CODS and RAG in this age is mostly dependent on training of the specific motor proficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5962722PMC
May 2018

A Prospective Study on the Influence of Scholastic Factors on the Prevalence and Initiation of Illicit Drug Misuse in Adolescence.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 04 27;15(5). Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Department for Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Östersund, Sweden.

Background: This study aimed to prospectively investigate the scholastic factors related to illicit drug misuse (IDM) and the initiation of IDM among older adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Methods: This 2-year prospective study included 436 participants (202 females), who were an average of 16 years old at the beginning of the study (baseline). The participants were tested at baseline and follow-up (20 months later). The predictors included variables of scholastic-achievement (grade point average, school absences, unexcused absences and behavioral grade). The criteria were: (i) IDM at baseline; (ii) IDM at follow-up; and (iii) initiation of IDM over the study course. Results Logistic regression indicated increased odds of IDM in adolescents who were more frequent absent from school (baseline: Odds Ratio (OR): 3.73, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.12⁻6.57; follow-up: OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.90⁻4.65). The lower grade point average and more unexcused absences were evidenced for adolescents who consumed drugs on follow-up (OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.11⁻2.51; OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.30⁻2.32 for grade point average and unexcused absences, respectively). Initiation of IDM was predicted by frequent absences from school (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3⁻3.8), and lower behavioral grades (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2⁻3.3).

Conclusions: The findings confirmed strong correlations between scholastic failure and IDM. Absences from school and lower behavioral grades at baseline were predictive of the initiation of IDM in older adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5981913PMC
April 2018

Sport and scholastic factors in relation to smoking and smoking initiation in older adolescents: a prospective cohort study in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

BMJ Open 2017 03 22;7(3):e014066. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

Objective: Sport and scholastic factors are known to be associated with cigarette smoking in adolescence, but little is known about the causality of this association. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the relationships of different sport and scholastic factors with smoking prevalence initiation in older adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Methods: In this 2-year prospective cohort study, there were 872 adolescent participants (16 years at baseline; 46% females). The study consisted of baseline tests at the beginning of the third year (September 2013) and follow-up at the end of the fourth year of high school (late May to early June 2015). The independent variables were scholastic and sport-related factors. The dependent variables were (1) smoking at baseline, (2) smoking at follow-up and (3) smoking initiation over the course of the study. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender and socioeconomic status were applied to define the relationships between independent and dependent variables.

Results: School absence at the baseline study was a significant predictor of smoking initiation during the course of the study (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8). Those who reported quitting sports at baseline showed an increased risk of smoking at the end of the study (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and of smoking initiation (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.0). Adolescents who reported lower competitive achievements in sport were at a higher risk of (1) smoking at baseline (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1), (2) smoking at follow-up (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1) and (3) smoking initiation (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6).

Conclusions: In developing accurate antismoking public health policies for older adolescents, the most vulnerable groups should be targeted. The results showed that most participants initiated smoking before 16 years of age. Therefore, further investigations should evaluate the predictors of smoking in younger ages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5372021PMC
March 2017

Positional Role Differences in the Aerobic and Anaerobic Power of Elite Basketball Players.

J Hum Kinet 2015 Dec 30;49:219-27. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Tuzla University, School of Physical Education and Sport, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The aim of the present study was to compare the aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity of elite male basketball players who played multiple positions. Fifty-five healthy players were divided into the following three different subsamples according to their positional role: guards (n = 22), forwards (n = 19) and centers (n = 14). The following three tests were applied to estimate their aerobic and anaerobic power and capacities: the countermovement jump (CMJ), a multistage shuttle run test and the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST). The obtained data were used to calculate the players' aerobic and anaerobic power and capacities. To determine the possible differences between the subjects considering their different positions on the court, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons was used. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the different groups of players in eleven out of sixteen measured variables. Guards and forwards exhibited greater aerobic and relative values of anaerobic power, allowing shorter recovery times and the ability to repeat high intensity, basketball-specific activities. Centers presented greater values of absolute anaerobic power and capacities, permitting greater force production during discrete tasks. Coaches can use these data to create more individualized strength and conditioning programs for different positional roles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2015-0124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4723171PMC
December 2015

Examination of the community-specific prevalence of and factors associated with substance use and misuse among Rural and Urban adolescents: a cross-sectional analysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

BMJ Open 2015 Nov 6;5(11):e009446. Epub 2015 Nov 6.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia University Department of Health Care Studies, Split, Croatia.

Objective: The community of residence (ie, urban vs rural) is one of the known factors of influence on substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to explore the community-specific prevalence of SUM and the associations that exist between scholastic, familial, sports and sociodemographic factors with SUM in adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which was completed between November and December 2014, the participants were 957 adolescents (aged 17 to 18 years) from Bosnia and Herzegovina (485; 50.6% females). The independent variables were sociodemographic, academic, sport and familial factors. The dependent variables consisted of questions on cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. We have calculated differences between groups of participants (gender, community), while the logistic regressions were applied to define associations between the independent and dependent variables.

Results: In the urban community, cigarette smoking is more prevalent in girls (OR=2.05; 95% CI 1.27 to 3.35), while harmful drinking is more prevalent in boys (OR=2.07; 95% CI 1.59 to 2.73). When data are weighted by gender and community, harmful drinking is more prevalent in urban boys (OR=1.97; 95% CI 1.31 to 2.95), cigarette smoking is more frequent in rural boys (OR=1.61; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.39), and urban girls misuse substances to a greater extent than rural girls (OR=1.70; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.51,OR=2.85; 95% CI 1.88 to 4.31,OR=2.78; 95% CI 1.67 to 4.61 for cigarette smoking, harmful drinking and simultaneous smoking-drinking, respectively). Academic failure is strongly associated with a higher likelihood of SUM. The associations between parental factors and SUM are more evident in urban youth. Sports factors are specifically correlated with SUM for urban girls.

Conclusions: Living in an urban environment should be considered as a higher risk factor for SUM in girls. Parental variables are more strongly associated with SUM among urban youth, most probably because of the higher parental involvement in children' personal lives in urban communities (ie, college plans, for example). Specific indicators should be monitored in the prevention of SUM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4636607PMC
November 2015

Acute effects of loaded whole body vibration training on performance.

Asian J Sports Med 2015 Mar 20;6(1):e24054. Epub 2015 Mar 20.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

Background: The application of whole body vibration (WBV) as a warm-up scheme has been receiving an increasing interest among practitioners.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of loaded and unloaded WBV on countermovement jump, speed and agility.

Patients And Methods: Twenty-one healthy male college football players (age: 20.14 ± 1.65 years; body height: 179.9 ± 8.34 cm; body mass: 74.4 ± 13.0 kg; % body fat: 9.45 ± 4.8) underwent randomized controlled trials that involved standing in a half squat position (ST), ST with 30% of bodyweight (ST + 30%), whole body vibration at f = 50 Hz, A = 4 mm (WBV), and WBV with 30% bodyweight (WBV + 30% BW) after a standardized warm-up. Post measures of countermovement jump, 15-m sprint, and modified t-test were utilized for analyses.

Results: One way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the countermovement jump performance, F (3, 60 = 9.06, η2 = 2.21, P = 0.000. Post-hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW posted significant difference compared to (P = 0.008), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). There was also a significant difference in the sprint times among interventions, F (3, 60) = 23.0, η2 = 0.865, P = 0.000. Post hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW displayed significantly lower time values than ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). Lastly, there was a significant difference in the agility performance across experimental conditions at F(2.01, 40.1) = 21.0, η2 = 0.954, P = 0.000. Post hoc demonstrated that WBV have lower times than ST (P = 0.013). Also, WBV + 30% BW posted lower times compared to ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.003).

Conclusions: Additional external load of 30% bodyweight under WBV posted superior gains in countermovement jump, speed and agility compared to unloaded WBV, loaded non-WBV and unloaded non-WBV interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.24054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393544PMC
March 2015

Effect of various warm-up protocols on jump performance in college football players.

J Hum Kinet 2012 Dec 30;35:127-32. Epub 2012 Dec 30.

College of Human Kinetics, University of the Philippines - Diliman, Philippines.

The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of warm-up strategies on countermovement jump performance. Twenty-nine male college football players (age: 19.4 ± 1.1 years; body height: 179.0 ± 5.1 cm; body mass: 73.1 ± 8.0 kg; % body fat: 11.1 ± 2.7) from the Tuzla University underwent a control (no warm-up) and different warm-up conditions: 1. general warm-up; 2. general warm-up with dynamic stretching; 3. general warm-up, dynamic stretching and passive stretching; 4. passive static stretching; 5. passive static stretching and general warm-up; and, 6. passive static stretching, general warm-up and dynamic stretching. Countermovement jump performance was measured after each intervention or control. Results from one way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference on warm-up strategies at F (4.07, 113.86) = 69.56, p < 0.001, eta squared = 0.72. Bonferonni post hoc revealed that a general warm-up and a general warm-up with dynamic stretching posted the greatest gains among all interventions. On the other hand, no warm-up and passive static stretching displayed the least results in countermovement jump performance. In conclusion, countermovement jump performance preceded by a general warm-up or a general warm-up with dynamic stretching posted superior gains in countermovement jump performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10078-012-0086-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3588691PMC
December 2012
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