Publications by authors named "Hardik A Parikh"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison of Safety and Efficacy Between Ab Interno and Ab Externo Approaches to XEN Gel Stent Placement.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 26;15:299-305. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: To compare the safety and efficacy of two different techniques for implantation of the XEN Gel Stent, a minimally invasive surgical device for the treatment of refractory glaucoma.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of eyes that received ab interno or ab externo XEN Gel Stent placement from February 2017 to October 2019 was conducted. A single surgeon (NMR) performed all operations. Eyes that received the XEN implant concomitant with a glaucoma drainage device insertion or that were lost to 6-month follow-up were excluded. Intraocular pressure (IOP) change, change in glaucoma medications, frequency of slit lamp revision procedures, and frequency of secondary glaucoma surgeries were the primary outcomes compared between groups.

Results: Fifty eyes that underwent ab interno placement and 30 eyes that underwent ab externo placement were studied. The ab interno cohort demonstrated a mean IOP reduction of 8.4 ± 1.7 mmHg (28.6% decrease) by 12 months, compared to a mean reduction of 12.8 ± 3.0 mmHg (40.1% decrease) in the ab externo group (p = 0.208). Mean reduction in medication use was 1.81 ± 0.29 medications in the ab interno group and 1.86 ± 0.37 in the ab externo group (p = 0.913). By 12 months, 58% of ab interno eyes had required 5-fluorouracil injection compared to 36.7% of ab externos (p = 0.105). Bleb needling was applied to 42% and 26.7% of the eyes, respectively (p = 0.231). A second glaucoma surgery was necessary for 20% of the ab interno cohort and 10% of the ab externo cohort (p = 0.351).

Conclusion: There were no differences in outcomes between ab interno and ab externo placement of the XEN Gel Stent. Both approaches are safe and effective for lowering IOP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S292007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847364PMC
January 2021

Myasthenia gravis crisis coinciding with asthma exacerbation in a patient with recent heroin use: three causes of acute hypercarbic respiratory failure.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Oct 7;2018. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

A 57-year-old woman with a history of asthma, hypertension and substance abuse disorder was admitted to the medical intensive care unit with hypercapnic respiratory failure. After the history was obtained, patient admitted heroin use earlier that day. The initial physical examination revealed right eye ptosis, diplopia, fatigability of neck flexion and extension. She also presented with wheezing and a prolonged expiratory phase. Pupils were 4 mm, with sluggish response to light bilaterally. CT chest with contrast showed a large mediastinal mass. Three different processes coexisted in this patient: simultaneous occurrence of a myasthenia gravis crisis, asthma exacerbation and a component of heroin use. This case highlights a series of overlapping clinical features that could lead to potential confounding and misdiagnosis. Respiratory symptoms improved after initial treatment for asthma exacerbation, but ptosis, diplopia and fatigability of neck muscles persisted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-224176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194372PMC
October 2018

Rapid learning curve assessment in an ex vivo training system for microincisional glaucoma surgery.

Sci Rep 2017 05 9;7(1):1605. Epub 2017 May 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

Increasing prevalence and cost of glaucoma have increased the demand for surgeons well trained in newer, microincisional surgery. These procedures occur in a highly confined space, making them difficult to learn by observation or assistance alone as is currently done. We hypothesized that our ex vivo outflow model is sensitive enough to allow computing individual learning curves to quantify progress and refine techniques. Seven trainees performed nine trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomies in pig eyes (n = 63). An expert surgeon rated the procedure using an Operating Room Score (ORS). The extent of outflow beds accessed was measured with canalograms. Data was fitted using mixed effect models. ORS reached a half-maximum on an asymptote after only 2.5 eyes. Surgical time decreased by 1.4 minutes per eye in a linear fashion. The ablation arc followed an asymptotic function with a half-maximum inflection point after 5.3 eyes. Canalograms revealed that this progress did not correlate well with improvement in outflow, suggesting instead that about 30 eyes are needed for true mastery. This inexpensive pig eye model provides a safe and effective microsurgical training model and allows objective quantification of outcomes for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01815-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5431621PMC
May 2017

Stratification of phaco-trabectome surgery results using a glaucoma severity index in a retrospective analysis.

BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Mar 21;17(1):30. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, 15213, PA, USA.

Background: To stratify the outcomes of phacoemulsification combined with trabectome surgery using a new glaucoma severity index.

Methods: This is a retrospective, observational cohort study that included open angle glaucoma patients with visually significant cataract that had phacoemulsification combined with trabectome surgery. Exclusion criteria were follow-up less than 12 months, any other surgeries or diagnosis of neovascular or active uveitic glaucoma. Patients were stratified into four groups according to the Glaucoma Index (GI) that incorporated preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), number of medications and visual field status. The primary outcome measures were IOP reduction and the success rate at 12 months. We examined the relationship between GI group and IOP and medications at one year with a linear regression analysis and survival with log-rank testing.

Results: Of 1374 patients, a total of 498 cases with 12 month follow-up were included in the study after applying the exclusion criteria. At one year, IOP of GI groups 1 through 4 was reduced by 2.9 ± 4.4, 3.6 ± 5.0, 3.9 ± 5.3, and 9.2 ± 7.6 mmHg for. Individuals in the next higher GI group had a 1.69 ± 0.2 mmHg larger IOP decrease. The success rate was 98%, 93%, 96% and 88% at one year for GI groups 1 to 4 (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: A substantial IOP reduction was seen in subjects with more advanced glaucoma suggesting that the trabecular meshwork is the primary impediment to outflow and its ablation benefits those eyes relatively more than in mild glaucoma. A larger IOP reduction can be expected in individuals with a higher GI group that indicates a clinically more challenging glaucoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-017-0421-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5360039PMC
March 2017

Differential Canalograms Detect Outflow Changes from Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents and Ab Interno Trabeculectomy.

Sci Rep 2016 11 4;6:34705. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States.

Recently introduced microincisional glaucoma surgeries that enhance conventional outflow offer a favorable risk profile over traditional surgeries, but can be unpredictable. Two paramount challenges are the lack of an adequate training model for angle surgeries and the absence of an intraoperative quantification of surgical success. To address both, we developed an ex vivo training system and a differential, quantitative canalography method that uses slope-adjusted fluorescence intensities of two different chromophores to avoid quenching. We assessed outflow enhancement by trabecular micro-bypass (TMB) implantation or by ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT). In this porcine model, TMB resulted in an insignificant (p > 0.05) outflow increase of 13 ± 5%, 14 ± 8%, 9 ± 3%, and 24 ± 9% in the inferonasal, superonasal, superotemporal, and inferotemporal quadrant, respectively. AIT caused a 100 ± 50% (p = 0.002), 75 ± 28% (p = 0.002), 19 ± 8%, and 40 ± 21% increase in those quadrants. The direct gonioscopy and tactile feedback provided a surgical experience that was very similar to that in human patients. Despite the more narrow and discontinuous circumferential drainage elements in the pig with potential for underperformance or partial stent obstruction, unequivocal patterns of focal outflow enhancement by TMB were seen in this training model. AIT achieved extensive access to outflow pathways beyond the surgical site itself.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep34705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5095709PMC
November 2016

Steroid-induced glaucoma treated with trabecular ablation in a matched comparison with primary open-angle glaucoma.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2016 Dec 29;44(9):783-788. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: To evaluate the outcomes of trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy in patients with steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG).

Design: A retrospective, observational cohort study performed in the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

Participants: The data of 60 patients with SIG and 484 controls with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) matched by age, gender and glaucoma index were collected from the Trabectome Study Group database.

Methods: Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) and medications were compared between POAG and SIG by multivariate regression. Kaplan-Meier was used for survival analysis. Success was defined as IOP ≤21 mmHg and at least 20% IOP reduction from baseline for any two consecutive visits after 3 months without secondary glaucoma surgery. Postoperative IOP and number of medications were compared with baseline in the SIG subgroups by the Wilcoxon test.

Main Outcome Measures: Intraocular pressure reduction and 1-year success rate.

Results: Patients with SIG had a higher baseline IOP (31.4 ± 10.4 vs. 24.1 ± 7.6 mmHg, P < 0.01) and obtained a greater IOP reduction than controls with POAG (48.4% vs. 31.5%, P < 0.01). Multivariate regression showed that patients with SIG had an IOP reduction of 6.7 ± 1.1 mmHg more than those with POAG. Survival rates at 12 months were comparable at 86% in the SIG group and 85% in the POAG group (P = 0.47). Patients with SIG with a high baseline IOP, younger age and advanced glaucoma experienced a larger IOP drop.

Conclusion: Trabectome appears to be an effective surgical treatment in reducing IOP for patients with SIG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ceo.12796DOI Listing
December 2016

Gene transfer to the outflow tract.

Exp Eye Res 2017 05 27;158:73-84. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA. Electronic address:

Elevated intraocular pressure is the primary cause of open angle glaucoma. Outflow resistance exists within the trabecular meshwork but also at the level of Schlemm's canal and further downstream within the outflow system. Viral vectors allow to take advantage of naturally evolved, highly efficient mechanisms of gene transfer, a process that is termed transduction. They can be produced at biosafety level 2 in the lab using protocols that have evolved considerably over the last 15-20 years. Applied by an intracameral bolus, vectors follow conventional as well as uveoscleral outflow pathways. They may affect other structures in the anterior chamber depending on their transduction kinetics which can vary among species when using the same vector. Not all vectors can express long-term, a desirable feature to address the chronicity of glaucoma. Vectors that integrate into the genome of the target cell can achieve transgene function for the life of the transduced cell but are mutagenic by definition. The most prominent long-term expressing vector systems are based on lentiviruses that are derived from HIV, FIV, or EIAV. Safety considerations make non-primate lentiviral vector systems easier to work with as they are not derived from human pathogens. Non-integrating vectors are subject to degradation and attritional dilution during cell division. Lentiviral vectors have to integrate in order to express while adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) often persist as intracellular concatemers but may also integrate. Adeno- and herpes viral vectors do not integrate and earlier generation systems might be relatively immunogenic. Nonviral methods of gene transfer are termed transfection with few restrictions of transgene size and type but often a much less efficient gene transfer that is also short-lived. Traditional gene transfer delivers exons while some vectors (lentiviral, herpes and adenoviral) allow transfer of entire genes that include introns. Recent insights have highlighted the role of non-coding RNA, most prominently, siRNA, miRNA and lncRNA. SiRNA is highly specific, miRNA is less specific, while lncRNA uses highly complex mechanisms that involve secondary structures and intergenic, intronic, overlapping, antisense, and bidirectional location. Several promising preclinical studies have targeted the RhoA or the prostaglandin pathway or modified the extracellular matrix. TGF-β and glaucoma myocilin mutants have been transduced to elevate the intraocular pressure in glaucoma models. Cell based therapies have started to show first promise. Past approaches have focused on the trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of Schlemm's canal while new strategies are concerned with modification of outflow tract elements that are downstream of the trabecular meshwork.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5083245PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2016.04.023DOI Listing
May 2017

Impact of a Glaucoma Severity Index on Results of Trabectome Surgery: Larger Pressure Reduction in More Severe Glaucoma.

PLoS One 2016 23;11(3):e0151926. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Purpose: To stratify outcomes of trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT) by glaucoma severity using a simple and clinically useful glaucoma index. Based on prior data of trabectome after failed trabeculectomy, we hypothesized that more severe glaucoma might have a relatively more reduced facility compared to mild glaucoma and respond with a larger IOP reduction to trabecular meshwork ablation.

Methods: Patients with primary open angle glaucoma who had undergone AIT without any other same session surgery and without any second eye surgery during the following 12 months were analyzed. Eyes of patients that had less than 12 months follow up or were diagnosed with neovascular glaucoma were excluded. A glaucoma index (GI) was created to capture glaucoma severity based on visual field, number of preoperative medications, and preoperative IOP. Visual field (VF) was separated into 3 categories: mild, moderate, and advanced (assigned 1, 2, and 3 points, respectively). Preoperative number of medications (meds) was divided into 4 categories: ≤1, 2, 3 or ≥4, and assigned with a value of 1 to 4. Baseline IOP (IOP) was divided into 3 categories: <20 mmHg, 20-29 mmHg, and greater than 30 mmHg and assigned with 1 to 3 points. GI was defined as IOP × meds × VF and separated into 4 groups: <6 (Group 1), 6-12 (Group 2), >12-18 (Group 3) and >18 (Group 4). Linear regression was used to determine if there was an association between GI group and IOP reduction after one year or age, gender, race, diagnosis, cup to disc (C/D) ratio, and Shaffer grade.

Results: Out of 1340 patients, 843 were included in the analysis. The GI group distribution was GI1 = 164, GI2 = 202, GI3 = 260, and GI4 = 216. Mean IOP reduction after one year was 4.0±5.4, 6.4±5.8, 9.0±7.6, 12.0±8.0 mmHg for GI groups 1 to 4, respectively. Linear regression showed that IOP reduction was associated with GI group after adjusting for age, gender, race, diagnosis, cup to disc ratio, and Shaffer grade. Each GI group increase of 1 was associated with incremental IOP reductions of 2.95±0.29 mmHg. Success rate at 12 months was 90%, 77%, 77%, and 71% for GI groups 1 to 4. The log-rank test suggested significant differences between GI groups.

Conclusion: A simple glaucoma index, GI, was created to capture glaucoma severity and a relative resistance to treatment. A higher GI was associated with a larger IOP reduction in trabectome surgery. This indicates that there is a role for AIT beyond mild glaucoma and ocular hypertension.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151926PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4805208PMC
August 2016

Characteristics, demographics, outcomes, and complications of diabetic traction retinal detachments treated with silicone oil tamponade.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2016 Aug 19;26(5):497-502. Epub 2016 Feb 19.

Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ - USA.

Purpose: To describe the characteristics, demographics, anatomic and functional outcomes, and complications of diabetic eyes with traction retinal detachment (TRD) or combined traction/rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) silicone oil (SO) tamponade.

Methods: In this retrospective chart review, exclusion criteria included previous PPV.

Results: Forty eyes were identified. The mean preoperative complexity score (CS) of the TRDs was 5.95 (range 4-8). In patients with ≥6 months of follow-up (33; 82.5%), eyes with lower CSs had a better mean final visual acuity (VA): ~20/400 for CS 4, and hand motions (HM)-1/200 for CS >5. Eyes with macula-sparing TRDs had better final VA (~20/400) than those with a detached macula (~HM). Eyes with >3 panretinal photocoagulation sessions attained better mean final VA (20/400) than eyes without any history of laser treatment (~HM). The most frequent complications were cataract (46%), preretinal fibrosis (33%), recurrent TRD (15%), oil migration to the anterior chamber (12%), corneal edema (12%), and oil emulsification (9%). Eleven (27.5%) eyes underwent SO removal.

Conclusions: The average complexity score was high in this series. Use of SO tamponade for diabetic TRDs is not without complications, but may be beneficial in stabilizing vision in eyes with otherwise poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5301/ejo.5000760DOI Listing
August 2016

Coarsened Exact Matching of Phaco-Trabectome to Trabectome in Phakic Patients: Lack of Additional Pressure Reduction from Phacoemulsification.

PLoS One 2016 19;11(2):e0149384. Epub 2016 Feb 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, United States of America.

Purpose: To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) after trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy surgery in phakic patients (T) and trabectome with same session phacoemulsification (PT) using Coarsened Exact Matching. Although phacoemulsification is associated with IOP reduction when performed on its own, it is not known how much it contributes in PT.

Methods: Subjects were divided into phakic T and PT. Exclusion criteria were follow-up for <12 months and additional glaucoma surgery. Demographics were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared test for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multiple imputation was utilized to avoid eliminating data with missing values. Groups were then matched using Coarsened Exact Matching based on age, race, type of glaucoma, baseline IOP, and number of preoperative glaucoma medications. Univariate linear regression was used to examine IOP reduction after surgery; those variables that were statistically significant were included in the final multivariate regression model.

Results: A total of 753 cases were included (T: 255, PT: 498). When all variables except for age were kept constant, there was an additional IOP reduction of 0.05±0.01 mmHg conferred for every yearly increment in age. Every 1 mmHg increase in baseline IOP correlated to an additional IOP reduction of 0.80±0.02 mmHg. Phacoemulsification was not found to be a statistically significant contributor to IOP when comparing T and PT (p≥0.05). T had a 21% IOP reduction to 15.9±3.5 mmHg (p<0.01) while PT had an 18% reduction to 15.5±3.6 mmHg (p<0.01). Number of medications decreased (p<0.01) in both groups from 2.4±1.2 to 1.9±1.3 and from 2.3±1.1 to 1.7±1.3, respectively.

Conclusion: Phacoemulsification does not make a significant contribution to postoperative IOP or number of medications when combined with trabectome surgery in phakic patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149384PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4760733PMC
August 2016