Publications by authors named "Haq Nawaz"

103 Publications

Surface-enhanced Raman spectral analysis for comparison of PCR products of hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jul 16;35:102440. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Chemistry, University of Central Punjab, Faisalabad Campus, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background: Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a reliable tool for identification and differentiation of two diseases showing similar symptoms, hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV).

Objectives: To develop a polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) based SERS technique for differentiation of two human pathological conditions sharing the same symptoms using multivariate data analysis techniques e.g. principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA).

Methods: PCR products of HBV and HCV were differentiated by SERS using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a SERS substrate. For this analysis, PCR products of both the diseases with predetermined viral loads were collected and analyzed under SERS instrument and unique SERS spectra of HBV and HCV was compared showing many differences at various points. Diseased classes of HBV and HCV and their negative control classes (viral load less than 1) were compared. PCR products of true healthy DNA and RNA were also compared, which were significantly separated. Moreover, SERS data was analyzed using multivariate data analysis techniques including principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and differences were so prominent to observe.

Results: SERS spectral data of HBV and HCV showed clear differences and were significantly separated using PCA. Negative control samples of both disorders and their true healthy samples of DNA and RNA were separated according to 1 principle component. By analyzing data using partial least square discriminate analysis, differentiation of two disease classes was considered more valid with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy value of 96%, 94% and 98% respectively. Value of area under curve (AUROC) was 0.7527.

Conclusion: SERS can be employed for identification and comparison of two human pathological conditions sharing the same symptomology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102440DOI Listing
July 2021

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for comparison of serum samples of typhoid and tuberculosis patients of different stages.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jul 1;35:102426. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.

Background: Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a reliable tool for the identification and differentiation of two different human pathological conditions sharing the same symptomology, typhoid and tuberculosis (TB).

Objectives: To explore the potential of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for differentiation of two different diseases showing the same symptoms and analysis by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA).

Methods: Serum samples of clinically diagnosed typhoid and tuberculosis infected individuals were analyzed and differentiated by SERS using silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as a SERS substrate. For this purpose, the collected serum samples were analyzed under the SERS instrument and unique SERS spectra of typhoid and tuberculosis were compared showing notable spectral differences in protein, lipid and carbohydrates features. Different stages of the diseased class of typhoid (Early acute and late acute stage) and tuberculosis (Pulmonary and extra-pulmonary stage) were compared with each other and with healthy human serum samples, which were significantly separated. Moreover, SERS data was analyzed using multivariate data analysis techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and differences were so prominent to observe.

Results: SERS Spectral data of typhoid and tuberculosis showed clear differences and were significantly separated using PCA. SERS spectral data of both stages of typhoid and tuberculosis were separated according to 1st principle component. Moreover, by analyzing data using partial least square discriminate analysis, differentiation of two disease classes were considered more valid with a 100% value of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.

Conclusion: SERS can be employed for identification and comparison of two different human pathological conditions sharing same symptomology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102426DOI Listing
July 2021

Recent studies on cellulose-based fluorescent smart materials and their applications: A comprehensive review.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Sep 30;267:118135. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, PR China. Electronic address:

The progress of bio-based fluorescent smart materials and their multifunctional applications have attained increasing interest in the recent decades. Cellulose is among the cheapest and widespread raw material on earth which can be modified into diverse useful materials. This review summarizes the chemical modification of cellulose into smart fluorescent materials. This further highlights on the fabrication of the prepared fluorescent materials into films, fibers, paper strips, carbon dots, hydrogels and solutions which are applied for the sensing of toxic metals and anions, pH, bioimaging, common organic solvents, aliphatic and aromatic amines, nitroaromatics, fluorescent printing, coating, and anti-counterfeiting applications. Finally, the discussion about the upcoming investigations, challenges, and options open for the cellulose-based luminescence sensors are communicated. We believe that this review will appeal more and more attention and curiosity for the chemists, biochemists, and chemical engineers working with the synthesis of cellulose-based fluorescent materials for widespread applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118135DOI Listing
September 2021

Characterization and prediction of viral loads of Hepatitis B serum samples by using surface-enhance Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jun 9;35:102386. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

PCR Laboratory, PINUM Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background: Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique to analyze the body fluids for the purpose of non-invasive disease diagnosis.

Objectives: To develop a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection from blood serum samples.

Methods: Clinically diagnosed hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected serum samples of patients of different levels of viral loads have been subjected for SERS analysis in comparison with the healthy ones by using silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) based SERS substrates. The SERS measurements were performed on blood serum samples of 11 healthy and 32 clinically diagnosed HBV patients of different viral load levels of different exponentials including (10, 10 called as low level), (10, 10 called as medium level) and (10, 10 called as high level). Furthermore, multivariate data analysis techniques, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) were also performed on SERS spectral data.

Results: The SERS spectral features due to biochemical changes in HBV positive serum samples associated with the increasing viral loads were established which could be employed for HBV diagnostic purpose. PCA was found helpful for the differentiation between SERS spectral data of serum samples of different levels of HBV infection and healthy individuals. PLSR model developed with standard samples of known viral loads for predicting the viral loads of blind/unknown samples with 99% predicted accuracy.

Conclusion: SERS can be employed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of HBV infection from blood serum samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102386DOI Listing
June 2021

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for identification of food processing bacteria.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Nov 23;261:119989. Epub 2021 May 23.

Industrial Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Food processing bacteria play important role in providing flavors, ingredients and other beneficial characteristics to the food but at the same time some bacteria are responsible for food spoilage. Therefore, quick and reliable identification of these food processing bacteria is very necessary for the differentiation between different species which may help in the development of more useful food processing methodologies. In this study, analysis of different bacterial species (Lactobacillus fermentum, Fructobacillus fructosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Halalkalicoccus jeotgali) was performed with our in-house developed Ag NPs-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method. The SERS spectral data was analyzed by multivariate data analysis techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Bacterial species were differentiated on the basis of SERS spectral features and potential of SERS was compared with the Raman spectroscopy (RS). SERS along with PCA and PLS-DA was found to be an efficient technique for identification and differentiation of food processing bacterial species. Differentiation with accuracy of 99.5% and sensitivity of 99.7% was depicted by PLS-DA model using leave one out cross validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119989DOI Listing
November 2021

Optimization of zinc oxide nanoparticle-catalyzed bilirubin photolysis and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 07 4;16(16):1377-1390. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

To optimize the Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs)-catalyzed photolysis of bilirubin and to test their effect on bilirubin clearance . ZnONPs, synthesized in an alkaline medium, were characterized. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the photolysis catalyzed by the nanoparticles (NPs). Blood samples from phenylhydrazine-induced hyperbilirubinemic rabbits which had been administered ZnONPs and UV light were analyzed to assess clearance of bilirubin. The ZnONP-assisted UV treatment showed the linear and quadratic positive effects on the bilirubin photolysis with an optimal photolysis of bilirubin at 225 mg dl concentration of ZnONPs and a UV exposure of 1.80 h. The ZnONP-assisted phototherapy of hyperbilirubinemic animals was also found to be more effective for clearance of bilirubin than phototherapy alone. After further trials, ZnONP-assisted phototherapy could be a potential treatment for hyperbilirubinemia in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2021-0036DOI Listing
July 2021

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for analysis of PCR products of viral RNA of hepatitis C patients.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Oct 5;259:119908. Epub 2021 May 5.

PCR Laboratory, PINUM Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

In the current study, for a qualitative and quantitative study of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) products of viral RNA of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) methodology has been developed. SERS was used to identify the spectral features associated with the PCR products of viral RNA of Hepatitis C in various samples of HCV-infected patients with predetermined viral loads. The measurements for SERS were performed on 30 samples of PCR products, which included three PCR products of RNA of healthy individuals, six negative controls, and twenty-one HCV positive samples of varying viral loads (VLs) using Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as a SERS substrates. Additionally, on SERS spectral data, the multivariate data analysis methods including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) were also carried out which help to illustrate the diagnostic capabilities of this method. The PLSR model is designed to predict HCV viral loads based on biochemical changes observed as SERS spectral features which can be associated directly with HCV RNA. Several SERS characteristic features are observed in the RNA of HCV which are not detected in the spectra of healthy RNA/controls. PCA is found helpful to differentiate the SERS spectral data sets of HCV RNA samples from healthy and negative controls. The PLSR model is found to be 99% accurate in predicting VLs of HCV RNA samples of unknown samples based on SERS spectral changes associated with the Hepatitis C development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119908DOI Listing
October 2021

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of serum samples of typhoid patients of different stages.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jun 6;34:102329. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan.

Background: Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of body fluids is considered a quick, simple and easy to use method for the diagnosis of disease.

Objectives: To evaluate rapid, reliable, and non-destructive SERS-based diagnostic tool with multivariate data analysis including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for classification of different stages of typhoid on the basis of characteristic SERS spectral features.

Methods: SERS has been used for analysis of serum samples of different stages of typhoid including early acute stage and late acute stage in comparison with healthy samples, in order to investigate capability of this technique for diagnosis of typhoid. SERS spectral features associated with the biochemical changes taking place during the development of the typhoid fever were analyzed and identified.

Results: The value of area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) for early acute stage versus healthy is 0.87 and that for healthy versus late acute stage is 0.52. PLS-DA classifier model gives values of 100 % for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively for the SERS spectral data sets of healthy versus early acute stage. Moreover, this classifier model gives values of 91 %, 89 % and 97 % for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively for the SERS spectral data sets of healthy versus late acute stage.

Conclusions: Based on preliminary work it is concluded that SERS has potential to diagnose various stages of typhoid fever including early acute and late acute stage in comparison with healthy samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102329DOI Listing
June 2021

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for the identification of tigecycline-resistant E. coli strains.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Sep 24;258:119831. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.

Tigecycline (TGC) is recognised as last resort of drugs against several antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bacterial resistance to tigecycline due to presence of plasmid-mediated mobile TGC resistance genes (tet X3/X4) has broken another defense line. Therefore, rapid and reproducible detection of tigecycline-resistant E. coli (TREC) is required. The current study is designed for the identification and differentiation of TREC from tigecycline-sensitive E. coli (TSEC) by employing SERS by using Ag NPs as a SERS substrate. The SERS spectral fingerprints of E. coli strains associated directly or indirectly with the development of resistance against tigecycline have been distinguished by comparing SERS spectral data of TSEC strains with each TREC strain. Moreover, the statistical analysis including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) were employed to check the diagnostic potential of SERS for the differentiation among TREC and TSEC strains. The qualitative identification and differentiation between resistant and sensitive strains and among individual strains have been efficiently done by performing both PCA and HCA. The successful discrimination among TREC and TSEC at the strain level is performed by PLS-DA with 98% area under ROC curve, 100% sensitivity, 98.7% specificity and 100% accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119831DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of milk or milk replacer offered at varying levels on growth performance of Friesian veal calves.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Apr 28;53(2):290. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The objective was to determine the growth performance of Friesian calves given milk or milk replacer (MR) at varying levels. Forty-eight male Friesian calves were divided into four groups of 12 animals each. Calves were offered either milk or MR at either 10 or 15% of body weight (BW), with upper limits of 5 and 6 L/d, respectively until week 8. The calves were weaned at 10 weeks of age by gradually reducing the offered liquid to zero. In addition, from the second week, calves were offered calf starter ration (CS) until each calf reached 120 kg. The calves raised on milk had better growth rates (610 ± 25 vs. 487 ± 25 g/d; P < 0.05), displayed higher weaning weights (71 ± 1.5 vs. 55.9 ± 1.5 kg; P < 0.05) and reached the target weight of 120 kg earlier (20.9 ± 0.8 vs. 24.1 ± 0.8 weeks; P < 0.05) than those on MR. However, growth rate was not affected (535 ± 25 vs. 568 ± 25; P > 0.05) by liquid feeding level. Cost per kg live weight gain was not affected (325 ± 8 vs. 319 ± 8; P < 0.05) by feeding source or feeding levels (317 ± 8 vs. 328 ± 8). Thus, feeding milk at 10% of body weight saves time and labour required to achieve target weight in veal calves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02666-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Mortality in acute pancreatitis with persistent organ failure is determined by the number, type, and sequence of organ systems affected.

United European Gastroenterol J 2021 Mar;9(2):139-149

Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Persistent organ failure (POF) is the strongest determinant of mortality in acute pancreatitis (AP). There is a paucity of data regarding the impact of different POF attributes on mortality and the role of different characteristics of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the risk of developing POF.

Objective: We aimed to assess the association of POF dynamic features with mortality and SIRS characteristics with POF.

Methods: We studied 1544 AP subjects prospectively enrolled at 22 international centers (APPRENTICE consortium). First, we estimated the association of onset, duration, and maximal score of SIRS with POF. Then, we evaluated the risk of mortality based on POF onset, duration, number, type, and sequence of organs affected. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders.

Results: 58% had SIRS, 11% developed POF, and 2.5% died. Early SIRS, persistent SIRS, and maximal SIRS score ≥ 3 were independently associated with higher risk of POF (p < 0.05). Mortality risk in POF was higher with two (33%, odds ratio [OR] = 10.8, 3.3-34.9) and three (48%, OR = 20.2, 5.9-68.6) organs failing, in comparison to single POF (4%). In subjects with multiple POF, mortality was higher when the cardiovascular and respiratory systems failed first or concurrently as compared to when the renal system failed first or concurrently with other organ (p < 0.05). In multivariate regression model, the number and sequence of organs affected in POF were associated with mortality (p < 0.05). Onset and duration of POF had no impact mortality.

Conclusion: In AP patients with POF, the risk of mortality is influenced by the number, type, and sequence of organs affected. These results are useful for future revisions of AP severity classification systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ueg2.12057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259236PMC
March 2021

Rapid and sensitive discrimination among carbapenem resistant and susceptible E. coli strains using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy combined with chemometric tools.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jun 3;34:102280. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan.

Background: Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the robust, reliable and rapid detection and discrimination of bacteria.

Objectives: To develop a rapid and sensitive technique based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with multivariate data analysis tools for discrimination among carbapenem resistant and susceptible E. coli strains.

Methods: SERS was employed to differentiate different strains of carbapenem resistant and susceptible E. coli by using silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as a SERS substrate. For this purpose, four strains of carbapenem resistant and three strains of carbapenem susceptible E. coli were analyzed by comparing their SERS spectral signatures. Furthermore, multivariate data analysis techniques including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) were performed over the spectral range of 400-1800 cm (fingerprint region) for the identification and differentiation of different E. coli strains.

Results: The SERS spectral features associated with resistant development against carbapenem antibiotics were separated by comparing each spectrum of susceptible strains with each resistant strain. PCA and HCA were found effective for the qualitative differentiation of all the strains analysed. PLS-DA successfully discriminated the carbapenem resistant and susceptible E. coli pellets on the strain level with 99.8 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity, 100 % accuracy and 86 % area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve.

Conclusion: SERS can be employed for the rapid discrimination among carbapenem resistant and susceptible strains of E. coil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102280DOI Listing
June 2021

SERS-based viral load quantification of hepatitis B virus from PCR products.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jul 19;255:119722. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

PCR Laboratory, PINUM Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disorder caused by hepatitis B virus and if not treated at an early stage, it becomes chronic and results in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma which can even lead to death. In present study, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is employed for the analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of DNA extracted from hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients in comparison with healthy individuals. SERS spectral features are identified which are solely present in the HBV positive samples and consistently increase in intensities with increase in viral load which can be considered as a SERS spectral marker for HBV infection. For sake of understanding, these various levels of viral loads in this study are classified as low (1-1000 IU), medium (1000-10,000 IU), high (above 10,000 IU) and negative control (>1). In order to explore the efficiency of SERS for discrimination of SERS spectral datasets of different samples of varying viral loads and healthy individuals, principal component analysis (PCA) is applied. PCA is used for comparison of these classes including low, medium and high levels of viral loads with each other and with healthy class. Moreover, partial least square discriminant analysis and partial least square regression analysis are employed for the classification of different levels of viral loads in the HBV positive samples and prediction of viral loads in the unknown samples, respectively. PLS-DA is applied for validity of classification and its sensitivity and specificity was found to be 89% and 98% respectively. PLSR model was constructed for prediction of viral loads on the bases of SERS spectral markers of HBV infection with goodness value of 0.9031 and value of root means square error (RMSE) 0.2923. PLSR model also proved to be valid for prediction of blind sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119722DOI Listing
July 2021

Dynamic changes in the pancreatitis activity scoring system during hospital course in a multicenter, prospective cohort.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Background And Aim: The primary aim was to validate the Pancreatitis Activity Scoring System (PASS) in a multicenter prospectively ascertained acute pancreatitis (AP) cohort. Second, we investigated the association of early PASS trajectories with disease severity and length of hospital stay (LOS).

Methods: Data were prospectively collected through the APPRENTICE consortium (2015-2018). AP severity was categorized based on revised Atlanta classification. Delta PASS (ΔPASS) was calculated by subtracting activity score from baseline value. PASS trajectories were compared between severity subsets. Subsequently, the cohort was subdivided into three LOS subgroups as short (S-LOS): 2-3 days; intermediate (I-LOS): 3-7 days; and long (L-LOS): ≥7 days. The generalized estimating equations model was implemented to compare PASS trajectories.

Results: There were 434 subjects analyzed including 322 (74%) mild, 86 (20%) moderately severe, and 26 (6%) severe AP. Severe AP subjects had the highest activity levels and the slowest rate of decline in activity (P = 0.039). Focusing on mild AP, L-LOS subjects (34%) had 28 points per day slower decline; whereas, S-LOS group (13%) showed 34 points per day sharper decrease compared with I-LOS (53%; P < 0.001). We noticed an outlier subset with a median admission-PASS of 466 compared with 140 in the rest. Morphine equivalent dose constituted 80% of the total PASS in the outliers (median morphine equivalent dose score = 392), compared with only 25% in normal-range subjects (score = 33, P value < 0.001).

Conclusions: This study highlighted that PASS can quantify AP activity. Significant differences in PASS trajectories were found both in revised Atlanta classification severity and LOS groups, which can be harnessed in AP monitoring/management (ClincialTrials.gov number, NCT03075618).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15430DOI Listing
February 2021

Cadmium, chromium, nickel and nitrate accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using wastewater irrigation and health risks assessment.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 27;208:111685. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Botany, University of Agriculture Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.

The wastewater utilization for irrigation purposes is common practice in peri-urban areas located in vicinity of developed cities. This water contains elements like chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and nitrate (NO-N) that poses health risk when exposed to human. In this study effect of wastewater irrigation from Chakara wastewater plant, Faisalabad on growth of wheat and health risks was assessed. Pot experiment was conducted at Institute of Soil and Environmental, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad using different concentration of wastewater as treatment 100% tap water, 25% wastewater + 75% tap water, 50% wastewater + 50% tap water, 75% wastewater + 25% tap water, 100% wastewater. The results indicated that the wastewater irrigation negatively effects the plant growth and physiological parameters. The minimum plant height, grain weight, spike length, osmotic potential and SPAD values were recorded 50.33 cm, 1.47 g plant, 7.00 cm, 423 and 38.91 respectively in 100% wastewater irrigation. The risk quotient (RQ ) for each toxic element and cumulative risk index (RI ) values were calculated. The cadmium risk quotient (Cd ) for adults was on margin and value was >1 for in 75% wastewater + 25% tap water and 100% wastewater irrigation, while the RQ for Ni and Cr was <1. Maximum RI values calculated in 100% wastewater irrigation 0.424 and 0.294 for children and adults respectively. Hence it was concluded that wastewater irrigation significantly increased the accumulation rate of metals and nitrate in wheat and cause potential health risks for children and adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111685DOI Listing
January 2021

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of RNA samples extracted from blood of hepatitis C patients for quantification of viral loads.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Mar 30;33:102152. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

PCR Laboratory, PINUM Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background: Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique to analyze the body fluids for the purpose of non-invasive disease diagnosis.

Objectives: To develop a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of HCV from blood samples.

Methods: SERS was employed to characterize the Hepatitis C viral RNA extracted from different blood samples of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients with predetermined viral loads in comparison with total RNA of healthy individuals. The SERS measurements were performed on 27 extracted RNA samples including low viral loads, medium viral loads, high viral loads and healthy/negative viral load samples. For this purpose, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were used as SERS substrates. Furthermore, multivariate data analysis technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) were also performed on SERS spectral data.

Results: The SERS spectral features due to biochemical changes in the extracted RNA samples associated with the increasing viral loads were established which could be employed for HCV diagnostic purpose. PCA was found helpful for the differentiation between Raman spectral data of RNA extracted from hepatitis infected and healthy blood samples. PLSR model is established for the determination of viral loads in HCV positive RNA samples with 99 % accuracy.

Conclusion: SERS can be employed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of HCV from blood samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102152DOI Listing
March 2021

Introduction and Validation of a Novel Acute Pancreatitis Digital Tool: Interrogating Large Pooled Data From 2 Prospectively Ascertained Cohorts.

Pancreas 2020 Nov/Dec;49(10):1276-1282

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH.

Objectives: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a sudden onset, rapidly evolving inflammatory response with systemic inflammation and multiorgan failure (MOF) in a subset of patients. New highly accurate clinical decision support tools are needed to allow local doctors to provide expert care.

Methods: Ariel Dynamic Acute Pancreatitis Tracker (ADAPT) is a digital tool to guide physicians in ordering standard tests, evaluate test results and model progression using available data, propose emergent therapies. The accuracy of the severity score calculators was tested using 2 prospectively ascertained Acute Pancreatitis Patient Registry to Examine Novel Therapies in Clinical Experience cohorts (pilot University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, n = 163; international, n = 1544).

Results: The ADAPT and post hoc expert-calculated AP severity scores were 100% concordant in both pilot and international cohorts. High-risk criteria of all 4 severity scores at admission were associated with moderately-severe or severe AP and MOF (both P < 0.0001) and prediction of no MOF was 97.8% to 98.9%. The positive predictive value for MOF was 7.5% to 14.9%.

Conclusions: The ADAPT tool showed 100% accuracy with AP predictive metrics. Prospective evaluation of ADAPT features is needed to determine if additional data can accurately predict and mitigate severe AP and MOF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0000000000001686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128442PMC
October 2020

Chronological effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 May 3;40(5):1767-1778. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Faisalabad Medical University, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.

Introduction/objectives: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in reducing pain and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis and other joint- and muscle-associated diseases. However, the extensive, long-term, and over the counter administration of NSAIDs may cause various side effects in the patients. In the present study, the chronological effect of NSAIDs on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was studied.

Methods: The study included 100 female individuals categorized in four major groups: (1) control group consisting of age- and gender-matched healthy individuals, (2) NRA-NSAID individuals taking NSAIDs without any history of RA, (3) RA individuals with a history of RA but not taking NSAIDs, and (4) RA-NSAID individuals with chronic RA and taking NSAIDs for a long period. The sera of the participants were analyzed for the oxidative stress and antioxidant status.

Results: The RA-NSAID group showed the significantly highest oxidative stress, in terms of malondialdehyde content and lipid-reducing ability as determined in thiocyanate and hemoglobin-induced linoleic acid systems. However, the free radical scavenging ability of the RA-NSAID group, against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide, and 2,2-azino-bis-tetrazolium sulfate radicals, was found to be lower than those of the other study groups. The regression analysis of the experimental data showed a significant positive relationship between duration of NSAID intake and malondialdehyde production, lipid-reducing ability, and metal chelating ability in the RA-NSAID patients. The free radical scavenging abilities of the RA-NSAID group were negatively correlated with the duration of NSAID intake.

Conclusions: The prolonged use of NSAIDs significantly increased the oxidative stress and decrease the antioxidant potential of both the RA patients and NRA individuals. The study provides awareness to the public particularly the RA patients regarding the risk of oxidative stress-associated abnormalities caused by the frequent and prolonged use of NSAIDs for temporary relief from pain. Key Points • The study presents the effects of long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on antioxidant status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. • The continuous administration of NSAIDs has been found to significantly increase the oxidative stress of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as the individuals with no signs of rheumatoid arthritis. • The prolonged NSAID therapy also decreased the antioxidant potential of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as the individuals with no signs of rheumatoid arthritis. • The study would be a significant and valuable contribution to the literature for the awareness regarding the use of NSAIDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-020-05438-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Raman spectroscopy for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid dosage forms of Sitagliptin.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jan 2;245:118900. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

EA 6295 Nano-médicaments and Nano-sondes, Université de Tours, Tours, France.

To demonstrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid dosage pharmacological formulations, different concentrations of Sitagliptin, an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) currently prescribed as an anti-diabetic drug, are characterised. Increase of the API concentrations induces changes in the Raman spectral features specifically associated with the drug and excipients. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), were used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the spectral responses. A PLSR model is constructed which enables the prediction of different concentrations of drug in the complex excipient matrices. During the development of the prediction model, the Root Mean Square Error of Cross Validation (RMSECV) was found to be 0.36 mg and the variability explained by the model, according to the (R) value, was found to be 0.99. Moreover, the concentration of the API in the unknown sample was determined. This concentration was predicted to be 64.28/180 mg (w/w), compared to the 65/180 mg (w/w). These findings demonstrate Raman spectroscopy coupled to PLSR analysis to be a reliable tool to verify Sitagliptin contents in the pharmaceutical samples based on calibration models prepared under laboratory conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118900DOI Listing
January 2021

Incidence and risk factors of oral feeding intolerance in acute pancreatitis: Results from an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study.

United European Gastroenterol J 2021 Feb 12;9(1):54-62. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Inability to advance to an oral diet, or oral feeding intolerance, is a common complication in patients with acute pancreatitis associated with worse clinical outcomes. The factors related to oral feeding intolerance are not well studied.

Objective: We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors of oral feeding intolerance in acute pancreatitis.

Methods: Patients were prospectively enrolled in the Acute Pancreatitis Patient Registry to Examine Novel Therapies in Clinical Experience, an international acute pancreatitis registry, between 2015 and 2018. Oral feeding intolerance was defined as worsening abdominal pain and/or vomiting after resumption of oral diet. The timing of the initial feeding attempt was stratified based on the day of hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess for independent risk factors/predictors of oral feeding intolerance.

Results: Of 1233 acute pancreatitis patients included in the study, 160 (13%) experienced oral feeding intolerance. The incidence of oral feeding intolerance was similar irrespective of the timing of the initial feeding attempt relative to hospital admission day (p = 0.41). Patients with oral feeding intolerance were more likely to be younger (45 vs. 50 years of age), men (61% vs. 49%), and active alcohol users (44% vs. 36%). They also had higher blood urea nitrogen (20 vs. 15 mg/dl; p < 0.001) and hematocrit levels (41.7% vs. 40.5%; p = 0.017) on admission; were more likely to have a nonbiliary acute pancreatitis etiology (69% vs. 51%), systemic inflammatory response syndrome of 2 or greater on admission (49% vs. 35%) and at 48 h (50% vs. 26%), develop pancreatic necrosis (29% vs. 13%), moderate to severe acute pancreatitis (41% vs. 24%), and have a longer hospital stay (10 vs. 6 days; all p < 0.04). The adjusted analysis showed that systemic inflammatory response syndrome of 2 or greater at 48 h (odds ratio 3.10; 95% confidence interval 1.83-5.25) and a nonbiliary acute pancreatitis etiology (odds ratio 1.65; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.69) were independent risk factors for oral feeding intolerance.

Conclusion: Oral feeding intolerance occurs in 13% of acute pancreatitis patients and is independently associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome at 48 h and a nonbiliary etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050640620957243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259260PMC
February 2021

Synthesis and H conductivity of a new oxyhydride BaYHO with anion-ordered rock-salt layers.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Sep 7;56(71):10373-10376. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Materials Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585, Japan. and SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585, Japan.

A new layered perovskite oxyhydride BaYHO was synthesized via high pressure synthesis. Powder X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments revealed that in BaYHO the ordered H and O anions form [BaH] rock-salt layers wherein H conduction is allowed. The conductivity reached 0.1 mS cm at 350 °C, which is higher than that of isostructural BaScHO with anion-disordered [BaHO] layers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc03638bDOI Listing
September 2020

Cost-effectiveness and diagnostic accuracy of telemedicine in macular disease and diabetic retinopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(25):e20306

Internal Medicine, Griffin Hospital, CT, USA.

Objective: To determine cost-effectiveness and the diagnostic accuracy of teleophthalmology (TO) in the detection of macular edema (ME) and various grades of diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for TO, ME, and DR on May 25, 2016. The search was updated on April 2, 2019. Pooled sensitivity and specificity for ME and various grades of DR were determined using Meta-Disc software. A systematic review of the articles discussing the cost-effectiveness of TO screening was also performed.

Results: Thirty-three articles on the diagnostic accuracy and 28 articles on the cost-effectiveness were selected.

Conclusions: Telescreening is moderately sensitive but very specific for the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Non-mydriatic Teleretinal screening services are cost-effective, decrease clinics workload, and increase patient compliance if provided free of cost in remote low socioeconomic regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310976PMC
June 2020

Quantitative analysis of solid dosage forms of cefixime using Raman spectroscopy.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2020 Sep 6;238:118446. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Quantification of antibiotics is of significant importance because of their use in the prevention and treatment of different diseases. Cefixime (CEF) is a cephalosporin antibiotic that is used against bacterial infections. In the present study, Raman spectroscopy has been applied for the identification and quantification of Raman spectral features of cefixime with different concentrations of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and excipients in solid dosage forms. The changes in Raman spectral features of API and excipients in the solid dosage forms of cefixime were studied and Raman peaks were assigned based on the literature. Multivariate data analysis techniques including the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression analysis (PLSR) have been performed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid dosage forms of cefixime. PCA was found helpful in differentiating all the Raman spectral data associated with the different solid dosage forms of cefixime. The coefficient of determination (R), mean absolute error (MAE), and mean relative error (MRE) for the calibration data-set were 0.99, 0.72, and 0.01 respectively and for the validation data-set were 0.99, 3.15, and 0.02 respectively, that shows the performance of the model. The root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were found to be 0.56 mg and 3.13 mg respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118446DOI Listing
September 2020

Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of different exo-polysaccharides produced by bacteria.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2020 Aug 26;237:118408. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Industrial Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Constituent College of Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, PO Box 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

In this study, Raman spectroscopy is employed for the characterization and comparison of two different classes of exo-polysaccharides including glucans and fructans which are produced by different bacteria. For this purpose, nine samples are used including five samples of glucans and four of fructans. Raman spectral results of all these polysaccharides show clear differences among various glucans as well as fructans showing the potential of this technique to identify the differences within the same class of the compounds. Moreover, these two classes are also compared on the basis of their Raman spectral data and can be differentiated on the basis of their unique Raman features. Multivariate data analysis techniques, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) is found very helpful for the comparison of the Raman spectral data of these classes of the carbohydrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118408DOI Listing
August 2020

Clinical features of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in an international, multicenter, prospective cohort (APPRENTICE consortium).

Pancreatology 2020 Apr 19;20(3):325-330. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Pancreato-Biliary Endoscopy and Endosonography Division, Pancreas Translational & Clinical Research Center, San Raffaele Scientific Institute IRCCS, Milan, Italy; Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, Sant Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Background: The clinical features and outcomes of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HTG-AP) are not well-established.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of HTG-AP in an international, multicenter prospective cohort.

Methods: Data collection was conducted prospectively through APPRENTICE between 2015 and 2018. HTG-AP was defined as serum TG levels >500 mg/dl in the absence of other common etiologies of AP. Three multivariate logistic regression models were performed to assess whether HTG-AP is associated with SIRS positive status, ICU admission and/or moderately-severe/severe AP.

Results: 1,478 patients were included in the study; 69 subjects (4.7%) were diagnosed with HTG-AP. HTG-AP patients were more likely to be younger (mean 40 vs 50 years; p < 0.001), male (67% vs 52%; p = 0.018), and with a higher BMI (mean 30.4 vs 27.5 kg/m; p = 0.0002). HTG-AP subjects reported more frequent active alcohol use (71% vs 49%; p < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (59% vs 15%; p < 0.001). None of the above risk factors/variables was found to be independently associated with SIRS positive status, ICU admission, or severity in the multivariate logistic regression models. These results were similar when including only the 785 subjects with TG levels measured within 48 h from admission.

Conclusion: HTG-AP was found to be the 4th most common etiology of AP. HTG-AP patients had distinct baseline characteristics, but their clinical outcomes were similar compared to other etiologies of AP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.02.010DOI Listing
April 2020

Raman spectral characterization of silver metal-based complexes of different benzimidazolium ligands.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2020 May 19;232:118162. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan.

In this study, Raman spectroscopy has been employed for the characterization of two structurally different monodentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (ligand-1 and ligand-2) and their respective complexes (complex-1 and complex-2). The Raman spectral features are found helpful for the confirmation of formation of complexes. The significant Raman spectral features are identified for benzimidazole ring with higher intensities in carbene complexes having more polarizability as compared to their ligands, providing the evidence for the formation of coordinate covalent bond. The successful complexation is further supported by using multivariate data analysis technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which is found very helpful to highlight the variability of Raman spectral data of both ligands and their respective metal complexes from each other. Moreover, the coordination of carbene with Ag(I) is confirmed from the dominant spectral markers of higher intensities at 359 cm in complex-1 and 338 cm in complex-2. The effective and reliable characterization and confirmation of metal complexes indicates the potential of Raman spectroscopy for its use for the characterization of the organometallic complexes and other chemical products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118162DOI Listing
May 2020

Raman spectral characterization of silver metal-based complexes of different benzimidazolium ligands.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2020 May 19;232:118162. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan.

In this study, Raman spectroscopy has been employed for the characterization of two structurally different monodentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (ligand-1 and ligand-2) and their respective complexes (complex-1 and complex-2). The Raman spectral features are found helpful for the confirmation of formation of complexes. The significant Raman spectral features are identified for benzimidazole ring with higher intensities in carbene complexes having more polarizability as compared to their ligands, providing the evidence for the formation of coordinate covalent bond. The successful complexation is further supported by using multivariate data analysis technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which is found very helpful to highlight the variability of Raman spectral data of both ligands and their respective metal complexes from each other. Moreover, the coordination of carbene with Ag(I) is confirmed from the dominant spectral markers of higher intensities at 359 cm in complex-1 and 338 cm in complex-2. The effective and reliable characterization and confirmation of metal complexes indicates the potential of Raman spectroscopy for its use for the characterization of the organometallic complexes and other chemical products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118162DOI Listing
May 2020

Benzodiazepine Use Among Resident Doctors In Tertiary Care Hospital.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2019 Oct-Dec;31(4):553-557

Department of Pharmacology, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

Background: Benzodiazepines (BZD) are some of the most common medications in the world. Benzodiazepines useful in treating anxiety, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal. Benzodiazepines are generally considered safe and well tolerated but are commonly misused and taken in combination with other drugs of abuse. The usage and prescription of BDZ in most developed countries are tightly regulated. This is however, not true in developing countries where these medicines are available over-the-counter (OTC). This study was carried out to assess the benzodiazepine use in Ayub Teaching Hospital Trainee doctors.

Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out in Ayub Teaching Hospital between January and December 2018. Sample size was calculated to be 276 using WHO sample size calculator. These 276 residents and house officers were selected using stratified random sampling to ensure the representation from every year of residency.

Results: Hundred and nine (48.7%) participants responded positively to the use of BZD. Male doctors were more likely 57 (52.3%) to use BZD as compared to their female colleges. Most of the doctors 71 (65.1%) purchased BZD over the counter without prescription. Alprazolam was the most preferred benzodiazepine by doctors regardless of their specialty and year of residency except in specialty of Anaesthesia in which prevalence of Midazolam was the highest. This preference of Alprazolam by doctors of all specialty was statistically significant (p=0.007).

Conclusions: Because of the knowledge about medicines and tendency to self-treat, doctors are prone to BZD abuse. Doctors working in psychiatry are more likely to use BZD with Alprazolam the BZD of choice.
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April 2020

Raman spectroscopy along with Principal Component Analysis for the confirmation of Silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complex formation.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2020 Mar 23;228:117851. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan. Electronic address:

In this study Raman spectroscopy is employed for the characterization of two different ligands called as S1 and S2 and their respective co-ordinate complexes called C1 and C2. Specific Raman spectral signatures are observed for each of these Silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes Ag(I)-(NHCs), which can be associated with the imidazolium ring, part of both of the ligands, indicating the formation of new coordinate covalent bond. For the detailed analysis, Raman spectral data of these ligands and complexes is analyzed by multivariate data analysis technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) which is found very helpful to differentiate two ligands and complexes from each other. The significant Raman peaks with higher intensities in the complexes as compared to the respective ligands are associated with imidazole ring which can be attributed to the enhanced polarizability of this ring on complex formation. Moreover, the spectral features associated with (AgC) bond are observed with higher intensity at 360 in (C1) and 383 in (C2). This study indicates the potential of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization and confirmation of formation of organometallic complexes and other chemical products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2019.117851DOI Listing
March 2020

Cellulose-based fluorescent sensor for visual and versatile detection of amines and anions.

J Hazard Mater 2020 04 19;387:121719. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

CAS Key Laboratory of Engineering Plastics, CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, 100190, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

It is practical and challenging to construct ultrasensitive and multi-responsive sensors for visual and real-time monitoring of the environment. Herein, a cellulose-based multi-responsive fluorescent sensor (Phen-MDI-CA) is fabricated, and realizes a visual and ultrasensitive detection of not only various amines but also three anions based on the change of the fluorescence and/or visible colors. Once exposure to various amines in both the solution and vapor state, the Phen-MDI-CA solution and test paper exhibit different fluorescence colors, which can be used to distinguish triethylamine, ethylenediamine, methylamine, aniline, hydrazine and pyrrolidine from other amines. Moreover, via combining the Phen-MDI-CA with the Phen-MDI-CA/malachite green ratiometric system, phosphate (PO), carbonate (CO) and borate (BO) can be visually and accurately recognized depending on the change of the visible and fluorescence colors. In fluorescent mode, the LOD for BO, PO and CO ions is as low as 0.18 nmol, 0.69 nmol and 0.86 nmol, respectively. Significantly, the Phen-MDI-CA can readily make a qualitative and quantitative detection of BO, PO and CO anions in the mixture of anions. The state-of-the-art responsive behavior of Phen-MDI-CA originates from the amplification effect of cellulose polymer chain and the differentiated interactions between the sensor and analytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121719DOI Listing
April 2020
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