Publications by authors named "Hao Xu"

1,607 Publications

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A novel visible light-driven TiO photocatalytic reduction for hexavalent chromium wastewater and mechanism.

Water Sci Technol 2021 May;83(9):2135-2145

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266033, China E-mail:

Titanium dioxide (TiO) photocatalyst was prepared with a sol-gel method and its characterizations were analyzed TiO photocatalytic reduction of Cr was investigated in visible light irradiation and reduction mechanisms were calculated. Prepared TiO is anatase with a bandgap of about 2.95 eV. Experimental results display that almost 100% of Cr is removed by visible light-driven TiO photocatalytic reduction after 120 min when CrO initial concentration is 1.0 mg·L, TiO dosage is 1.0 g·L, and pH value is 3. In acidic aqueous solution, HCrO is the dominant existing form of Cr and is adsorbed by TiO, forming a complex catalyst HCrO/TiO with an increase in wavelength to the visible light zone, demonstrated by UV-Vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, it can be deduced that Cr is adsorbed on the surface of TiO and then reduced to Cr in situ by photoelectrons. Self-assembly of HCrO/TiO complex catalyst and self-reduction of Cr in situ are the key steps to start the visible light-driven TiO photocatalytic reduction. Furthermore, TiO photocatalytic reduction of Cr fits well with pseudo-first-order kinetics and has the potential application to treat chemical industrial wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.116DOI Listing
May 2021

Optical metasurface composed of multiple antennas with anti-Hermitian coupling in a single layer.

Opt Lett 2021 May;46(10):2252-2255

Metasurfaces consisting of different shapes of resonant units are used to manipulate light beams at subwavelength scales. In many cases, interactions among the resonant units are suppressed or avoided because of mode splitting in metasurfaces. Here we theoretically and numerically investigate metasurfaces composed of multiple antennas with anti-Hermitian coupling in a single layer. By utilizing the anti-Hermitian coupling, the results show that antennas with similar resonance frequencies at a subwavelength distance can individually absorb their corresponding frequency photons. The antennas whose reflection phase can be tailored by changing the number of antennas have the same resonance frequencies. This Letter paves the way for various potential applications in broadband absorption, photon sorting, image sensors, and phase modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.421555DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of adenosine triphosphate on spinal cord injury and its potential molecular mechanism.

Panminerva Med 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Orthopaedics, The 900th hospital, Joint Logistics Support Force, Fuzhou, China -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04378-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Determination of the triple oxygen isotopic composition of tropospheric ozone in terminal positions using a multistep nitrite-coated filter-pack system.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 May 13:e9124. Epub 2021 May 13.

National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506, Japan.

Rationale: The triple oxygen isotopic composition (Δ O) of tropospheric ozone (O ) is a useful tracer for identifying the source and is essential for clarifying the atmospheric chemistry of oxidants. However, the single nitrite-coated filter method is inaccurate owing to nitrate blank produced through the reaction of nitrite and oxygen compounds other than O .

Methods: A multistep nitrite-coated filter-pack system is newly adopted to transfer the O-atoms in terminal positions of O to nitrite on each filter to determine Δ O of O in terminal positions (denoted as Δ O(O ) ). The NO produced by this reaction is chemically converted to N O, and continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) is used to determine the oxygen isotopic compositions.

Results: The reciprocal of the NO quantities on the nitrite-coated filters in each sample showed a strong linear relationship with Δ O of NO . Using the linear relation, we corrected the changes in Δ O of NO on the filters. We verified the accuracy of the new method through the measurement of artificial O with known Δ O(O ) that had been determined from the changes in Δ O of O . The Δ O(O ) of tropospheric O was in agreement with previous studies.

Conclusions: We accurately determined the δ O and Δ O of tropospheric O by blank correction using our new method. Measurements of Δ O(O ) of the ambient troposphere showed 1.1 ± 0.7‰ diurnal variations between daytime (higher) and nighttime (lower) owing likely to the formation of the temperature inversion layer at night.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.9124DOI Listing
May 2021

A link between chemical structure and biological activity in triterpenoids.

Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Wannan Medical College, Pharmacy college, China.

Background: Plants with triterpenoid compounds in nature have various biological activities and are reported in many scientific works of literature. Triterpenoids are compounds that draw the attention of scientists because of their wide source, wide variety, high medicinal value, and anti-tumor properties. However, a lack of approach to understand their chemical structures has limited the fundamental comprehension of these compounds in cancer cell therapy.

Objective: To seek anti-cancer activity of the structures of triterpenoid compounds and their derivatives, we summarized a number of plants and their derivatives that are a source of potential novel therapeutic anti-cancer agents.

Methods: This work focuses on relevant 1036 patents and references that detail the structure of organic compounds and derivatives for the treatment of tumors.

Result: Compared to tetracyclic triterpenoid, pentacyclic triterpenoid has contributed more to improve the autophagic signaling pathways of cancer cells.

Conclusion: The heterogenous skeleton structure of triterpenoids impaired the programmed cell death signaling pathway in various cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574892816666210512031635DOI Listing
May 2021

Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Death in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 26;8:643358. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Cardiovascular Diseases Center, National Clinical Research Center for Chinese Medicine Cardiology, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Renal dysfunction is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF), but its impact on patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains unclear. 3,392 subjects of the TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist) trial were assigned to two groups by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m or 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m. The outcomes, including all-cause death, cardiovascular death and HF hospitalization, were examined by multivariable cox models. Over a median follow-up of 3.4 ± 1.7 years, a total of 524 all-cause deaths, 334 cardiovascular deaths and 440 HF hospitalizations occurred. Compared with patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m, those with eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m were associated with an increased risk of the all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-1.76; < 0.001], cardiovascular death (adjusted HR, 1.53; 95% CI: 1.23-1.91; < 0.001), and HF hospitalization (adjusted HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.00-1.47; = 0.049) after multivariable adjustment for potential confounders. eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m was related to an increased risk of all-cause death, cardiovascular death and HF hospitalization in HFpEF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.643358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107393PMC
April 2021

EMDS-5: Environmental Microorganism image dataset Fifth Version for multiple image analysis tasks.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0250631. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Control Engineering, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu, China.

Environmental Microorganism Data Set Fifth Version (EMDS-5) is a microscopic image dataset including original Environmental Microorganism (EM) images and two sets of Ground Truth (GT) images. The GT image sets include a single-object GT image set and a multi-object GT image set. EMDS-5 has 21 types of EMs, each of which contains 20 original EM images, 20 single-object GT images and 20 multi-object GT images. EMDS-5 can realize to evaluate image preprocessing, image segmentation, feature extraction, image classification and image retrieval functions. In order to prove the effectiveness of EMDS-5, for each function, we select the most representative algorithms and price indicators for testing and evaluation. The image preprocessing functions contain two parts: image denoising and image edge detection. Image denoising uses nine kinds of filters to denoise 13 kinds of noises, respectively. In the aspect of edge detection, six edge detection operators are used to detect the edges of the images, and two evaluation indicators, peak-signal to noise ratio and mean structural similarity, are used for evaluation. Image segmentation includes single-object image segmentation and multi-object image segmentation. Six methods are used for single-object image segmentation, while k-means and U-net are used for multi-object segmentation. We extract nine features from the images in EMDS-5 and use the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier for testing. In terms of image classification, we select the VGG16 feature to test SVM, k-Nearest Neighbors, Random Forests. We test two types of retrieval approaches: texture feature retrieval and deep learning feature retrieval. We select the last layer of features of VGG16 network and ResNet50 network as feature vectors. We use mean average precision as the evaluation index for retrieval. EMDS-5 is available at the URL:https://github.com/NEUZihan/EMDS-5.git.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250631PLOS
May 2021

Asymmetric copper-catalyzed propargylic amination with amine hydrochloride salts.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(38):4674-4677

CCNU-uOttawa Joint Research Centre, Key Laboratory of Pesticides & Chemical Biology Ministry of Education, Interna-tional Joint Research Center for Intelligent Biosensing Technology and Health, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, 152 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430079, China.

The highly enantioselective copper-catalyzed propargylic amination of propargylic esters with amine hydrochloride salts has been realized for the first time using copper salts with chiral N,N,P-ligands. This method features a broad substrate scope and wide functional group tolerance, generating propargylic amines in good to excellent yields with high enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). The utility of the approach was demonstrated by late-stage functionalization of marketed pharmaceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc00663kDOI Listing
May 2021

Designing SAPO-18 with energetically favorable tetrahedral Si ions for an MTO reaction.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China.

The silicon site location in silicoaluminophosphate zeolites has significant influences on their acidic and catalytic properties. Herein, AEI analogue silicoaluminophosphates with controlled tetrahedral silicon centers (T sites) were synthesized using specially designed amines as expected organic structure-directing agents (OSDAs). DFT calculations show that the OSDAs with different electronegativity can direct Si atoms into the T sites with more favorable energy advantages. Their catalytic performances in a methanol-to-olefin (MTO) reaction also reflected that OSDAs controlled the Si location in the framework, and the T3 sites had better performance than T1 sites. This finding provides evidence that OSDAs are capable of guiding the Si ions into more favorable T sites, achieving desirable catalytic properties as solid acid catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01140eDOI Listing
May 2021

A partial loss-of-function variant in gene in a Chinese cohort with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Apr;10(4):1676-1687

Institute of Urology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a rare genetic disease attributed to the disorder of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Mutations in the gene are one of the most common genetic causes of IHH. Herein, we aimed to investigate variants in a Chinese cohort with IHH, and to characterize them at the molecular level.

Methods: A total of 153 IHH patients were recruited, and variants were detected using a tailored next-generation sequencing panel. rare sequencing variant (RSV) was verified using Sanger sequencing. Phenotypic features and therapeutic outcomes of patients were followed up. In order to examine the pathogenicity of the RSV, we performed conservative analysis, crystal structure prediction, expression analysis as well as the assessment of ERK1/2 activation and IP3/Ca response.

Results: The same heterozygous RSV (p.R240Q) in was identified in four sporadic IHH patients. These patients exhibited different severity of testicular development and hormone profile. hCG treatment was effective in improving gonadal development, serum testosterone, and semen quality. The RSV has no effect on the expression of mRNA and protein, whereas damaged ERK1/2 activation and inositol triphosphate/calcium signaling.

Conclusions: The study expands mutation spectrum in IHH patients, and reveals that the RSV is a partial loss-of-function mutation. Although this heterozygous RSV may not have a significant influence on the pathogenesis of IHH, but its homozygous/ compound status should be paid attention in this research field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100836PMC
April 2021

PINK1 contained in huMSC-derived exosomes prevents cardiomyocyte mitochondrial calcium overload in sepsis via recovery of mitochondrial Ca efflux.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 May 6;12(1):269. Epub 2021 May 6.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to a local severe infection that may lead to multiple organ failure and death. Previous studies have shown that 40-50% of patients with sepsis have diverse myocardial injuries and 70 to 90% mortality rates compared to 20% mortality in patients with sepsis without myocardial injury. Therefore, uncovering the mechanism of sepsis-induced myocardial injury and finding a target-based treatment are immensely important.

Objective: The present study elucidated the mechanism of sepsis-induced myocardial injury and examined the value of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (huMSCs) for protecting cardiac function in sepsis.

Methods: We used cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis in mice and detect myocardial injury and cardiac function using serological markers and echocardiography. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis and heart tissue ultrastructure were detected using TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Fura-2 AM was used to monitor Ca uptake and efflux in mitochondria. FQ-PCR and Western blotting detected expression of mitochondrial Ca distribution regulators and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). JC-1 was used to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) of cardiomyocytes.

Results: We found that expression of PINK1 decreased in mouse hearts during sepsis, which caused cardiomyocyte mitochondrial Ca efflux disorder, mitochondrial calcium overload, and cardiomyocyte injury. In contrast, we found that exosomes isolated from huMSCs (huMSC-exo) carried Pink1 mRNA, which could be transferred to recipient cardiomyocytes to increase PINK1 expression. The reduction in cardiomyocyte mitochondrial calcium efflux was reversed, and cardiomyocytes recovered from injury. We confirmed the effect of the PINK1-PKA-NCLX axis on mitochondrial calcium homeostasis in cardiomyocytes during sepsis.

Conclusion: The PINK1-PKA-NCLX axis plays an important role in mitochondrial calcium efflux in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, PINK1 may be a therapeutic target to protect cardiomyocyte mitochondria, and the application of huMSC-exo is a promising strategy against sepsis-induced heart dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02325-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101124PMC
May 2021

Highly Diastereoselective Hydrosilane-assisted Rhodium-Catalyzed Spiro-type Cycloisomerization of Succinimide and Pyrazolone -based Functional 1,6-Dienes.

Chem Asian J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Hangzhou Normal University, YJG, CHINA.

Organosilicon compounds are important reagents and synthetic intermediates that play a key role in the construction of new materials and complex products. Here we show a highly diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,6-dienes, in which the use of (EtO) 3 SiH accelerates the intramolecular cyclization reaction to afford a novel spiro-fused succinimide and pyrazolone derivatives in moderate to excellent yields as a single diastereoisomer. The proposed mechanism involves an active Rh-H species from the hydrosilane that is the H-donor in this spiro-type cycloisomerization reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100372DOI Listing
May 2021

Thirty-five new species of the spider genus (Araneae, Pimoidae) from Pan-Himalaya.

Zookeys 2021 8;1029:1-92. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China.

Thirty-five new species of the Chamberlin & Ivie, 1943 are described from Pan-Himalaya: Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, s (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀). The DNA barcodes of the thirty-five new species are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1029.64080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050015PMC
April 2021

Unusual characteristics of the carbon cycle during the 2015-2016 El Niño.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Biology and Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.

The 2015-2016 El Niño was one of the strongest on record, but its influence on the carbon balance is less clear. Using Northern Hemisphere atmospheric CO observations, we found both detrended atmospheric CO growth rate (CGR) and CO seasonal-cycle amplitude (SCA) of 2015-2016 were much higher than that of other El Niño events. The simultaneous high CGR and SCA were unusual, because our analysis of long-term CO observations at Mauna Loa revealed a significantly negative correlation between CGR and SCA. Atmospheric inversions and terrestrial ecosystem models indicate strong northern land carbon uptake during spring but substantially reduced carbon uptake (or high emissions) during early autumn, which amplified SCA but also resulted in a small anomaly in annual carbon uptake of northern ecosystems in 2015-2016. This negative ecosystem carbon uptake anomaly in early autumn was primarily due to soil water deficits and more litter decomposition caused by enhanced spring productivity. Our study demonstrates a decoupling between seasonality and annual carbon cycle balance in northern ecosystems over 2015-2016, which is unprecedented in the past five decades of El Niño events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15669DOI Listing
May 2021

Cross Inhibition of MPK10 and WRKY10 Participating in the Growth of Endosperm in .

Front Plant Sci 2021 9;12:640346. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, China.

The product of double fertilization produces seed, which contains three components: triploid endosperm, diploid embryo, and maternal seed coat. Amongst them, the endosperm plays a crucial role in coordinating seed growth. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are conserved in eukaryotes and involved in signal transduction of plant development. MPK3, MPK6, and MPK10 form a small group of MPKs family in . MPK3 and MPK6 are extensively studied and were found to be involved in diverse processes including plant reproduction. However, less is known about the function of MPK10. Here, we found , a member of HAIKU (IKU) pathway engaging in endosperm development, and is high-specifically expressed in the early developmental endosperm but with opposite gradients. We further proved that MPK10 and WRKY10 cross-inhibit the expression of each other. The inhibition effect of MPK10 on gene expression of and the downstream targets is supported by the fact that MPK10 interacts with WRKY10 and suppresses the transcriptional activity of WRKY10. Constantly, mutants produce big seeds while positively regulate seed growth. Altogether, our data provides a model of WRKY10 and MPK10 regulating endosperm development with a unique cross inhibitory mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.640346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062763PMC
April 2021

Research on knowledge dissemination in smart cities environment based on intelligent analysis algorithms: a case study on online platform.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 03;18(3):2632-2653

Ping An International Smart City Technology Co., Ltd, Shenzhen 518002, China.

In developing smart cities, the implementation of social connections, collaboration, innovation, exchange of views by observing, exploiting and integrating various types of knowledge is required. The smart cities concept that employs knowledge sharing mechanism can be defined as the concept of a city that utilizes information technology to increase citizens' awareness, intelligence as well as community's participation. The knowledge dissemination via online sharing platforms has been becoming more popular in recent years, especially during the epidemic of infectious diseases. Thus, the social network and emotional analysis method based on intelligent data analysis algorithms is proposed to study the speaker relationship and comment sentiment tendency of a Chinese popular speech (knowledge dissemination) platform: YiXi. In our research, 690 speakers' information and 23,685 comments' information are collected from YiXi website as the data source. The speaker relationship network construction algorithm and emotional analysis algorithm are designed in details respectively. Experiments show that speakers who have the same profession can deliver different types of speeches, indicating that selection of YiXi platform in the invitation of speakers is diversified. In addition, overall sentiment tendency of comments on speeches seem to be slightly positive and most of them are the personal feelings according to their experience after watching speech videos instead of the direct evaluations of speech quality. The research aims to gain an insight into the popular knowledge sharing phenomenon and is expected to provide reference for knowledge dissemination platforms in order to improve the knowledge sharing environment in smart cities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2021134DOI Listing
March 2021

The lymphatic drainage system of the CNS plays a role in lymphatic drainage, immunity, and neuroinflammation in stroke.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The lymphatic drainage system of the central nervous system (CNS) plays an important role in maintaining interstitial fluid balance and regulating immune responses and immune surveillance. The impaired lymphatic drainage system of the CNS might be involved in the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases, neuroinflammation, and cerebrovascular diseases. A significant immune response and brain edema are observed after stroke, resulting from disrupted homeostasis in the brain. Thus, understanding the lymphatic drainage system of the CNS in stroke may lead to the development of new approaches for therapeutic interventions in the future. Here, we review recent evidence implicating the lymphatic drainage system of the CNS in stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.5MR0321-632RDOI Listing
April 2021

MRI-based radiomics as response predictor to radiochemotherapy for metastatic cervical lymph node in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Br J Radiol 2021 Apr 21:20201212. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Radiology, Sichuan Cancer Hospital & Institute, Sichuan Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Objective: To establish and substantiate MRI-based radiomic models to predict the treatment response of metastatic cervical lymph node to radiochemotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

Methods: A total of 145 consecutive patients with NPC were enrolled including 102 in primary cohort and 43 in validation cohort. Metastatic lymph nodes were diagnosed according to radiologic criteria and treatment response was evaluated according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. A total of 2704 radiomic features were extracted from contrast-enhanced -weighted imaging (CE-T1WI) and -weighted imaging (T2WI) for each patient, and were selected to construct radiomic signatures for CE-T1WI, T2WI, and combined CE-T1WI and T2WI, respectively. The area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were used to estimate the performance of these radiomic models in predicting treatment response of metastatic lymph node.

Results: No significant difference of AUC was found among radiomic signatures of CE-T1WI, T2WI, and combined CE-T1WI and T2WI in the primary and validation cohorts (all > 0.05). For combined CE-T1WI and T2WI dataset, 12 features were selected to develop the radiomic signature. The AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.927 (0.878-0.975), 0.911 (0.804-0.970), 0.826 (0.686-0.922), and 0.872 (0.792-0.930) in primary cohort, and were 0.772 (0.624-0.920), 0.792 (0.578-0.929), 0.790 (0.544-0.939), and 0.791 (0.640-0.900) in validation cohort.

Conclusion: MRI-based radiomic models were developed to predict the treatment response of metastatic cervical lymph nodes to radiochemotherapy in patients with NPC, which might facilitate individualized therapy for metastatic lymph nodes before treatment.

Advances In Knowledge: Predicting the response in patients with NPC before treatment may allow more individualizing therapeutic strategy and avoid unnecessary side-effects and costs. Radiomic features extracted from metastatic cervical lymph nodes showed promising application for predicting the treatment response in NPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20201212DOI Listing
April 2021

Large-Scale Multiagent System Tracking Control Using Mean Field Games.

Authors:
Zejian Zhou Hao Xu

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Apr 21;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

This article studies the tracking control problem with a large-scale group of agents. Unlike traditional control techniques used in multiagent systems (MASs), a new type of intelligent design is needed to handle the intractable ``Curse of Dimensionality" caused by the extremely large number of agents. To address this challenge, the mean field game (MFG) theory has been embedded into reinforcement learning to advance intelligent tracking control with large-scale MAS. Specifically, MFG-based control can calculate the optimal strategy based on one unified fix-dimension probability density function (pdf) instead of high-dimensional large-scale MAS information collected from individual agents. Moreover, the approximate dynamic programming technique is adopted to generate a new type of MFG-based algorithm. Each agent has three neural networks (NNs) to approximate the solution of the mean field type control. In addition to the algorithm development, the performance of the NNs is also analyzed using the Lyapunov method. Finally, the linear and nonlinear tracking control simulations are given to evaluate the algorithm's performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3071109DOI Listing
April 2021

A Synthetic Biodegradable Polymer Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration in Bone Defect.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Mar;17(3):456-465

Guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique is most commonly used to treat alveolar bone defect. Polylactic acid (PLA) attracts much attention to utilize as a GBR membrane because it has relatively high mechanical strength and biodegradability. However, randomized controlled trials of PLA as a GBR membrane in animals were rare. The aim of this work is to observe the efficacy of polylactic acid membrane in guiding bone regeneration in Beagle canine alveolar bone defect restoration and to compare efficacy with the collagen membrane, providing an experimental basis for further clinical use of the polylactic acid membrane. The tests of physical and chemical properties showed that the PLA membrane has well mechanical strength to maintenance the space for the new bone, and has proper aperture for the attachment of osteoblasts. Through X-ray and histopathological examination of the different time points, the bone grafting material covered with PLA membrane can form similar mature bone compared to collagen membrane ones. Meanwhile, biodegradable speed of the PLA membrane was slower. Thus, this study showed that polylactic acid membrane as synthetic biodegradable polymer was reliably effective in guiding bone regeneration of alveolar bone defects, showed the favorable osteogenic capability and forecasts well applications in bone augmentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2021.3044DOI Listing
March 2021

CT-based structural analyses of vertebral fractures with polymeric augmentation: A study of cadaveric three-level spine segments.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 19;133:104395. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Pathologic vertebral fractures due to metastasis can occur under normal physiologic activities, leading to pain and neurologic deficit. Prophylactic vertebroplasty is a technique used to augment vertebral strength and reduce the risk of fracture. Currently, no technique is available to objectively assess vertebral fracture risk in metastatically-involved vertebral bodies. The aim of the current study was to develop an image-based computational technique to estimate fracture force outcomes during bending. To this end, mechanical testing was performed on intact, simulated defect, PMMA-augmented, and PPF-augmented 3-level spine segments from both sexes under a compression/flexion-type loading condition. The augmentation performance of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) were also evaluated and compared. Cylindrical defects were created in 3-level spine segments with attached posterior elements and ligaments. Using CT images of each segment, a rigidity analysis technique was developed and used for predicting fracture forces during bending. On average, PPF strengthened the segments by about 630 N, resulting in fracture forces similar to those observed in the intact and PMMA-augmented groups. Female spines fractured at about 1150 N smaller force than did male spines. Rigidity analysis, along with age, explained 66% variability in experimental outcomes. This number increased to 74% when vertebral size and age were added to the rigidity analysis as explanatory variables. Both PPF and PMMA similarly increased fracture strength to the level of intact specimens. The results suggest that PPF can be a suitable candidate for augmentation purposes and rigidity analysis can be a promising predicting tool for vertebral fracture forces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104395DOI Listing
April 2021

Metalloradical activation of carbonyl azides for enantioselective radical aziridination.

Chem 2021 Apr 29;7(4):1120-1134. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Chemistry, Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA.

Organic azides have been increasingly employed as nitrogen sources for catalytic olefine aziridination due to their ease of preparation and generation of benign N as the only byproduct. Among common organic azides, carbonyl azides have not been previously demonstrated as effective nitrogen sources for intermolecular olefin aziridination despite the synthetic utilities of N-carbonyl aziridines. As a new application of metalloradical catalysis, we have developed a catalytic system that can effectively employ the carbonyl azide TrocN for highly asymmetric aziridination of alkenes at room temperature. The resulting enantioenriched -Trocaziridines have been shown as valuable chiral synthons for stereoselective synthesis of other chiral aziridines and various chiral amines. The Co(II)-based metalloradical system, which proceeds with distinctive stepwise radical mechanism, may provide a general method for asymmetric synthesis of chiral aziridines from alkenes with organic azides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chempr.2021.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049175PMC
April 2021

A high-resolution typical pollution source emission inventory and pollution source changes during the COVID-19 lockdown in a megacity, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

China-UK Low Carbon College, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

To control the spread of COVID-19, China has imposed national lockdown policies to restrict the movement of its population since the Chinese New Year of January 2020. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the changes of pollution sources in Shanghai during the COVID-19 lockdown; a high-resolution emission inventory of typical pollution sources including stationary source, mobile source, and oil and gas storage and transportation source was established based on pollution source data from January to February 2020. The results show that the total emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO), nitrogen oxides (NO), particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were 9520.2, 37,978.6, 2796.7, and 7236.9 tons, respectively, during the study period. Affected by the COVID-19 lockdown, the mobile source experienced the largest decline. The car mileage and oil sales decreased by about 80% during the COVID-19 lockdown (P3) when compared with those during the pre-Spring Festival (P1). The number of aircraft activity decreased by approximately 50%. The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on industries such as iron and steel and petrochemicals was less significant, while the greater impact was on coatings, chemicals, rubber, and plastic. The emissions of SO, NO, PM, and VOCs decreased by 11%, 39%, 37%, and 47%, respectively, during P3 when compared with those during P1. The results show that the measures to control the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic made a significant contribution to emission reductions. This study may provide a reference for other countries to assess the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on emissions and help establish regulatory actions to improve air quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11858-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052207PMC
April 2021

Differential Expression Profiles and Function Prediction of Transfer RNA-Derived Fragments in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

Biomed Res Int 2021 30;2021:5594081. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Gynecology, Huangshi Love & Health Hospital Affiliated to Hubei Polytechnic University, Huangshi, 435000 Hubei, China.

Background: The present study is aimed at providing systematic insight into the composition and expression of transfer RNA (tRNA) derivative transcription in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC).

Methods: tRNA derivative expression profiles in three pairs of HGSOC and adjacent normal ovarian tissues were conducted by tRNA-derived small RNA fragment (tRF) and tRNA half (tiRNA) sequencing. The differentially expressed tRFs and tiRNAs between HGSOC and paired adjacent normal samples were screened. The targeted genes of differentially expressed tRFs and tiRNAs were screened. The Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) of target genes of tRFs and tiRNAs were analyzed.

Results: There are a total of 20 significantly upregulated and 15 significantly downregulated tRFs and tiRNAs between the cancer group and the paracarcinoma group. The upregulated tRFs and tiRNAs are mucin-type O-glycan biosynthesis, glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, the glucagon signaling pathway, the AMPK signaling pathway, maturity-onset diabetes of the young, glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, the insulin signaling pathway, insulin resistance, leukocyte transendothelial migration, starch, and sucrose metabolism. The downregulated tRFs and tiRNAs are other glycan degradation, vitamin digestion and absorption, fatty acid elongation, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids.

Conclusions: There are significantly expressed tRFs and tiRNAs in HGSOC tissues, and these may provide potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for HGSOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5594081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028742PMC
March 2021

Effect of GLP-1/GLP-1R on the Polarization of Macrophages in the Occurrence and Development of Atherosclerosis.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 27;2021:5568159. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Affiliated Dongfeng Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.

Aims: To investigate the effect of GLP-1/GLP-1R on the polarization of macrophages in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis.

Methods: Totally, 49 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and 52 cases of health control (HC) were recruited, all subjects accept coronary angiography gold standard inspection. One or more major coronary arteries (LM, LAD, LCx, and RCA) stenosis degree in 50% of patients as CHD group; the rest of the stenosis less than 50% or not seen obvious stenosis are assigned to the HC group. Flow cytometry were used to detect the percentage of (CD14+) M macrophages, (CD14+CD80+) M1 macrophages, (CD14+CD206+) M2 macrophages, and their surface GLP-1R expression differences in the two groups, using BD cytokine kit to detect the levels of IL-8, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF, and IL-12p70.

Results: GLP-1R expression on the surface of total macrophages and M2 macrophages was different between the CHD group and the HC group ( < 0.05). There was no difference in the percentage of total, M1 or M2 macrophages ( > 0.05). Concentration of IL-8 in the HC group was higher than that in the CHD group ( < 0.05). There is no significant difference in the cytokine IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF, and IL-12p70 in the two groups ( > 0.05). After controlling for potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status (S.S.), drinking status (D.S.), HR, SBP, DBP, PP, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, GHbA1c, M, M1, M2, GLP-1R_M, GLP-1R_M1, GLP-1R_M2, IL-8, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF, and IL-12p70 by multiple linear regression, decreasing Gensini Score was significantly associated with increased percentage of M1 macrophage.

Conclusion: GLP-1R agonist is independent of the hypoglycemic effect of T2DM and has protective effect on cardiovascular system. GLP-1R may regulate the polarization of macrophages toward M2, thus playing a protective role in the progression of coronary atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5568159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019627PMC
March 2021

Separation and purification of magnoflorine, spinosin, and 6‴-feruloyspinosin from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

J Sep Sci 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Tianjin Key Laboratory on Technologies Enabling Development of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnostics, School of Pharmacy, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, P. R. China.

In the study, high-speed counter-current chromatography was used for separation and purification of magnoflorine, spinosin, and 6‴-feruloyspinosin from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. With n-butanol-ethyl acetate-water (2:3:5, v/v) as the optimum solvent system, about 75 mg of magnoflorine, 110 mg of spinosin, and 40 mg of 6‴-feruloyspinosin were isolated from 0.5 g of crude extract of Z. Spinosae Semen, with the purity of 95.7, 97.2, and 96.4%, respectively. The chemical structures were identified by MS and NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the antidepressant activity of the isolated components was evaluated by PC12 cells injury model and chronic unpredictable mild stress depression mouse model. The results showed that high-speed counter-current chromatography could be used to realize the one-time rapid preparation and separation of magnoflorine, spinosin, and 6‴-feruloyspinosin from Z. Spinosae Semen and compatibility of these isolated components has certain antidepressant activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100122DOI Listing
April 2021

Reconstruction of Craniectomy for Microvascular Decompression with Autologous Particulate Bone.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of International Education, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background And Study Objective:  Cranioplasty after microvascular decompression (MVD) is important for preventing postoperative complications such as headache. Autologous particulate bone is a common material for cranioplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of using autologous particulate bone to reconstruct the cranial defect produced by MVD.

Patients And Methods:  Data were collected from January 2013 to December 2016 from 243 patients who underwent suboccipital retrosigmoidal craniectomy for MVD. The patients were then further divided into two groups: in the first group (from January 2013-October 2015), a cranioplasty was performed using a combination of bone dust (taken from a power drill) and particulate bone (harvested with a rongeur); in the second group (from November 2015-December 2016), the cranial defect was reconstructed using particulate bone alone. Healing of the cranial defect was observed during the follow-up.

Results:  Early postoperative computed tomography (CT), performed during the hospital stay, revealed that the filling of the cranial defects of the first group was better than that of the second group. In addition, surgical-site infections (SSIs) occurred in 13 patients in the first group (9.92%) versus 2 patients in the second group (1.79%). The SSI rate of the first group was significantly higher than that of the second group ( < 0.05). Long-term follow-up CT demonstrated that the average reconstruction rate ((volume of the reconstruction area)/(volume of the cranial defect) × 100%) was 47.88% for the first group and 43.94% for the second group ( > 0.05).

Conclusion:  The use of autologous particulate bone to reconstruct cranial defects after MVD has a good effect and is thus a useful and valuable technique. Bone dust may result in a higher incidence of SSI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1719138DOI Listing
April 2021

A prospective comparative study of staged total knee arthroplasty: ninety-day versus seven-day interval.

Int Orthop 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Joint Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266000, Shandong, China.

Purpose: The optimal interval between staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty (STBTKA) is unclear. Studies have reported STBTKA being performed at the same admission, with a seven day interval. The safety and outcomes of patients submitted to same-admission STBTKA (SA-STBTKA) are questionable and need further investigation.

Methods: A prospective non-randomized study was performed to compare the early postoperative outcomes, systemic complications, and surgical-related complications between the first and second knees, as well as between SA-STBTKA and STBTKA groups. From July 2018 to November 2019, a total of 430 patients were recruited. Analyzed parameters included the Knee Society score (KSS), Knee Society functional score (KSFS), range of motion (ROM), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score, WOMAC stiffness score, and WOMAC score for daily life difficulty.

Results: Pre-operatively, the demographic data and functional scores were not significantly different between the two groups. The KSS, WOMAC pain score, and WOMAC stiffness score of the second knee in the STBTKA group were significantly better than those of the first knee. A total of 426 patients completed the last follow-up one  year after surgery, and the post-operative functional scores were not significantly different between the two groups and between the two knees within the same group. Before the second operation, more systemic complications were identified in the SA-STBTKA group, while the rate of surgical complication was not significantly different when compared to STBTKA patients.

Conclusions: With equivalent post-operative function and a higher frequency of minor complications, SA-STBTKA should be cautiously selected as a treatment option for bilateral osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-021-05037-xDOI Listing
April 2021

miR-365 secreted from M2 Macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma progression through the BTG2/FAK/AKT axis.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 3;25(10):4671-4683. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

The First Clinical Medical College, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that tumour-associated macrophages support cancer progression. Moreover, macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in pathogenesis of multiple cancers, yet the functions of molecular determinants in which have not been fully understood. Herein, we aim to understand whether macrophage modulates pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression in an EV-dependent manner and the underlying mechanisms. microRNA (miR)-365 was experimentally determined to be enriched in the EVs from M2 macrophages (M2-EVs), which could be transferred into PDAC cells. Using a co-culture system, M2-EVs could enhance the proliferating, migrating and invading potentials of PDAC cells, while inhibition of miR-365 in M2-EVs could repress these malignant functions. B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) was identified to be a direct target of miR-365, while the focal adhesion kinase (F/ATP)-dependent tyrosine kinase (AKT) pathway was activated by miR-365. We further demonstrated that overexpression of BTG2 could delay the progression of PDAC in vitro, whereas by impairing BTG2-mediated anti-tumour effect, M2-EV-miR-365 promoted PDAC progression. For validation, a nude mouse model of tumorigenesis was established, in which we found that targeting M2-EV-miR-365 contributed to suppression of tumour growth. Collectively, M2-EVs carry miR-365 to suppress BTG2 expression, which activated FAK/AKT pathway, thus promoting PDAC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107105PMC
May 2021