Publications by authors named "Hao Xiong"

259 Publications

Quercetin Attenuates Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification by Tuning Immune Cell Infiltration and Related Inflammatory Insult.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:649285. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is one of the most intractable disorders following musculoskeletal injury and is characterized by the ectopic presence of bone tissue in the soft tissue leading to severe loss of function in the extremities. Recent studies have indicated that immune cell infiltration and inflammation are involved in aberrant bone formation. In this study, we found increased monocyte/macrophage and mast cell accumulation during early HO progression. Macrophage depletion by clodronate liposomes and mast cell stabilization by cromolyn sodium significantly impeded HO formation. Therefore, we proposed that the dietary phytochemical quercetin could also suppress immune cell recruitment and related inflammatory responses to prevent HO. As expected, quercetin inhibited the monocyte-to-macrophage transition, macrophage polarization, and mast cell activation in a dose-dependent manner. Using a murine burn/tenotomy model, we also demonstrated that quercetin attenuated inflammatory responses and HO . Furthermore, elevated SIRT1 and decreased acetylated NFκB p65 expression were responsible for the mechanism of quercetin, and the beneficial effects of quercetin were reversed by the SIRT1 antagonist EX527 and mimicked by the SIRT agonist SRT1720. The findings in this study suggest that targeting monocyte/macrophage and mast cell activities may represent an attractive approach for therapeutic intervention of HO and that quercetin may serve as a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of trauma-induced HO by modulating SIRT1/NFκB signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.649285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173182PMC
May 2021

MicroRNA engineered umbilical cord stem cell-derived exosomes direct tendon regeneration by mTOR signaling.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jun 5;19(1):169. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Background: Exosomes are extracellular vesicles of nano-structures and represent an emerging nano-scale acellular therapy in recent years. Tendon regeneration is a sophisticated process in the field of microsurgery due to its poor natural healing ability. To date, no successful long-term solution has been provided for the healing of tendon injuries. Functional recovery requires advanced treatment strategies. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (HUMSC-Exos) are considered as promising cell-free therapeutic agents. However, few studies reported their potential in the tendon repair previously. In this study, we explored the roles and underlying mechanisms of HUMSC-Exos in the tendon regeneration.

Results: Expression of tendon-specific markers in, and collagen deposition by, tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) treated with HUMSC-Exos increased in vitro. In a rat Achilles tendon injury model, treatment with HUMSC-Exos improved the histological structure, enhanced tendon-specific matrix components, and optimized biomechanical properties of the Achilles tendon. Findings in miRNA sequencing indicated a significant increase in miR-29a-3p in HUMSC-Exo-treated Achilles tendons. Next, luciferase assay in combination with western blot identified phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) as the specific target of miR-29a-3p. Furthermore, we applied a miR-29a-3p-specific agonist to engineer HUMSC-Exos. These HUMSC-Exos overexpressing miR-29a-3p amplified the gain effects of HUMSC-Exos on tendon healing in vivo. To explore the underlying mechanisms, a transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) inhibitor (SB-431542), mTOR inhibitor (rapamycin), and engineered HUMSC-Exos were employed. The results showed that TGF-β1 and mTOR signaling were involved in the beneficial effects of HUMSC-Exos on tendon regeneration.

Conclusion: The findings in our study suggest that PTEN/mTOR/TGF-β1 signaling cascades may be a potential pathway for HUMSC-Exos to deliver miR-29a-3p for tendon healing and implicate a novel therapeutic strategy for tendon regeneration via engineered stem cell-derived exosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00906-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180131PMC
June 2021

Modulation of NAD biosynthesis activates SIRT1 and resist cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Otolaryngology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; Institute of Hearing and Speech-Language Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; Department of Hearing and Speech-Language Science, Xinhua College, Sun Yat-sen University, China. Electronic address:

Cisplatin often induces progressive sensorineural hearing loss in patients. However, the precise mechanism underlying cisplatin-associated ototoxicity is still unclear. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a co-substrate for the sirtuin family and PARPs, has emerged as a potent therapeutic molecular target in various diseases. In our investigates, we observed that NAD level was changed in the cochlear explants of mice treated with cisplatin. Supplementation of a specific inhibitor (TES-1025) of α-amino-β-carboxymuconate-ε-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD), a rate-limiting enzyme of NADde novo synthesis pathway, promoted SIRT1 activity, increased mtDNA contents and enhanced AMPK expression, thus significantly reduced hair cells loss and deformation. The protection was blocked by EX527, a specific SIRT1 inhibitor. Meanwhile, the use of NMN, a precursor of NAD salvage synthesis pathway, had shown beneficial effect to hair cell under cisplatin administration, effectively suppressing PARP1. In vivo experiments confirmed the hair cell protection of NAD modulators in cisplatin treated mice and zebrafish. In conclusion, we demonstrated that modulation of NAD biosynthesis via the de novo synthesis pathway and the salvage synthesis pathway could both prevent ototoxicity of cisplatin. These results suggested that direct modulation of cellular NAD levels could be a promising therapeutic approach for protection of hearing from cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2021.05.013DOI Listing
June 2021

Benchmarking Audio Signal Representation Techniques for Classification with Convolutional Neural Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 14;21(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.

Audio signal classification finds various applications in detecting and monitoring health conditions in healthcare. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have produced state-of-the-art results in image classification and are being increasingly used in other tasks, including signal classification. However, audio signal classification using CNN presents various challenges. In image classification tasks, raw images of equal dimensions can be used as a direct input to CNN. Raw time-domain signals, on the other hand, can be of varying dimensions. In addition, the temporal signal often has to be transformed to frequency-domain to reveal unique spectral characteristics, therefore requiring signal transformation. In this work, we overview and benchmark various audio signal representation techniques for classification using CNN, including approaches that deal with signals of different lengths and combine multiple representations to improve the classification accuracy. Hence, this work surfaces important empirical evidence that may guide future works deploying CNN for audio signal classification purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21103434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156023PMC
May 2021

High expression of ISG20 predicts a poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.

Cancer Biomark 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the most malignant hematopoietic system diseases. Interferon stimulated exonuclease gene 20 (ISG20) is a protein induced by interferons or double-stranded RNA, which is associated with poor prognosis in several malignant tumors. However its expression in AML is unknown.

Objective: To explore the expression of ISG20 in AML and its prognostic significance.

Methods: The expression of ISG20 in AML patients was analyzed by GEPIA database, detected by qRT-PCR and their prognosis was followed-up. Chi-square test was used to identify the association between ISG20 expression and clinical characteristics of the patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to draw survival curves and Cox regression analysis to confirm the independent prognostic factors of AML patients.

Results: Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that whether to receive treatment, Karyotype, and ISG20 expression were related to overall survival time of AML patients (P< 0.05). Cox regression analysis showed that whether to receive treatment (HR = 0.248, 95% CI = 0.076-0.808, P= 0.021) and high expression of ISG20 (HR = 4.266, 95% CI = 1.118-16.285, P= 0.034) were independent unfavorable prognostic factors for AML patients.

Conclusion: The high expression of ISG20 acts as a poor prognosis indicator in AML patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-210061DOI Listing
April 2021

A Population Pharmacokinetic Meta-analysis of Veliparib, a PARP Inhibitor, Across Phase I/II/III Trials in Cancer Patients.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacometrics, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA.

Veliparib (ABT-888) is a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor in development for treatment of high-grade ovarian cancer or BRCA-mutated breast cancer in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel. The population pharmacokinetics of veliparib were characterized using combined data from 1470 adult subjects with ovarian cancer, breast cancer or other solid tumors enrolled in six phase 1 studies, one phase 2 study, and two phase 3 studies of veliparib oral doses of 10 mg to 400 mg twice daily as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy. A one compartment model with linear clearance and first order absorption best characterized veliparib pharmacokinetics. The predicted apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (Vc/F) were 479 L/day and 152 L, respectively. The significant covariates in the final model included albumin, creatinine clearance, strong inhibitors of CYP2D6, and sex on CL/F; and albumin, body weight, and sex on Vc/F. Mild and moderate renal impairment increased veliparib median (95% CI) steady-state AUC (AUCss) by 27.3% (23.7%, 30.9%) and 65.4% (56.0%, 75.5%), respectively compared to normal renal function. Male subjects had 16.5% (7.53%, 23.9%) lower AUCss compared to female subjects and coadministration with strong CYP2D6 inhibitors increased AUCss by 13.0% (6.11%, 20.8%). Race, age, region, cancer type, or enzyme (CYP3A4, CYP2C19) or transporter (P-gp, MATE1/2, OCT2) inhibiting/inducing comedications were not found to significantly impact veliparib pharmacokinetics. Other than baseline creatinine clearance and hence renal impairment effect on veliparib clearance, no other covariates had a clinically meaningful effect on veliparib exposure warranting dose adjustment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1875DOI Listing
April 2021

A single-molecule van der Waals compass.

Nature 2021 04 21;592(7855):541-544. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Single-molecule imaging is challenging but highly beneficial for investigating intermolecular interactions at the molecular level. Van der Waals interactions at the sub-nanometre scale strongly influence various molecular behaviours under confinement conditions. Inspired by the traditional compass, here we use a para-xylene molecule as a rotating pointer to detect the host-guest van der Waals interactions in the straight channel of the MFI-type zeolite framework. We use integrated differential phase contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy to achieve real-space imaging of a single para-xylene molecule in each channel. A good correlation between the orientation of the single-molecule pointer and the atomic structure of the channel is established by combining the results of calculations and imaging studies. The orientations of para-xylene help us to identify changes in the van der Waals interactions, which are related to the channel geometry in both spatial and temporal dimensions. This work not only provides a visible and sensitive means to investigate host-guest van der Waals interactions in porous materials at the molecular level, but also encourages the further study of other single-molecule behaviours using electron microscopy techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03429-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Early immune responses and prognostic factors in children with COVID-19: a single-center retrospective analysis.

BMC Pediatr 2021 04 17;21(1):181. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Hematology, Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Medical Care Center for Women and Children), Tongji College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: Early diagnostic indicators and the identification of possible progression to severe or critical COVID-19 in children are unknown. To investigate the immune characteristics of early SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and possible key prognostic factors for early identification of critical COVID-19, a retrospective study including 121 children with COVID-19 was conducted. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subset counts, T cell-derived cytokine concentrations, inflammatory factor concentrations, and routine blood counts were analyzed statistically at the initial presentation.

Results: The T lymphocyte subset and natural killer cell counts decreased with increasing disease severity. Group III (critical cases) had a higher Th/Tc ratio than groups I and II (common and severe cases); group I had a higher B cell count than groups II and III. IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, SAA, and procalcitonin levels increased with increasing disease severity. Hemoglobin concentration, and RBC and eosinophil counts decreased with increasing disease severity. Groups II and III had significantly lower lymphocyte counts than group I. T, Th, Tc, IL-6, IL-10, RBC, and hemoglobin had relatively high contribution and area under the curve values.

Conclusions: Decreased T, Th, Tc, RBC, hemoglobin and increased IL-6 and IL-10 in early SARS-CoV-2 infection in children are valuable indices for early diagnosis of severe disease. The significantly reduced Th and Tc cells and significantly increased IL-6, IL-10, ferritin, procalcitonin, and SAA at this stage in children with critical COVID-19 may be closely associated with the systemic cytokine storm caused by immune dysregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02561-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052550PMC
April 2021

Resolving atomic SAPO-34/18 intergrowth architectures for methanol conversion by identifying light atoms and bonds.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 13;12(1):2212. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

The micro-structures of catalyst materials basically affect their macro-architectures and catalytic performances. Atomically resolving the micro-structures of zeolite catalysts, which have been widely used in the methanol conversion, will bring us a deeper insight into their structure-property correlations. However, it is still challenging for the atomic imaging of silicoaluminophosphate zeolites by electron microscopy due to the limits of their electron beam sensitivity. Here, we achieve the real-space imaging of the atomic lattices in SAPO-34 and SAPO-18 zeolites, including the Al-O-P atoms and bonds, by the integrated differential phase contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (iDPC-STEM). The spatial distribution of SAPO-34 and SAPO-18 domains in SAPO-34/18 intergrowths can be clearly resolved. By changing the Si contents and templates in feed, we obtain two SAPO-34/18 catalysts, hierarchical and sandwich catalysts, with highly-mixed and separated SAPO-34 and SAPO-18 lattices respectively. The reduced diffusion distances of inside products greatly improve the catalytic performances of two catalysts in methanol conversion. Based on the observed distributions of lattices and elements in these catalysts, we can have a preliminary understanding on the correlation between the synthesis conditions and structures of SAPO-34/18 intergrowth catalysts to further modify their performances based on unique architectures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22438-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044160PMC
April 2021

Mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the down-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 5 may cause microtia.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):418

Department of Otolaryngology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) has been identified as one of the important risk factors for microtia; however, the link between them has yet to be clarified. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the relationship of BMP5 with mitochondrial function and investigate the specific role of mitochondria in regulating microtia development.

Methods: BMP5 expression was measured in auricular cartilage tissues from patients with and without microtia. The effects of BMP5 knockdown on cellular function and mitochondrial function were also analyzed . Changes in genome-wide expression profiles were measured in BMP5-knockdown cells. Finally, the specific impact of BMP5 down-regulation on mitochondrial fat oxidation was analyzed .

Results: BMP5 expression was down-regulated in the auricular cartilage tissues of microtia patients. BMP5 down-regulation inhibited various cellular functions , including cell proliferation, mobility, and cytoactivity. The functional integrity of mitochondria was also damaged, accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) neutralization, and reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2, two of the key regulators of mitochondrial lipid oxidation, were also found to be decreased by BMP5 down-regulation.

Conclusions: Down-regulation of BMP5 affects glycerolipid metabolism and fatty acid degradation, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, reduced ATP production, and changes in cell function, and ultimately resulting in microtia. This research provides supporting evidence for an important role of BMP5 down-regulation in affecting mitochondrial metabolism in cells, and sheds new light on the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of microtia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-831DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033356PMC
March 2021

Effective optical smoothing scheme to suppress laser plasma instabilities by time-dependent polarization rotation via pulse chirping.

Opt Express 2021 Jan;29(2):1304-1319

In this paper, we propose a novel effective optical smoothing scheme to suppress laser plasma instabilities (LPIs) by time-dependent polarization rotation (TPR) on a picosecond timescale. The polarization rotation with time-dependent frequency is generated by the superposition of chirped light pulses with dynamic frequency shift and counter-rotating circular polarization. Compared to light without polarization rotation or pulse chirping, such superposed light with TPR has a broader spectrum and lower temporal coherence. Using the one-dimensional fluid laser-plasma-instability code (FLAME) and PIC simulation, TPR is demonstrated working well in suppressing parametric backscattering, which provides an effective approach to suppress LPIs. In the meantime, a significant improvement of irradiation uniformity of the chirped pulses is achieved by the introduction of proper spatial phase modulation and grating dispersion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.405319DOI Listing
January 2021

Low threshold soliton and a noise-like pulse conversion in an all-polarization-maintaining figure-eight cavity.

Appl Opt 2021 Mar;60(8):2190-2196

We experimentally report a low threshold soliton and a noise-like mode-locked fiber laser using an all-polarization-maintaining figure-eight cavity. We built a bidirectional pump structure without a phase shifter at the beginning of the experiment. The resonator has a high mode-locking threshold of 620 mW. Afterwards, we used a phase shifter in the resonator, and the laser can self-start in a conventional soliton (CS) mode-locked state when pump1 reaches the threshold of only 70 mW. The CS pulse with a duration of 863.8 fs can be observed at 1560 nm. When the two pump powers increase to 350 mW and 50 mW, the conventional soliton can convert to noise-like pulses. The central wavelength and pulse duration of noise-like mode-locked pulse are 1560.4 nm and 417.9 fs, respectively. The laser can realize conversion between ultrafast pulses and high-energy pulses, and have a low threshold that can be used for nonlinear frequency conversion, supercontinuum generation, sensing, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.415539DOI Listing
March 2021

Celecoxib-Loaded Electrospun Fibrous Antiadhesion Membranes Reduce COX-2/PGE Induced Inflammation and Epidural Fibrosis in a Rat Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Model.

Neural Plast 2021 23;2021:6684176. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai, China.

To date, failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) remains a therapy-refractory clinical condition after spinal surgery. The antiadhesion membrane is applied to prevent FBSS by isolating fibrosis; however, the inflammation stimulated by the foreign body and surgical trauma needs to be further resolved simultaneously. Therefore, we developed new electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous membranes loaded with celecoxib (CEL) to prevent fibrosis and inflammation associated with FBSS. The CEL-loaded PCL fibers were randomly distributed, and the drug was released over two weeks. Fluorescence micrographs revealed that the fibroblasts proliferated less on the PCL-CEL fibrous membranes than in the PCL group and the blank control. In the rat laminectomy model after 4 weeks, magnetic resonance imaging of epidural fibrosis was least in the PCL-CEL group. Expression of COX-2 and PGE was lower in the PCL-CEL group. It concluded that the CEL-loaded PCL membrane could reduce fibrosis and inflammation in a rat model of FBSS via COX-2/PGE signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6684176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925049PMC
February 2021

A Phase 1 and Biodistribution Study of ABT-806i, an In-Radiolabeled Conjugate of the Tumor-Specific Anti-EGFR Antibody ABT-806.

J Nucl Med 2021 Jun 28;62(6):787-794. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia.

ABT-806 is a tumor-specific antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This study assessed safety, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of In-radiolabeled ABT-806 (ABT-806i) and effects of repeated doses of ABT-806 on receptor occupancy. Eligible patients had advanced tumors likely to express EGFR/EGFRvIII; adequate performance status and organ function; and measurable disease by RECIST 1.1. In cohort 1, 6 patients received a bolus administration of ABT-806i and underwent SPECT followed by whole-body planar scans. In cohort 2, 12 patients were imaged similarly as in 1 initially; thereafter, they received 3 doses of unlabeled ABT-806, before another dose of ABT-806i with associated SPECT and whole-body planar scans. At the end of both cohorts, patients who had stable or responding disease were able to enroll into an extension study (M12-326) in which they received unlabeled ABT-806 every 2 wk until disease progression, withdrawal of consent, or intolerable toxicity. No toxicity related to ABT-806i infusion was observed. ABT-806i showed minimal uptake in normal tissues and cleared gradually from blood with a half-life of 6.0 ± 1.5 d. The mean effective dose of ABT-806i was 0.137 mSv/MBq for males and 0.183 mSv/MBq for females. ABT-806i tumor uptake varied and did not correlate with archived tumor EGFR expression. No change in ABT-806i uptake was observed after interval ABT-806 treatment, indicating stable EGFR expression in tumor. The patient with highest tumor uptake of ABT-806i had advanced head and neck cancer and experienced a partial response. ABT-806i allows for real-time imaging of EGFR conformational expression in tumors, has an acceptable radiation dosimetry, and provides important additional information about antigen expression compared with standard approaches using archival tissue. Its role to assist in patient selection for EGFR-based therapeutics and investigate treatment resistance should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.120.253146DOI Listing
June 2021

Factors Affecting Social Media Users' Emotions Regarding Food Safety Issues: Content Analysis of a Debate among Chinese Weibo Users on Genetically Modified Food Security.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Jan 21;9(2). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

School of Journalism and Communication, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

Social media is gradually building an online information environment regarding health. This environment is filled with many types of users' emotions regarding food safety, especially negative emotions that can easily cause panic or anger among the population. However, the mechanisms of how it affects users' emotions have not been fully studied. Therefore, from the perspective of communication and social psychology, this study uses the content analysis method to analyze factors affecting social media users' emotions regarding food safety issues. In total, 371 tweet samples of genetically modified food security in Sina Weibo (similar to Twitter) were encoded, measured, and analyzed. The major findings are as follows: (1) Tweet account type, tweet topic, and emotion object were all significantly related to emotion type. Tweet depth and objectivity were both positively affected by emotion type, and objectivity had a greater impact. (2) Account type, tweet topic, and emotion object were all significantly related to emotion intensity. When the depths were the same, emotion intensity became stronger with the decrease in objectivity. (3) Account type, tweet topic, emotion object, and emotion type were all significantly related to a user's emotion communication capacity. Tweet depth, objectivity, and user's emotion intensity were positively correlated with emotion communication capacity. Positive emotions had stronger communication capacities than negative ones, which is not consistent with previous studies. These findings help us to understand both theoretically and practically the changes and dissemination of user's emotions in a food safety and health information environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911908PMC
January 2021

Monochromatic Carbon Nanotube Tangles Grown by Microfluidic Switching between Chaos and Fractals.

ACS Nano 2021 Mar 15;15(3):5129-5137. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

The nature of chaos is in that elusive flow that is an advanced order out of our vision. It is wise to take advantage of chaos after recognizing or modifying its unique fractal properties. Here, a magnetron weaving strategy was developed for producing chaotic but monochromatic carbon nanotube tangles (CNT-Ts) under Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The self-similarity characteristic facilitated individual ultralong CNTs to manipulate their entropy-driven fractal geometry, resulting in ∼10 μm CNT-Ts with variable curvature radius. In addition, based on the rate-selected mechanism, 85% metallic and ∼100% semiconducting CNT-Ts were synthesized and separated simultaneously at different length positions. After modifying their fractal into aligned CNTs with hydrogel, these CNT-Ts delivered a current of 10 μA μm in transistors with an on/off ratio >10. It has provided the third route as a paradigm of applying one-dimensional nanomaterials by switching between chaos and fractal, in parallel with that of direct synthesis and postseparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c10300DOI Listing
March 2021

Glucose Protects Cochlear Hair Cells Against Oxidative Stress and Attenuates Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Mice.

Neurosci Bull 2021 May 7;37(5):657-668. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Otolaryngology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510120, China.

Oxidative stress is the key determinant in the pathogenesis of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Given that cellular defense against oxidative stress is an energy-consuming process, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether increasing energy availability by glucose supplementation protects cochlear hair cells against oxidative stress and attenuates NIHL. Our results revealed that glucose supplementation reduced the noise-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently attenuated noise-induced loss of outer hair cells, inner hair cell synaptic ribbons, and NIHL in CBA/J mice. In cochlear explants, glucose supplementation increased the levels of ATP and NADPH, as well as attenuating HO-induced ROS production and cytotoxicity. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of glucose transporter type 1 activity abolished the protective effects of glucose against oxidative stress in HEI-OC1 cells. These findings suggest that energy availability is crucial for oxidative stress resistance and glucose supplementation offers a simple and effective approach for the protection of cochlear hair cells against oxidative stress and NIHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-020-00624-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099978PMC
May 2021

Enterobacter cloacae infection of the shoulder in a 52-year-old woman without apparent predisposing risk factor: a case report and literature review.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jan 6;21(1):13. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Orthopedics, Shenzhen Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine (Futian), Shenzhen, China.

Background: Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) is one of the commensal flora in the human intestinal tract and a prevalent nosocomial pathogen, which rarely causes infectious osteoarthritis in immunocompetent patients without recent trauma or surgery. Here, we report the first case of septic monoarthritis of the shoulder caused by E. cloacae in an immunocompetent patient.

Case Presentation: A 52-year-old female with a 6-year history of right shoulder pain was referred to our emergency department due to fever, acute severe shoulder pain, and swelling. Blood test showed elevated inflammatory markers. The patient denied any recent invasive surgical procedure and trauma. She was misdiagnosed with a frozen shoulder, and the anti-inflammatory painkiller celecoxib for symptomatic treatment was ineffective. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a shoulder joint abscess and supraspinatus tendon tear. The joint aspirate culture showed E. cloacae. After late diagnosis, she was treated with levofloxacin and underwent surgical debridement and irrigation. Her follow-up data revealed that she did not suffer from shoulder swelling and severe pain.

Conclusion: This is a rare case of E. cloacae infected arthritis of the shoulder in an immunocompetent patient with a rotator cuff tear, indicating that even if the symptoms and age of the patients match the characteristics of frozen shoulder, the possibility of septic arthritis should be considered in the presence of fever and increasing inflammatory markers. The cases of our literature review suggest that the patients subjected to invasive procedure may develop a subsequent E. cloacae osteoarticular infection, regardless of being asymptomatic after the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05699-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789740PMC
January 2021

Synergistic Effect of ,-Dimethylformamide and Hydrochloric Acid on the Growth of MAPbI Perovskite Films for Solar Cells.

ACS Omega 2020 Dec 8;5(50):32295-32304. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Key Laboratory of Green Perovskites Application of Fujian Province Universities, Fujian Jiangxia University, Fuzhou 350108, China.

Perovskite solar cells have emerged as a promising next-generation electrical power generating tool. However, imperfections in perovskite films are one of the crucial factors preventing the commercialization of perovskite solar cells. Passivation has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce the density of defect states in perovskite crystals and inhibit ion migration. Although significant work on chloride ion and ,-dimethylformamide (DMF) has shown that the additives are able to passivate different types of trap defects, systematic studies on the effects of DMF and HCl on perovskite crystallization when used in conjunction with each other are elusive. Here, we systematically investigated the synergistic effect of DMF and hydrochloric acid (HCl) on methylammonium (MA)-based perovskite films with the two-step spin-coating method. As a Lewis base, DMF coordinates well with Pb to facilitate a decrease in the number of defects, thereby improving the carrier separation and transport, while HCl improves the overall perovskite film morphology. Addition of 20 μL HCl/20 μL DMF to 10 mL of methylammonium iodide/isopropyl alcohol solution afforded ca. 500 nm thick perovskite films with no observable defects within the grains. The process allowed fabrication of devices with an active area of 0.16 cm, which produced power conversion efficiencies up to 18.37% with minimal hysteresis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c04102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758882PMC
December 2020

Promotion of collagen deposition during skin healing through Smad3/mTOR pathway by parathyroid hormone-loaded microneedle.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Feb 27;119:111446. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China. Electronic address:

Skin wounds are associated with huge economic and emotional burdens for millions of people annually and are a challenge for health workers worldwide. At present, for skin defects after traumatic accidents, especially large-area skin defects, newly developed strategies such as the use of emerging biomaterials and cell therapy could be considered as options besides classic skin grafts. However, the new strategies have to deal with problems such as immune rejection and high costs for patients. An insufficient understanding of the mechanisms of skin wound healing further hinders the development of innovative treatment approaches. In this study, we developed a parathyroid hormone (PTH)-loaded phase-transition microneedle (PTMN) patch to deliver PTH subcutaneously in an efficient manner and change microneedle patch daily to achieve intermittent and systematic drug administration. By evaluating wound closure, re-epithelialization, collagen deposition, and extracellular matrix (ECM) expression in a Sprague-Dawley rat model of traumatic skin wounds, we demonstrated that intermittent systemic administration of PTH using our PTMN patches accelerated skin wound healing. Further, we demonstrated that the use of the patch may accelerate skin wound healing depending on the activation of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad3/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade pathway. Our results suggest that the PTH-loaded PTMN patch may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating skin wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111446DOI Listing
February 2021

[Effect of the Risk Factors for Treatment-Related Death in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2020 Dec;28(6):1837-1841

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital), Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430016, Hubei Province, China.

Objective: To explore the possible risk factors of death in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after treatment.

Methods: The clinical data of 31 children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and dead after treatment in the Hematology Oncology Department of Wuhan children's Hospital from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate factor analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the each indexes of ALL children, and the possible risk factors causes of death in ALL children after treatment were analyzed.

Results: Among 230 newly diagnosed ALL children, 31 (13.4%) cases were dead. Among them, there were 12 male and 19 female. The mortality rates were 9%(12/133) for male and 19.5%(19/97) for female, which showed a significantly difference(P=0.02); among the dead ALL children, 6 were less than 1 year old, 23 were 1-10 years old, and 2 was more than 10 years old. The mortality rates in different age groups were 46.1 % (6/13), 11.7%(23/195) and 9%(2/22), respectively, which showed a significantly difference(P=0.00); the mortality rates of the ALL children in standard risk group, medium risk group and high risk group were 6.7% (4/59), 11.9% (13/10) and 22.5%(14/62), respectively,which showed a significantly difference(P=0.03). The mortality rates of ALL children with WBC<50×10/L, 50-100×10/L, and >100×10/L were 11%(22/199), 30%(3/10) and 28.5% (6/21), respectively, which showed a significantly difference(P=0.03); the mortality rate of ALL.children with normal fusion gene was 11%(17/154), and for All children with TEL/AML, BCR/ABL and KMT2A rearrangement was 13.8%(5/36), 20%(2/10) and 50%(5/10), respectively(P=0.00). The mortality rates of children with B-ALL and T-ALL were 13% (28/214) and 18.7% (3/16), respectively (P=0.54). The results of multivariate analysis showed that sex (P=0.03), age (P=0.00), and white blood cell count (P=0.05) were the risk factors of mortality.

Conclusion: The female, less than 1 year old at initial diagnosis, high risk ALL, WBC>50×10/L, BCR/ABL and KMT2A rearrangement are the possible risk factors causes of death in children after treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2020.06.008DOI Listing
December 2020

Extracellular vesicles from hydroxycamptothecin primed umbilical cord stem cells enhance anti-adhesion potential for treatment of tendon injury.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2020 11 25;11(1):500. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, No. 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai, China.

Background: Peritendinous fibrosis represents a fibrotic healing process that usually occurs after tendon injury or surgery. This worldwide challenge hampers the functional rehabilitation and the mobility of extremities. However, effective treatment is still lacking at present. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of extracellular vesicles derived from hydroxycamptothecin primed human umbilical cord stem cells (HCPT-EVs) on post-traumatic tendon adhesion.

Methods: Extracellular vesicles derived from unprimed human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (Unprimed EVs) or HCPT-EVs were isolated and characterized. A rat model of Achilles tendon injury was used to confirm the anti-adhesion effect of HCPT-EVs and compared with that of Unprimed EVs in vivo. In vitro, the inhibitory effects of HCPT-EVs on fibroblast proliferation, viability, and myofibroblast differentiation upon TGF-β1 stimulation were compared with the effects of Unprimed EVs. For mechanistic analysis, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-associated proteins was examined among the effector cargos of HCPT-EVs and Unprimed EVs. The ERS antagonist salubrinal was used to determine the ERS dependence of the anti-adhesion effects of HCPT-EVs.

Results: There were no obvious differences between Unprimed EVs and HCPT-EVs in terms of morphology, particle size, characteristic protein expression, and cellular uptake. HCPT-EVs exhibited a fortified anti-adhesion effect after Achilles tendon injury compared with Unprimed EVs. Fibroblast proliferation and viability and myofibroblast differentiation were all inhibited by HCPT-EVs. These properties were superior for HCPT-EVs relative to Unprimed EVs. Mechanistically, HCPT-EVs contained more ERS-associated protein than Unprimed EVs and activated the ERS pathway in fibroblast to counteract myofibroblast differentiation.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that HCPT-EVs show high anti-adhesion potential for the treatment of tendon injury by provoking ERS in fibroblasts. HCPT-EVs represent a promising strategy for clinical use in treating adhesion-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02016-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687768PMC
November 2020

Recurrence of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by allopurinol and piroxicam.

Eur J Dermatol 2020 Oct;30(5):620-621

Department of Dermatology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2020.3857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120501PMC
October 2020

Real-time signal processing in field programmable gate array based digital gamma-ray spectrometer.

Rev Sci Instrum 2020 Oct;91(10):104707

Institute of Electronic Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999, China.

Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are attractive for a digital spectrometer due to its advantages of digital signal processing. However, how to improve the versatility of the spectrometer and increase the operating frequency of the digital shaper has gradually become a limitation that needs to be resolved in the FPGA-based spectrometer. A solution to improve the universality of the FPGA-based digital spectroscopy system is presented in this work, and the implementation of the real-time digital signal processing unit is improved to obtain a higher operating frequency, and then the optimal parameters of the digital trapezoidal shaper and the processing unit are also discussed through a series of experiments; finally, a FPGA-based digital spectrometer is developed. With the HPGe detector, the spectrometer achieves excellent energy resolution performance of 0.35% at 662 keV, 0.25% at 1173.2 keV, and 0.23% at 1332.5 keV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0005694DOI Listing
October 2020

Inhibition in growth and cardiotoxicity of tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate through down-regulating Wnt signaling pathway in early developmental stage of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 16;208:111431. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; Key Lab of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

As a common organophosphorus flame retardant, tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is detected in water environment and aquatic animals extensively. Despite previous researches have reported the developmental toxicity of TBOEP in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, few research focused on its underlying mechanisms. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 20, 200, 1000 and 2000 µg/L TBOEP from 2 until 120 h post-fertilization (hpf) to determine potential mechanisms of developmental toxicity of this compound. Early developmental stage parameters such as body length, survival rate, hatching rate and heart rate were decreased, while malformation rate was ascended. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was carried out at 12, 24, 72 and 120 hpf to demonstrate alterations in expression of genes of Wnt signaling pathway. The results indicated that axin1 was significantly up-regulated, while β-catenin, pkc and wnt11 were down-regulated. Correlation analysis indicated that expression of these genes was significantly correlated with body length. Furthermore, apoptosis was detected in heart region by acridine orange (AO) staining and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxy-UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. In addition, at 120 hpf, occurrence of oxidative stress was observed in zebrafish larvae. Moreover, 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO), an activator of Wnt pathway, was found to alleviate the inhibiting effects of TBOEP on zebrafish growth. The overall outcomes offered novel viewpoints in toxic effects of TBOEP, and down-regulating Wnt signaling pathway were able to reveal some potential mechanisms of developmental toxicity of TBOEP in zebrafish larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111431DOI Listing
January 2021

Robust Vision-Based Workout Analysis Using Diversified Deep Latent Variable Model.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2020 07;2020:2155-2158

Exercising has various health benefits and it has become an integral part of the contemporary lifestyle. However, some workouts are complex and require a trainer to demonstrate their steps. Thus, there are various workout video tutorials available online. Having access to these, people are able to independently learn to perform these workouts by imitating the poses of the trainer in the tutorial. However, people may injure themselves if not performing the workout steps accurately. Therefore, previous work suggested to provide visual feedback to users by detecting 2D skeletons of both the trainer and the learner, and then using the detected skeletons for pose accuracy estimation. Using 2D skeletons for comparison may be unreliable, due to the highly variable body shapes, which complicate their alignment and pose accuracy estimation. To address this challenge, we propose to estimate 3D rather than 2D skeletons and then measure the differences between the joint angles of the 3D skeletons. Leveraging recent advancements in deep latent variable models, we are able to estimate 3D skeletons from videos. Furthermore, a positive-definite kernel based on diversity-encouraging prior is introduced to provide a more accurate pose estimation. Experimental results show the superiority of our proposed 3D pose estimation over the state-of-the-art baselines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC44109.2020.9175454DOI Listing
July 2020

ECG-Derived Heart Rate Variability Interpolation and 1-D Convolutional Neural Networks for Detecting Sleep Apnea.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2020 07;2020:637-640

Feature extraction from ECG-derived heart rate variability signal has shown to be useful in classifying sleep apnea. In earlier works, time-domain features, frequency-domain features, and a combination of the two have been used with classifiers such as logistic regression and support vector machines. However, more recently, deep learning techniques have outperformed these conventional feature engineering and classification techniques in various applications. This work explores the use of convolutional neural networks (CNN) for detecting sleep apnea segments. CNN is an image classification technique that has shown robust performance in various signal classification applications. In this work, we use it to classify one-dimensional heart rate variability signal, thereby utilizing a one-dimensional CNN (1-D CNN). The proposed technique resizes the raw heart rate variability data to a common dimension using cubic interpolation and uses it as a direct input to the 1-D CNN, without the need for feature extraction and selection. The performance of the method is evaluated on a dataset of 70 overnight ECG recordings, with 35 recordings used for training the model and 35 for testing. The proposed method achieves an accuracy of 88.23% (AUC=0.9453) in detecting sleep apnea epochs, outperforming several baseline techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC44109.2020.9175998DOI Listing
July 2020

Magnon laser based on Brillouin light scattering.

Opt Lett 2020 Oct;45(19):5452-5455

An analogous laser action of magnons has become a subject of interest, and it is crucial for the study of nonlinear magnons spintronics. In this Letter, we demonstrate the magnon laser behavior based on Brillouin light scattering in a ferrimagnetic insulator sphere, which supports optical whispering gallery modes and magnon resonances. We show that the excited magnon plays what has traditionally been the role of the Stokes wave and is coherently amplified during the Brillouin scattering process, making the magnon laser possible. Furthermore, the stimulating excited magnon number increasing exponentially with the input light power can be manipulated by adjusting the external magnetic field. In addition to providing insight into magneto-optical interaction, the study of the magnon laser action will help to develop novel, to the best of our knowledge, technologies for handling spin-wave excitations, and it could affect scientific fields beyond magnonics. Potential applications range from preparing coherent magnon sources to operating on-chip functional magnetic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.401689DOI Listing
October 2020

Transcriptomic analysis highlights cochlear inflammation associated with age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6 mice using next generation sequencing.

PeerJ 2020 19;8:e9737. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Otolaryngology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: In our aging society, age-related hearing loss (AHL) is the most common sensory disorder in old people. Much progress has been made in understanding the pathological process of AHL over the past few decades. However, the mechanism of cochlear degeneration during aging is still not fully understood.

Methods: Next generation sequencing technique was used to sequence the whole transcriptome of the cochlea of C57BL/6 mice, a mouse model of AHL. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the Cuffdiff software. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of the DEGs were implemented by using the GOseq R package and KOBAS software, respectively.

Results: A total of 731 genes (379 up- and 352 down-regulated) were revealed to be differentially expressed in the cochlea of aged mice compared to the young. Many genes associated with aging, apoptosis, necroptosis and particularly, inflammation were identified as being significantly modulated in the aged cochlea. GO and KEGG analyses of the upregulated DEGs revealed that the most enriched terms were associated with immune responses and inflammatory pathways, whereas many of the downregulated genes are involved in ion channel function and neuronal signaling. Real-time qPCR showed that HO treatment significantly induced the expression of multiple inflammation and necroptosis-related genes in HEI-OC1 cells.

Conclusion: Using next generation sequencing, our transcriptomic analysis revealed the differences of gene expression pattern with age in the cochlea of C57BL/6 mice. Our study also revealed multiple immune and inflammatory transcriptomic changes during cochlear aging and provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying cochlear inflammation in AHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7443093PMC
August 2020

Diaryl Ether: A Privileged Scaffold for Drug and Agrochemical Discovery.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Sep 29;68(37):9839-9877. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Key Laboratory of Pesticide & Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, International Joint Research Center for Intelligent Biosensor Technology and Health, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, P. R. China.

Diaryl ether (DE) is a functional scaffold existing widely both in natural products (NPs) and synthetic organic compounds. Statistically, DE is the second most popular and enduring scaffold within the numerous medicinal chemistry and agrochemical reports. Given its unique physicochemical properties and potential biological activities, DE nucleus is recognized as a fundamental element of medicinal and agrochemical agents aimed at different biological targets. Its drug-like derivatives have been extensively synthesized with interesting biological features including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, herbicidal, fungicidal, insecticidal, and so on. In this review, we highlight the medicinal and agrochemical versatility of the DE motif according to the published information in the past decade and comprehensively give a summary of the target recognition, structure-activity relationship (SAR), and mechanism of action of its analogues. It is expected that this profile may provide valuable guidance for the discovery of new active ingredients both in drug and pesticide research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c03369DOI Listing
September 2020