Publications by authors named "Hao Wu"

4,114 Publications

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Cell-type specific DNA methylome signatures reveal epigenetic mechanisms for neuronal diversity and neurodevelopmental disorder.

Hum Mol Genet 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

DNA methylation plays critical function in establishing and maintaining cell identity in brain. Disruption of DNA methylation-related processes lead to diverse neurological disorders. However, the role of DNA methylation characteristics in neuronal diversity remains underexplored. Here, we report detailed context-specific DNA methylation maps for GABAergic (GABA), Glutamatergic (Glu) and Purkinje neurons, together with matched transcriptome profiles. Genome-wide mCH levels are distinguishable, while the mCG levels are similar among the three cell types. Substantial CG-DMRs are also seen, with Glu neurons experiencing substantial hypomethylation events. The relationship between mCG levels and gene expression display cell-type specific patterns, while genic CH methylation exhibits a negative effect on transcriptional abundance. We found that cell type-specific CG-DMRs are informative in terms of represented neuronal function. Furthermore, we observed that the identified Glu-specific hypo-DMRs have a high level of consistency with the chromatin accessibility of excitatory neurons and the regions enriched for histone modifications (H3K27ac and H3K4me1) of active enhancers, suggesting their regulatory potential. Hypomethylation regions specific to each cell type are predicted to bind neuron type-specific transcription factors. Finally, we show that the DNA methylation changes in a mouse model of Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by the de novo mutations in MECP2, are cell type- and brain region-specific. Our results suggest that cell-type specific DNA methylation signatures are associated with the functional characteristics of the neuronal subtypes. The presented results emphasize the importance of DNA methylation-mediated epigenetic regulation in neuronal diversity and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddac189DOI Listing
August 2022

CircRNA-Encoded Peptides or Proteins as New Players in Digestive System Neoplasms.

Front Oncol 2022 22;12:944159. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) were considered non-coding RNAs. Nowadays, a large number of studies have found that these RNAs contain open reading frames that can be translated in a cap-independent manner, such as internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and N6-methyladenosine (m6A). The encoded peptides or proteins affect the occurrence and development of tumors by regulating the Yap-hippo and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, as well as the malignant progression of tumors through phosphorylation and ubiquitination of specific molecules. This review will summarize the regulation of circRNA translation and the functional roles and underlying mechanisms of circRNA-derived peptides or proteins in digestive tract tumors. Some circRNA-encoded peptides or proteins may be used as tumor biomarkers and prognostic factors for early screening and treatment of clinical gastrointestinal tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.944159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355255PMC
July 2022

Research Progress on the Regulation Mechanism of Key Signal Pathways Affecting the Prognosis of Glioma.

Front Mol Neurosci 2022 22;15:910543. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Graduate School of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

As is known to all, glioma, a global difficult problem, has a high malignant degree, high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. We analyzed and summarized signal pathway of the Hippo/YAP, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, miRNA, WNT/β-catenin, Notch, Hedgehog, TGF-β, TCS/mTORC1 signal pathway, JAK/STAT signal pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, the relationship between BBB and signal pathways and the mechanism of key enzymes in glioma. It is concluded that Yap1 inhibitor may become an effective target for the treatment of glioma in the near future through efforts of generation after generation. Inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR, Shh, Wnt/β-Catenin, and HIF-1α can reduce the migration ability and drug resistance of tumor cells to improve the prognosis of glioma. The analysis shows that Notch1 and Sox2 have a positive feedback regulation mechanism, and Notch4 predicts the malignant degree of glioma. In this way, notch cannot only be treated for glioma stem cells in clinic, but also be used as an evaluation index to evaluate the prognosis, and provide an exploratory attempt for the direction of glioma treatment. MiRNA plays an important role in diagnosis, and in the treatment of glioma, VPS25, KCNQ1OT1, KB-1460A1.5, and CKAP4 are promising prognostic indicators and a potential therapeutic targets for glioma, meanwhile, Rheb is also a potent activator of Signaling cross-talk etc. It is believed that these studies will help us to have a deeper understanding of glioma, so that we will find new and better treatment schemes to gradually conquer the problem of glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2022.910543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354928PMC
July 2022

Quorum sensing-based interactions among drugs, microbes, and diseases.

Sci China Life Sci 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.

Many diseases and health conditions are closely related to various microbes, which participate in complex interactions with diverse drugs; nonetheless, the detailed targets of such drugs remain to be elucidated. Many existing studies have reported causal associations among drugs, gut microbes, or diseases, calling for a workflow to reveal their intricate interactions. In this study, we developed a systematic workflow comprising three modules to construct a Quorum Sensing-based Drug-Microbe-Disease (QS-DMD) database ( http://www.qsdmd.lbci.net/ ), which includes diverse interactions for more than 8,000 drugs, 163 microbes, and 42 common diseases. Potential interactions between microbes and more than 8,000 drugs have been systematically studied by targeting microbial QS receptors combined with a docking-based virtual screening technique and in vitro experimental validations. Furthermore, we have constructed a QS-based drug-receptor interaction network, proposed a systematic framework including various drug-receptor-microbe-disease connections, and mapped a paradigmatic circular interaction network based on the QS-DMD, which can provide the underlying QS-based mechanisms for the reported causal associations. The QS-DMD will promote an understanding of personalized medicine and the development of potential therapies for diverse diseases. This work contributes to a paradigm for the construction of a molecule-receptor-microbe-disease interaction network for human health that may form one of the key knowledge maps of precision medicine in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-021-2121-0DOI Listing
August 2022

Development and validation of comprehensive clinical outcome prediction models for acute ischaemic stroke in anterior circulation based on machine learning.

J Clin Neurosci 2022 Aug 3;104:1-9. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Academy for Engineering and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The current prediction models for the clinical outcome of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) remain insufficient for individualized patient management strategies. We aimed to investigate machine learning (ML) performance in the clinical outcome prediction of AIS in anterior circulation and evaluate the clinical outcome by combining the quantitative evaluation indicators of perfusion features and basic clinical information. Four ML classifiers, support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes (NB), logistic regression (LR), and random forest (RF) were trained on a cohort of 389 adult patients (training cohort [70 %]; external validation cohort [30 %]) from the Acute Stroke Center Registry of Huashan Hospital. Model performance was compared by a range of learning metrics. Most imaging parameters were strongly correlated with the outcome (range, 0.57 to 0.81), and the correlation between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) < 30 % and clinical outcome was the strongest (ρ = 0.81). As the reference parameters increased, the performance of the four models was greatly improved [SVM (AUC: from 0.79 to 0.99, F1-score: from 0.61 to 0.90), RF (AUC: from 0.88 to 0.98, F1-score: from 0.71 to 0.96), LR (AUC: from 0.80 to 0.97, F1-score: from 0.64 to 0.95), and NB (AUC: from 0.74 to 0.97, F1-score: from 0.66 to 0.92)]. The ensemble classifier model with all parameters had the highest F1-score (0.97). All the ML models, jointly considering the basic clinical information and quantitative evaluation indicators of computed tomography perfusion (CTP), showed good performance in the prediction of clinical outcome of AIS in anterior circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2022.07.022DOI Listing
August 2022

Two new antimicrobial monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from the roots of .

J Asian Nat Prod Res 2022 Aug 5:1-9. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

School of Pharmaceutical Science and Yunnan Key Laboratory of Pharmacology for Natural Products, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650031, China.

Two new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids 3-hydroxylochnerine () and 10-hydroxyvinorine () were isolated from the roots of . Their structures were elucidated based on the analysis of spectroscopic data and ECD calculation. Both compounds exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against and , and their activities were comparable to the well-known antibacterial drug berberine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2022.2104258DOI Listing
August 2022

Reflections on China's primary care response to COVID-19: roles, limitations and implications.

Prim Health Care Res Dev 2022 Aug 5;23:e46. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

This study focuses on the role of primary care in China's response to COVID-19. A retrospective, reflective approach was taken using data available to one of the authors who led the national community response to COVID-19, first in Wuhan and then multiple cities in ten provinces/municipalities across the country. At the peak of the pandemic, primary care providers shoulder various public health responsibilities and work in close partnerships with other key stakeholders in the local communities. Primary care providers keep playing a 'sentinel'/surveillance role in identifying re-emerging cases after the elimination of community transmissions of COVID-19. Critically, however, the pandemic once again highlights some key limitations of the primary care sector, including the lack of gatekeeping, limited capacity and weak integration between medical care and public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1463423622000378DOI Listing
August 2022

Naringenin suppresses BEAS-2B-derived extracellular vesicular cargoes disorder caused by cigarette smoke extract thereby inhibiting M1 macrophage polarization.

Front Immunol 2022 18;13:930476. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Guangdong Engineering and Technology Research Center for Quality and Efficacy Re-evaluation of Post-marketed Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs)-mediated epithelium-macrophage crosstalk has been proved to maintain lung homeostasis in cigarette smoke-induced lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In our previous study, we found that EVs derived from cigarette smoke extract (CSE) treated BEAS-2B promoted M1 macrophage polarization, which probably accelerated the development of inflammatory responses. Naringenin has been proved to suppress M1 macrophage polarization, but whether naringenin regulates macrophage polarization mediated by EVs has not been reported. In this study, we firstly found that EVs derived from naringenin and CSE co-treated BEAS-2B significantly inhibited the expression of CD86 and CD80 and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and IL-12 in macrophage induced by EVs derived from CSE-treated BEAS-2B. Further research revealed that naringenin downregulated BEAS-2B-derived EVs miR-21-3p which targeted phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten/protein kinase B (PTEN/AKT) cascade in macrophages and then suppressed M1 macrophage polarization. Subsequent proteomics suggested that naringenin decreased BEAS-2B-derived EVs poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP)1 expression thereby suppressing M1 macrophage polarization probably. Our study provides novel pharmacological references for the mechanism of naringenin in the treatment of cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.930476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9342665PMC
August 2022

Discovery of Novel 7-Hydroxy-5-oxo-4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-]pyridine-6-carboxamide Derivatives with Potent and Selective Antifungal Activity against Species.

J Med Chem 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China.

and can cause fatal invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. However, few antifungal drugs are available to help treat cryptococcosis. In this study, by compound library screening, we presented the first report of hit compound , which had potent and antifungal activity against spp. tests showed that was not cytotoxic and had highly selective and strong antifungal activities against spp. with MIC values less than 1 μg/mL. Synergism of and fluconazole was also observed . The antifungal efficacy of was assessed in a wax moth larval fungal infection model, and treatment with 10 mg/kg caused a significant reduction in fungal burden and significant extension of the survival time. Taken together, our data indicate that the hit compound warrants further investigation as a novel anti- agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.2c00794DOI Listing
August 2022

Inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases: a concise review.

Eur Heart J Open 2022 Jan 14;2(1):oeab029. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Center for Precision Medicine and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Missouri School of Medicine, One Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65212, USA.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality despite aggressive treatment of traditional risk factors. Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the initiation and progression of CVDs. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a systemic state of inflammation exhibiting increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. Importantly, IBD is associated with increased risk for CVDs especially in women and young adults, including coronary artery disease, stroke, thromboembolic diseases, and arrhythmias. Potential mechanisms underlying the increased risk for CVDs in IBD patients include increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, altered platelet function, hypercoagulability, decreased numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial dysfunction, and possible interruption of gut microbiota. Although IBD does not appear to exacerbate the traditional risk factors for CVDs, including hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity, aggressive risk stratifications are important for primary and secondary prevention of CVDs for IBD patients. Compared to 5-aminosalicylates and corticosteroids, anti-TNF-α therapy in IBD patients was consistently associated with decreasing cardiovascular events. In the absence of contraindications, low-dose aspirin and statins appear to be beneficial for IBD patients. Low-molecular-weight heparin is also recommended for patients who are hospitalized with acute IBD flares without major bleeding risk. A multidisciplinary team approach should be considered for the management of IBD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjopen/oeab029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9242064PMC
January 2022

Krill Oil Turns Off TGF-β1 Profibrotic Signaling in the Prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Research Center of Translational Medicine, Jinan Central Hospital, Shandong University, 105 Jiefang Rd., Jinan, Shandong 250013, China.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a severe microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), results in high mortality due to the lack of effective interventions. The current study investigated the preventive effect of krill oil (KO) on DN using a type 2 DM mouse model induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet for 24 weeks. The diabetic mice developed albuminuria, mesangial matrix accumulation, glomerular hypertrophy, and fibrosis formation, with an increase in renal proinflammatory, oxidative and profibrotic gene expression. KO significantly prevented these effects but did not improve hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. In high-glucose-treated mesangial cells (MCs), KO preferably modulated TGF-β1 signaling as revealed by RNA-sequencing. In TGF-β1-treated MCs, KO abolished SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation and activated 7 gene expression. The action of KO on the SMADs was confirmed in the diabetic kidneys. Therefore, KO may prevent DN predominantly by suppressing the TGF-β1 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c02850DOI Listing
August 2022

C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) is a valuable test for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection: a single-center retrospective study.

J Orthop Traumatol 2022 Aug 1;23(1):36. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Department of Orthopedics, Peking University First Hospital, No. 8 Xishiku Street, XiCheng District, Beijing, 100034, People's Republic of China.

Background: The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is challenging for clinicians, and the commonly used methods are too complicated and expensive for many clinical practices. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), the platelet-to-mean-platelet-volume ratio (PVR), globulin (GLB), the albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR), and the C-reactive protein (CRP)/AGR ratio are simple biomarkers for infection and can be easily determined from routine blood tests. Due to their low cost and ready availability in clinical practice, many clinicians have considered the diagnostic value of these biomarkers for PJI. The aim of our study is to determine the value of NLR, PLR, PVR, GLB, AGR, and CRP/AGR for the diagnosis of PJI.

Materials And Methods: One hundred sixty-four patients who received revision surgery after total knee or total hip replacements were enrolled, 47 in a PJI group and 117 in an aseptic failure group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the performance of NLR, PLR, PVR, GLB, AGR, and CRP/AGR for the diagnosis of PJI, and their performance levels were then compared with those of CRP and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).

Results: The levels of all tested biomarkers were significantly higher in patients with PJI (all P < 0.05). ROC analysis showed that CRP/AGR performed best in diagnosing PJI, with an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.902, and the AUCs of NLR (0.740), PLR (0.721), PVR (0.668), GLB (0.719), and AGR (0.767) were all lower than those for CRP (0.896) and ESR (0.829).

Conclusion: CRP/AGR was a valuable test for diagnosing PJI, but other novel biomarkers had only limited diagnostic value.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10195-022-00657-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343484PMC
August 2022

Analysis of related factors of long-term complications after vascularized fibular transplantation.

Clin Oral Investig 2022 Aug 1. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Department of Oral Maxillofacial-Head and Neck Oncology, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 639, Zhi Zao Ju Road, Shanghai, 200011, China.

Objectives: Free fibula flap is the first choice for jaw reconstruction in head and neck oncology, but postoperative complications in donor site are ignored always. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term complications and potential risk factors of donor site after vascularized fibular transplantation, and to explore the precautions of preparing vascularized fibular flap and the measures of preventing donor site complications.

Materials And Methods: Data were retrospectively collected on 31 patients who had undergone immediate mandibular reconstruction with a fibular flap after segmental mandibulectomy from 2013 to 2018 in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital. Thirty-one patients (24 male, 7 female) were available for the long-term complications in donor site analysis from 25 to 96 months after surgery. The data were collected and analyzed, including age at time of operation, early postoperative complications, incidence of dorsiflexion weakness of hallux, donor site missing fibula length, proximal and distal stump fibula length, and subjective evaluation of foot function (AOFAS-hallux, AOFAS-ankle hindfoot, Enneking lower limb function score). In the single-factor analysis in this study, the correlation between related factors and long-term complications was statistically analyzed. For inter-group comparisons of quantitative data, if the normal distribution was satisfied, two independent sample t-tests were used; p < 0.05 was statistical significant. If the normal distribution was not satisfied, Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used, and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. For qualitative data, the Fisher exact probability method was compared between group differences, and p < 0.05 was statistically significant.

Results: The most commonly encountered complication in our series was dorsiflexion disorder, flexion deformity, numbness of the lateral side of the lower leg, and dorsum of the foot. Ten patients (32.26%) developed hallux flexion deformity after operation, 17 patients (54.84%) had hallux dorsiflexion dysfunction after operation, and 10 patients (32.26%) had numbness of the lateral side of the lower leg and dorsum of the foot. The incidence of hallux dorsiflexion dysfunction, thumb flexion deformity, and sensory disturbance was higher than that of other long-term complications in the donor area. The residual length of fibular distal was related to the dorsiflexion dysfunction and flexion deformity of hallux (p < 0.05). The early complications of donor site were correlated with the hallux dorsiflexion dysfunction (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The incidence of dorsiflexion disorder and flexion deformity is higher in patients after fibula transplantation. The less the residual length of fibular distal, the more obvious the long-term complications in the donor site, and the higher the incidence of dorsiflexion dysfunction and flexion deformity of hallux.

Clinical Relevance: The long-term complications of donor site after fibular transplantation seriously affect the quality of life of patients and provide clinical reference for further reducing the occurrence of donor site complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-022-04650-3DOI Listing
August 2022

Role and mechanism of miR-211 in human cancer.

J Cancer 2022 18;13(9):2933-2944. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Gynecology, Zhangjiagang First People's Hospital, Zhangjiagang Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Zhangjiagang, Jiangsu, China; Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Jiangning Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

MircoRNA (miRNA), which are a group of small, and highly conserved non-coding RNA consisting of 18-25 nucleotides, can modulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level, through complementary binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of numerous target genes. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs play critical roles in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer. Among them, miR-211 has been extensively studied in multiple cancers. The expression of miR-211 significantly varies with cancer types and may be used as a potential prognostic marker for cancer. MiR-211 can regulate multiple biological processes in cancer, including proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and drug resistance. Additionally, several factors may contribute to the dysregulation of miR-211 in cancer. Consequently, this review aims to discuss the novel findings that highlight latent value of miR-211 in the prognosis assessment and treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.71401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9330454PMC
July 2022

Dietary Concentrate-to-Forage Ratio Affects Rumen Bacterial Community Composition and Metabolome of Yaks.

Front Nutr 2022 14;9:927206. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Changes in dietary composition affect the rumen microbiota in ruminants. However, information on the effects of dietary concentrate-to-forage ratio changes on yak rumen bacteria and metabolites is limited. This study characterized the effect of three different dietary concentrate-to-forage ratios (50:50, C50 group; 65:35, C65 group; 80:20, C80 group) on yak rumen fluid microbiota and metabolites using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. Rumen fermentation parameters and the abundance of rumen bacteria were affected by changes in the dietary concentrate-to-forage ratio, and there was a strong correlation between them. At the genus level, higher relative abundances of , , , , and were observed with a high dietary concentrate-to-forage ratio ( < 0.05). Combined metabolomic and enrichment analyses showed that changes in the dietary concentrate-to-forage ratio significantly affected rumen metabolites related to amino acid metabolism, protein digestion and absorption, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and purine metabolism. Compared with the C50 group, 3-methylindole, pantothenic acid, D-pantothenic acid, and 20-hydroxy-leukotriene E4 were downregulated in the C65 group, while spermine and ribose 1-phosphate were upregulated. Compared to the C50 group, Xanthurenic acid, tyramine, ascorbic acid, D-glucuronic acid, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1a, lipoxin B4, and deoxyadenosine monophosphate were upregulated in the C80 group, while 3-methylindole and 20-hydroxy-leukotriene E4 were downregulated. All metabolites (Xanthurenic acid, L-Valine, N-Acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde, N-Acetyl-L-glutamic acid, Tyramine, 6-Keto-prostaglandin F1a, Lipoxin B4, Xanthosine, Thymine, Deoxyinosine, and Uric acid) were upregulated in the C80 group compared with the C65 group. Correlation analysis of microorganisms and metabolites provided new insights into the function of rumen bacteria, as well as a theoretical basis for formulating more scientifically appropriate feeding strategies for yak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.927206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329686PMC
July 2022

Investigation of the Effectiveness of Traditional Breathing Therapy on Pulmonary Function in College Students with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 15;2022:1674973. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, 100191, Beijing, China.

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a problem that involves many body systems, but its impact on the respiratory system deserves special attention. While there are many studies investigating the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to treat lung function in patients with sleep apnea, the lack of studies in the literature on the effects of traditional breathing therapy on lung function in patients with OSA prompted us to conduct such a study.

Objective: The present randomized trial aims to assess the effect of traditional breathing therapy on daytime sleepiness and pulmonary function in college students with OSA.

Methods: Forty college students (male) with OSA were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (CG) and the traditional breathing therapy group (TG). Daytime sleepiness symptoms in OSA are measured primarily by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Pulmonary function measurements included FVC, FEV1, PEE, and MEF50%. The changes in morning blood pressure (BP), including diastolic BP and systolic BP, were also recorded. Data were recorded before and after the experiment.

Results: A decrease in ESS at 12 weeks after intervention had statistical significance compared with values recorded before intervention ( < 0.05). A decrease in systolic and diastolic BP at 12 weeks after intervention had statistical significance compared with values recorded before intervention ( < 0.05). Comparisons made in terms of pulmonary functions demonstrated a statistically significant increase in 12-week postintervention values of FVC, FEV1, PEF, and MEF50% ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our study shows the positive effects of traditional breathing therapy on pulmonary function parameters. This suggests that traditional breathing therapy treatment in OSA patients is as effective as CPAP on pulmonary function, while there is an improvement in daytime sleepiness and a modest decline in the mean daytime systolic and diastolic BP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1674973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9307394PMC
August 2022

Development of N,N,N',N'-tetra-2-ethylhexyl-thiodiglycolamide silica-based adsorbent to separate useful metals from simulated high-level liquid waste.

J Chromatogr A 2022 Jul 18;1678:463353. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan. Electronic address:

A novel silica-based adsorbent was synthesized by impregnating macroporous silica polymer composite (SiO-P) particles with a mixture of N,N,N',N'-tetra-2-ethylhexyl-thiodiglycolamide (TEHTDGA) and tri-n-octylamine (TOA). Then, the possibility of separating Pd(II) and other metal ions from simulated high-level liquid waste (HLLW) using the newly synthesized adsorbent (TEHTDGA + TOA)/SiO-P was evaluated based on various adsorption characteristics obtained via batch-adsorption experiments, such as the HNO concentration, contact time, reaction temperature, adsorption isotherm, and chemical stability of the adsorbent. Furthermore, column separation experiments were performed based on the characteristics obtained from the batch-adsorption experiment, and the possibility of simultaneous separation of multiple metal ions was examined. The experimental results revealed that (TEHTDGA + TOA)/SiO-P performs well in the separation of multiple metal ions from simulated HLLW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2022.463353DOI Listing
July 2022

Fusion protein strategies for cryo-EM study of G protein-coupled receptors.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 28;13(1):4366. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

Single particle cryogenic-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is used extensively to determine structures of activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in complex with G proteins or arrestins. However, applying it to GPCRs without signaling proteins remains challenging because most receptors lack structural features in their soluble domains to facilitate image alignment. In GPCR crystallography, inserting a fusion protein between transmembrane helices 5 and 6 is a highly successful strategy for crystallization. Although a similar strategy has the potential to broadly facilitate cryo-EM structure determination of GPCRs alone without signaling protein, the critical determinants that make this approach successful are not yet clear. Here, we address this shortcoming by exploring different fusion protein designs, which lead to structures of antagonist bound A adenosine receptor at 3.4 Å resolution and unliganded Smoothened at 3.7 Å resolution. The fusion strategies explored here are likely applicable to cryo-EM interrogation of other GPCRs and small integral membrane proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32125-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334595PMC
July 2022

Baicalein Acts against Candida albicans by Targeting Eno1 and Inhibiting Glycolysis.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jul 28:e0208522. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Baicalein (BE) is a promising antifungal small-molecule compound with an extended antifungal spectrum, good synergy with fluconazole, and low toxicity, but its target protein and antifungal mechanism remain elusive. In this study, we found that BE can function against Candida albicans by disrupting glycolysis through targeting Eno1 and inhibiting its function. Eno1 acts as a key therapeutic target of the drug, as BE had no antifungal activity against the null mutant in a Galleria mellonella model of C. albicans infection. To investigate the mechanism of action, we solved the crystal structure of C. albicans Eno1(CaEno1) and then compared the difference between this structure and that of Eno1 from humans. The predicted primary binding site of BE on CaEno1 is between amino acids D261 and W274, with D263, S269, and K273 playing critical roles in the interaction with BE. Both positions S269 and K273 have different residues in the human Eno1 (hEno1). This finding suggests that BE may bind selectively to CaEno1, which would limit the potential for side effects in humans. Our findings demonstrate that Eno1 is a target protein of BE and thus may serve as a novel target for the development of antifungal therapeutics acting through the inhibition of glycolysis. Baicalein (BE) is a promising antifungal agent which has been well characterized, but its target protein is still undiscovered. The protein Eno1 plays a crucial role in the survival of Candida albicans. However, there are few antifungal agents which inhibit the functions of Eno1. Here, we found that BE can function against Candida albicans by disrupting glycolysis through targeting Eno1 and inhibiting its function. We further solved the crystal structure of C. albicans Eno1(CaEno1) and predicted that the primary binding site of BE on CaEno1 is between amino acids D261 and W274, with D263, S269, and K273 playing critical roles in the interaction with BE. Our findings will be helpful to get specific small-molecule inhibitors of CaEno1 and open the way for the development of new antifungal therapeutics targeted at inhibiting glycolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.02085-22DOI Listing
July 2022

Analysing Complex Problem-Solving Strategies from a Cognitive Perspective: The Role of Thinking Skills.

J Intell 2022 Jul 25;10(3). Epub 2022 Jul 25.

MTA-SZTE Digital Learning Technologies Research Group, Institute of Education, University of Szeged, 6722 Szeged, Hungary.

Complex problem solving (CPS) is considered to be one of the most important skills for successful learning. In an effort to explore the nature of CPS, this study aims to investigate the role of inductive reasoning (IR) and combinatorial reasoning (CR) in the problem-solving process of students using statistically distinguishable exploration strategies in the CPS environment. The sample was drawn from a group of university students (N = 1343). The tests were delivered via the eDia online assessment platform. Latent class analyses were employed to seek students whose problem-solving strategies showed similar patterns. Four qualitatively different class profiles were identified: (1) 84.3% of the students were proficient strategy users, (2) 6.2% were rapid learners, (3) 3.1% were non-persistent explorers, and (4) 6.5% were non-performing explorers. Better exploration strategy users showed greater development in thinking skills, and the roles of IR and CR in the CPS process were varied for each type of strategy user. To sum up, the analysis identified students' problem-solving behaviours in respect of exploration strategy in the CPS environment and detected a number of remarkable differences in terms of the use of thinking skills between students with different exploration strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332318PMC
July 2022

Flexible hybrid electronics: Enabling integration techniques and applications.

Sci China Technol Sci 2022 Jul 18:1-12. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Flexible Electronics Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 China.

The conventional electronic systems enabled by rigid electronic are prone to malfunction under deformation, greatly limiting their application prospects. As an emerging platform for applications in healthcare monitoring and human-machine interface (HMI), flexible electronics have attracted growing attention due to its remarkable advantages, such as stretchability, flexibility, conformability, and wearing comfort. However, to realize the overall electronic systems, rigid components are also required for functions such as signal acquisition and transmission. Therefore, flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), which simultaneously possesses the desirable flexibility and enables the integration of rigid components for functionality, has been emerging as a promising strategy. This paper reviews the enabling integration techniques for FHE, including technologies for two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) interconnects, bonding of rigid integrated circuit (IC) chips to soft substrate, stress-isolation structures, and representative applications of FHE. In addition, future challenges and opportunities involved in FHE-based systems are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11431-022-2074-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9302228PMC
July 2022

Co-Delivery of Repurposing Itraconazole and VEGF siRNA by Composite Nanoparticulate System for Collaborative Anti-Angiogenesis and Anti-Tumor Efficacy against Breast Cancer.

Pharmaceutics 2022 Jun 28;14(7). Epub 2022 Jun 28.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

Combinations of two different therapeutic modalities of VEGF inhibitors against angiogenesis can cooperatively impede breast cancer tumor growth and enhance therapeutic efficacy. Itraconazole (ITZ) is a conventional antifungal drug with high safety; however, it has been repurposed to be a multi target anti-angiogenesis agent for cancer therapy in recent years. In the present study, composite nanoparticles co-loaded with ITZ and VEGF siRNA were prepared in order to investigate their anti-angiogenesis efficacy and synergistic anticancer effect against breast cancer. The nanoparticles had a suitable particle size (117.9 ± 10.3 nm) and weak positive surface charge (6.69 ± 2.46 mV), as well as good stability and drug release profile in vitro. Moreover, the nanoparticles successfully escaped from endosomes and realized cell apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition in vitro. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that the nanoparticles could induce the silencing of VEGF-related expressions as well as anti-angiogenesis efficacy, and the co-loaded ITZ-VEGF siRNA NPs could inhibit tumor growth effectively with low toxicity and side effects. Taken together, the as-prepared delivery vehicles are a simple and safe nano-platform that improves the antitumor efficacy of VEGF siRNA and ITZ, which allows the repositioning of the generic drug ITZ as a great candidate for antitumor therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14071369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9317122PMC
June 2022

A Substrate Integrated Waveguide-Based W-Band Antenna for Microwave Power Transmission.

Micromachines (Basel) 2022 Jun 24;13(7). Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China.

A W-band slot array antenna based on a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) for microwave power transmission (MPT) is proposed in this paper. By size optimization, the transition from the rectifier element to the antenna is limited to a small size. It realizes a compact arrangement of the radiating slots, which not only improves the aperture efficiency of the antenna but also makes it easy to integrate into a large-scale array. For antenna testing, a coplanar waveguide-SIW-rectangular waveguide transition structure is added at the end of the antenna, and an antenna with this transition structure is processed by PCB printing technology and measured. The measured reflection coefficient is less than -10 dB at 90-96 GHz, the aperture efficiency is greater than 60% at 93.5-94.5 GHz, the maximum gain is 13.2 dB at 93.5 GHz, and the aperture efficiency is 79%. The test results of the antenna show that the antenna has a good performance and can be applied to the MPT system as a rectenna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13070986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9323638PMC
June 2022

DeepBindBC: A practical deep learning method for identifying native-like protein-ligand complexes in virtual screening.

Methods 2022 Jul 22;205:247-262. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Shenzhen Institute of Synthetic Biology, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Identifying native-like protein-ligand complexes (PLCs) from an abundance of docking decoys is critical for large-scale virtual drug screening in early-stage drug discovery lead searching efforts. Providing reliable prediction is still a challenge for most current affinity predicting models because of a lack of non-binding data during model training, lost critical physical-chemical features, and difficulties in learning abstract information with limited neural layers. In this work, we proposed a deep learning model, DeepBindBC, for classifying putative ligands as binding or non-binding. Our model incorporates information on non-binding interactions, making it more suitable for real applications. ResNet model architecture and more detailed atom type representation guarantee implicit features can be learned more accurately. Here, we show that DeepBindBC outperforms Autodock Vina, Pafnucy, and DLSCORE for three DUD.E testing sets. Moreover, DeepBindBC identified a novel human pancreatic α-amylase binder validated by a fluorescence spectral experiment (K = 1.0 × 10 M). Furthermore, DeepBindBC can be used as a core component of a hybrid virtual screening pipeline that incorporating many other complementary methods, such as DFCNN, Autodock Vina docking, and pocket molecular dynamics simulation. Additionally, an online web server based on the model is available at http://cbblab.siat.ac.cn/DeepBindBC/index.php for the user's convenience. Our model and the web server provide alternative tools in the early steps of drug discovery by providing accurate identification of native-like PLCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2022.07.009DOI Listing
July 2022

Rearrangement with the nkd2 promoter contributed to allelic diversity of the r1 gene in maize (Zea mays).

Plant J 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Department, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.

The maize red1 (r1) locus regulates anthocyanin accumulation and is a classic model for allelic diversity; changes in regulatory regions are responsible for most of the variation in gene expression patterns. Here, an intrachromosomal rearrangement between the distal upstream region of r1 and the region of naked endosperm 2 (nkd2) upstream to the third exon generated a nkd2 null allele lacking the first three exons, and the R1-st (stippled) allele with a novel r1 5' promoter region homologous to 5' regions from nkd2-B73. R1-sc:124 (an R1-st derivative) shows increased and earlier expression than a standard R1-g allele, as well as ectopic expression in the starchy endosperm compartment. Laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing indicated that ectopic R1-sc:124 expression impacted expression of genes associated with RNA modification. The expression of R1-sc:124 resembled nkd2-W22 expression, suggesting that nkd2 regulatory sequences may influence the expression of R1-sc:124. The r1-sc:m3 allele is derived from R1-sc:124 by an insertion of a Ds6 transposon in intron 4. This insertion blocks anthocyanin regulation by causing mis-splicing that eliminates exon 5 from the mRNA. This allele serves as an important launch site for Ac/Ds mutagenesis studies, and two Ds6 insertions believed to be associated with nkd2 mutant alleles were actually located in the r1 5' region. Among annotated genomes of teosinte and maize varieties, the nkd2 and r1 loci showed conserved overall gene structures, similar to the B73 reference genome, suggesting that the nkd2-r1 rearrangement may be a recent event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15918DOI Listing
July 2022

Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine-Based Multilayered Coatings for Enhanced Bone Formation.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 7;10:952500. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Department of Oral and Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, National Center for Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Research Unit of Oral and Maxillofacial Regenerative Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Repairing bone defects remains a challenge in clinical practice and the application of artificial scaffolds can enhance local bone formation, but the function of unmodified scaffolds is limited. Considering different application scenarios, the scaffolds should be multifunctionalized to meet specific demands. Inspired by the superior adhesive property of mussels, polydopamine (PDA) has attracted extensive attention due to its universal capacity to assemble on all biomaterials and promote further adsorption of multiple external components to form PDA-based multilayered coatings with multifunctional property, which can induce synergistic enhancement of new bone formation, such as immunomodulation, angiogenesis, antibiosis and antitumor property. This review will summarize mussel-inspired PDA-based multilayered coatings for enhanced bone formation, including formation mechanism and biofunction of PDA coating, as well as different functional components. The synergistic enhancement of multiple functions for better bone formation will also be discussed. This review will inspire the design and fabrication of PDA-based multilayered coatings for different application scenarios and promote deeper understanding of their effect on bone formation, but more efforts should be made to achieve clinical translation. On this basis, we present a critical conclusion, and forecast the prospects of PDA-based multilayered coatings for bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.952500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9301208PMC
July 2022

Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Reveals the Difference in Human Normal and Degenerative Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Profiles and Cellular Interactions.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 7;10:910626. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Guangzhou City Red Cross Hospital, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

The nucleus pulposus is a constituent structure of the human intervertebral disc, and its degeneration can cause intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Through bioinformatics analysis, the single-cell transcriptome sequencing expression profiles of human normal nucleus pulposus (NNP) cells and human degenerative nucleus pulposus (DNP) cells were compared to clarify the transcriptome differential expression profiles of human NNP and DNP. The single-cell sequencing results of the two samples were analyzed using bioinformatics methods to compare the differences in histiocytosis between human NNP and DNP, map the histiocytes of NNP and DNP, perform cell differentiation trajectories for the cell populations of interest and predict cell function, and explore their heterogeneity by pathway analysis and Gene Ontology analysis. Nine cell types were identified, which were chondrocyte 1, chondrocyte 2, chondrocyte 3, chondrocyte 4, chondrocyte 5, endothelial, macrophage, neutrophil, and T cells. Analysis of the proportion of chondrocytes in different tissues revealed that chondrocyte 1 accounted for a higher proportion of NNP cells and highly expressed COL2A1 compared with DNP cells; chondrocyte 2, chondrocyte 3, chondrocyte 4, and chondrocyte 5 accounted for a higher proportion of DNP cells compared with NNP cells. Among them, chondrocyte 2 was an inhibitory calcified chondrocyte with high expression of MGP, chondrocytes 3 were fibrochondrocytes with high expression of COL1A1, chondrocytes 4 were chondrocytes that highly express pain inflammatory genes such as PTGES, and chondrocytes 5 were calcified chondrocytes with high expression of FN1 (chondrocytes 4 and chondrocytes 5 were found for the first time in a study of single-cell transcriptome sequencing of disc tissue). Cell trajectory analysis revealed that chondrocyte 1 was at the beginning of the trajectory and chondrocyte 3 was at the end of the trajectory, while chondrocyte 5 appeared first in the trajectory relative to chondrocyte 2 and chondrocyte 4. After functional identification of the specifically expressed genes in five chondrocytes, it was found that chondrocyte 1 was a chondrocyte with high expression of COL2A1, COL9A2, COL11A2, and CHRDL2 in a high proportion of NNP cells, and chondrocyte 3 was a fibrochondrocyte with high expression of COL1A1, COL6A3, COL1A2, COL3A1, AQP1, and COL15A1 in an increased proportion during nucleus pulposus cell degeneration. Through cell trajectory analysis, it was found that chondrocytes 5 specifically expressing FN1, SESN2, and GDF15 may be the key cells leading to degeneration of nucleus pulposus cells. Chondrocytes 2 expressing MGP, MT1G, and GPX3 may play a role in reversing calcification and degeneration, and chondrocytes 4 expressing PTGES, TREM1, and TIMP1 may play a role in disc degeneration pain and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.910626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9301035PMC
July 2022

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Lockdown on Anxiety, Depression and Nursing Burden of Caregivers in Alzheimer's Disease, Dementia With Lewy Bodies and Mild Cognitive Impairment in China: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

Front Psychiatry 2022 7;13:921535. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Clinical College of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Neurorehabilitation, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Many countries have adopted lockdown strategies to prevent the spread of COVID-19. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of the pandemic on anxiety, depression and care burden in caregivers of nursing patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), over a one-year period.

Methods: We collected data on consecutive patients and their caregivers recruited at T0 (from 30 September to 31 December 2019) before the pandemic of COVID-19 at the memory clinic of Tianjin Huanhu Hospital. The patients and caregivers were followed up on face-to-face at T1 (from 30 September to 31 December 2020) during the pandemic to assess changes in physical activity, social contact, sleep quality, caregiver burden, anxiety and depression.

Results: A total of 105 AD, 22 DLB and 50 MCI patients and caregivers were enrolled. A total of 36.6 % of the AD, 81.6% of the DLB, 38% of the MCI caregivers had worsening ZBI, whereas 31.7 % of the AD, 54.4% of the DLB, 26 % of the MCI caregivers had worsening GAD-7, and 29.6 % of the AD, 54.4% of the DLB, and 32 % of the MCI caregivers had worsening PHQ-9. DLB caregivers exhibited a rapid deterioration of ZBI (by 4.27 ± 5.43, < 0.001), GAD-7 (by 2.23 ± 3.26, = 0.003) and PHQ-9 (by 1.32 ± 2.25, = 0.003) compared to AD and MCI caregivers.

Conclusion: Social isolation, physical inactivity and sleep disturbance after lockdown for at least 12 months were significantly related to increased caregiver burden and worsened psychological states of caregivers of AD, DLB and MCI sufferers, especially among DLB caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.921535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9301460PMC
July 2022

Equipoise for lateral access surgery.

World Neurosurg 2022 Jul 21. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the use of lateral access surgery among surgeons from the Asia-Pacific region to determine equipoise for areas of contentious use.

Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to members of the Asia Pacific Spine Society. Surgeons were asked about their past experiences with lateral access surgery including their advantages and disadvantages, specific surgical strategies, choices in implant-related factors, order of levels to operate on in multi-level reconstruction surgery, and postoperative complications.

Results: 69/102 surgeons (67.6%) had performed lateral access surgery before. 56 participating surgeons (54.9%) agreed that anterior column reconstruction via lateral access is most of time superior to TLIF and other techniques. Surgeons would consider laminectomy instead of indirect decompression in the presence of severe central or lateral recess stenosis, thickened ligamentum flavum, and facet joint hypertrophy. For the order of levels to operate on in multiple level reconstruction for deformity, where 1 stands for L3/4 or higher, 2 stands for L4/5, and 3 stands for L5/S1, 2-1-3 (28/95, 29.5%) was most common, followed by 1-2-3 (26/95, 27.4%), and 3-2-1 (21/95, 22.1%).

Conclusions: Lateral access surgery is seeing wider use in Asia-Pacific region, especially in upper middle to high income countries, while keenness of surgeons who practice in lower middle to low income countries can be improved by more training, resources, and reasonable cost. A high percentage of surgeons do not consider indirect decompression for spinal stenosis. There was no consensus on the order of levels in multiple level reconstruction for deformity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2022.07.068DOI Listing
July 2022

Experimental study on the treatment of desulfurization wastewater from coal-fired power plant by spray evaporation.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, China.

In this study, a pilot-scale evaporation tower system was built to treat the desulfurization wastewater by spray evaporation. The distribution characteristics of Cl in the wastewater evaporation process were investigated. Besides, the morphology and physicochemical property of solid evaporation products from desulfurization wastewater were analyzed. In addition, the emission characteristics of fine particulates were evaluated. The results indicated that the increase of salt content in desulfurization wastewater increased the mass concentrations of Cl in three phases, but the proportions of it remained almost unchanged, which were about 10%, 55%, and 35% in the gas phase, outlet solid phase, and bottom solid phase respectively. The increase of flue gas temperature can improve the content of Cl in the gas phase, while the increase of wastewater pH inhibited the formation of gaseous HCl. The solid evaporation products from desulfurization wastewater had a prismatic crystal structure, which mainly included the sulfate and chloride salts, and the main elements including O, Na, Mg, S, Cl, K, and Ca. Besides, the peak values of particle size distribution in the bottom solid phase and outlet solid phase were 7.67 and 0.32 μm, respectively. For the particulate matters in flue gas, the spray evaporation of desulfurization wastewater can reduce the particle concentration, promote particle agglomeration, reduce the number concentration of fine particles, and improve the removal effect of PM. When the inlet particle concentration was 7.62 g/m, it can reduce the particle concentration at the tower outlet to 4.59 g/m and reduce the number and mass concentrations of PM after ESP by about 43.8% and 36.8%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21859-7DOI Listing
July 2022
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