Publications by authors named "Hao Tang"

737 Publications

Phase transition and topological transistors based on monolayer NaBi nanoribbons.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 17;13(35):15048-15057. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China.

Recently, a topological-to-trivial insulator quantum-phase transition induced by an electric field has been experimentally reported in monolayer (ML) and bilayer (BL) NaBi. A narrow ML/BL NaBi nanoribbon is necessary to fabricate a high-performance topological transistor. By using the density functional theory method, we found that wider ML NaBi nanoribbons (>7 nm) are topological insulators, featured by insulating bulk states and dissipationless metallic edge states. However, a bandgap is opened for extremely narrow ML NaBi nanoribbons (<4 nm) due to the quantum confinement effect, and its size increases with the decrease in width. In the topological insulating ML NaBi nanoribbons, a bandgap is opened in the metallic edge states under an external displacement electric field, with strength (∼1.0 V Å) much smaller than the reopened displacement electric field in ML NaBi (3 V Å). An ultrashort ML NaBi zigzag nanoribbon topological transistor switched by the electrical field was calculated using first-principles quantum transport simulation. It shows an on/off current/conductance ratio of 4-71 and a large on-state current of 1090 μA μm. Therefore, a proof of the concept of topological transistors is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02221kDOI Listing
September 2021

Layout-to-Image Translation With Double Pooling Generative Adversarial Networks.

Authors:
Hao Tang Nicu Sebe

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 20;30:7903-7913. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

In this paper, we address the task of layout-to-image translation, which aims to translate an input semantic layout to a realistic image. One open challenge widely observed in existing methods is the lack of effective semantic constraints during the image translation process, leading to models that cannot preserve the semantic information and ignore the semantic dependencies within the same object. To address this issue, we propose a novel Double Pooling GAN (DPGAN) for generating photo-realistic and semantically-consistent results from the input layout. We also propose a novel Double Pooling Module (DPM), which consists of the Square-shape Pooling Module (SPM) and the Rectangle-shape Pooling Module (RPM). Specifically, SPM aims to capture short-range semantic dependencies of the input layout with different spatial scales, while RPM aims to capture long-range semantic dependencies from both horizontal and vertical directions. We then effectively fuse both outputs of SPM and RPM to further enlarge the receptive field of our generator. Extensive experiments on five popular datasets show that the proposed DPGAN achieves better results than state-of-the-art methods. Finally, both SPM and SPM are general and can be seamlessly integrated into any GAN-based architectures to strengthen the feature representation. The code is available at https://github.com/Ha0Tang/DPGAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3109531DOI Listing
September 2021

UBE2S exerts oncogenic activities in urinary bladder cancer by ubiquitinating TSC1.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Sep 6;578:7-14. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Urology, The Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China. Electronic address:

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2S (UBE2S), an important E2 enzyme in the process of ubiquitination, has exhibited oncogenic activities in various malignant tumors. However, it remains unknown whether UBE2S plays a role in urinary bladder cancer (UBC) development. In the current study, our data confirmed UBE2S upregulation in UBC. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that UBE2S knockdown resulted in attenuated proliferation and enhanced apoptosis, which was inverse to the phenotypes with UBE2S overexpression. Gain and loss of function assays confirmed that UBE2S exerts oncogenic activities in UBC by mediating the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. Furthermore, we discovered that this UBE2S-modulated carcinogenic mechanism was in the consequence of directly targeting tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1), which is the upstream inhibitor of mTOR signaling for ubiquitous degradation. Taken together, this study demonstrated that UBE2S is a carcinogen in UBC and promotes UBC progression by ubiquitously degrading TSC1. This consequently mediates the activation of the mTOR pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic regimen for UBC by targeting the newly identified UBE2S/TSC1/mTOR axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.08.057DOI Listing
September 2021

A Modeling Study of a Patient-specific Safe Zone for THA: Calculation, Validation, and Key Factors Based on Standing and Sitting Sagittal Pelvic Tilt.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Fourth Clinical College of Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: Lumbar-pelvic stiffness and sagittal imbalance have been reported to increase the risk of dislocation and wear after THA. One potential way to approach this concern is by identifying patient-specific safe zones for THA components based on the standing and sitting sagittal pelvic tilt. However, there is no algorithm to integrate the standing and sitting pelvic tilt into the surgical plan of component orientations.

Questions/purposes: We established a new mathematical algorithm for determining a patient-specific safe zone for THA by integrating the impingement-free ROM requirements of standing and sitting while preventing edge loading while standing. We aimed to determine (1) the accuracy of this new method for predicting the impingement-free ROM for a given component orientation, (2) the sensitivity and specificity of detecting an impingement-free acetabular cup position for standing and sitting, and (3) the influences of key factors including pelvic tilt while standing and pelvic tilt while sitting and implant parameters on patient-specific safe zones.

Methods: A strategy for calculating the intersection of standing and sitting impingement-free safe zones and the zone of a standing radiographic inclination of ≤ 45° was used to develop patient-specific safe zones. We conducted a computer simulation study including the pelvis and THA prosthesis to answer the three study questions. We enrolled 10 patients who underwent robot-assisted THA for avascular necrosis of the femoral head (mean age 49 ± 19 years; five were women) from October 2019 to December 2019. We used a prosthesis model with a conical stem neck and a non-hooded liner, with the femoral head diameter ranging between 28 mm and 40 mm, and the corresponding head-neck ratio ranging between 2.33 and 3.33. We tested 1680 movements for the accuracy of impingement-free ROM (Question 1), and 80 marginal points and 120 non-marginal points of the comprehensive impingement-free safe zone, which combines the standing and sitting postures (Question 2). For Question 3, we explored the influences of standing and sitting pelvic tilt, femoral head diameter, and ROM criteria on the size of the patient-specific safe zone.

Results: With the simulation method as a reference for detecting impingement, the mean absolute error (arithmetic mean of all the absolute errors) of the calculated impingement-free ROM was 1.4° ± 2.3°, and the limit of agreement of errors was between -3.6° and 3.7°. The sensitivity of detecting a safe cup orientation within the comprehensive impingement-free safe zone for a given ROM criterion was 98.9% (95% CI 93.6% to 99.9%), and specificity was 97.1% (95% CI 91.0% to 99.2%). There were no impingement-free safe zones for 29% (pelvic tilt combinations without an impingement-free safe zone and all tested combinations) and no patient-specific safe zones for 46% (pelvic tilt combinations without a patient-specific safe zone and all tested combinations) of the tested combinations of standing and sitting pelvic tilt. The patient-specific safe zone was sensitive to changes in standing and sitting pelvic tilt, femoral head diameter, stem version, and ROM criteria. Stem anteversions beyond 10° to 20° dramatically reduced the size of the patient-specific safe zone to 0 within a change of 10° to 20°.

Conclusion: The patient-specific safe zone algorithm can be an accurate method for determining the optimal orientation for acetabular cups and femoral stems in THA. The patient-specific safe zone is sensitive to changes in standing and sitting pelvic tilt, stem version, ROM criteria, and the femoral head diameter. A narrow zone of 10° to 20° for stem anteversion is recommended to maximize the size of the patient-specific safe zone.

Clinical Relevance: This study suggests the potential of a mathematical algorithm to optimize the orientation of THA components and illustrates how key parameters affect the patient-specific safe zone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001923DOI Listing
August 2021

Prognostic Analysis of Lung Adenocarcinoma Based on DNA Methylation Regulatory Factor Clustering.

J Oncol 2021 26;2021:1557968. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

There is a known link between DNA methylation and cancer immunity/immunotherapy; however, the effect of DNA methylation on immunotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we aimed to screen key markers for prognostic analysis of LUAD based on DNA methylation regulatory factor clustering. We classified LUAD using the NMF clustering method, and as a result, we obtained 20 DNA methylation regulatory genes. These 20 regulatory genes were used to determine the pattern of DNA methylation regulation, and patients were grouped for further analysis. The risk score model was analyzed in the TCGA dataset and an external validation set, and the correlation between the risk score and DNA methylation regulatory gene expression was explored. We analyzed the correlation between the prognostic model and immune infiltration and checkpoints. Finally, we analyzed the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functions of the prognosis model and established the nomogram model and decision tree model. The survival analyses of ClusterA and ClusterB were significantly different. Survival analysis showed that patients with a high risk score had a poor prognosis. Survival models (tobacco, T, N, M, stage, sex, age, status, and risk score) were abnormally correlated with T cells and macrophages. The higher the risk score associated with smoking was and the higher the stage was, the more severe the LUAD and the more maladjusted the immune system were. Immune infiltration and abnormal expression of immune checkpoint genes in the prognostic model of LUAD were associated with the risk score. The prognostic models were mainly enriched in the cell cycle and DNA replication. Characterization of DNA methylation regulatory patterns is helpful to improve our understanding of the immune microenvironment in LUAD and to guide the development of a more personalized immunotherapy strategy in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1557968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413078PMC
August 2021

AttentionGAN: Unpaired Image-to-Image Translation Using Attention-Guided Generative Adversarial Networks.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Sep 2;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

State-of-the-art methods in the image-to-image translation are capable of learning a mapping from a source domain to a target domain with unpaired image data. Though the existing methods have achieved promising results, they still produce visual artifacts, being able to translate low-level information but not high-level semantics of input images. One possible reason is that generators do not have the ability to perceive the most discriminative parts between the source and target domains, thus making the generated images low quality. In this article, we propose a new Attention-Guided Generative Adversarial Networks (AttentionGAN) for the unpaired image-to-image translation task. AttentionGAN can identify the most discriminative foreground objects and minimize the change of the background. The attention-guided generators in AttentionGAN are able to produce attention masks, and then fuse the generation output with the attention masks to obtain high-quality target images. Accordingly, we also design a novel attention-guided discriminator which only considers attended regions. Extensive experiments are conducted on several generative tasks with eight public datasets, demonstrating that the proposed method is effective to generate sharper and more realistic images compared with existing competitive models. The code is available at https://github.com/Ha0Tang/AttentionGAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3105725DOI Listing
September 2021

A Novel Endosteal Reconstruction of the Femur from Distal Femoral Remnant Using 3D-Printed Titanium Rings: A Two-Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 08 27;11(3). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Orthopaedics, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Fourth Clinical College of Peking University, Beijing, China.

Case: Femur reconstruction with only the distal femoral remnant is challenging because of poor bone volume required for stem fixation. Although proximal femoral replacement, total femur replacement, allograft prosthesis composite, and custom porous tantalum implants are options, hybrid fixation enhanced by endosteal reconstruction with three-dimensional (3D)-printed porous titanium rings to reconstruct the femur without supporting isthmus has not been described. We report 2 cases with satisfactory 34- and 22-month follow-up results of hybrid fixation enhanced by endosteal reconstruction with 3D-printed porous titanium rings.

Conclusion: This novel method provides a solution to revise loosened femoral endoprosthesis with only distal femoral remnant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.20.01038DOI Listing
August 2021

Recent advances in metal-organic framework membranes for water treatment: A review.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 13;800:149662. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Hebei Key Lab of Power Plant Flue Gas Multi-Pollutants Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, PR China. Electronic address:

Among many separation membranes reported to date, the favorable polymer affinity and unique physio-chemical performances of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) including ultra-high surface area, regular and highly controlled porosity have drawn widespread attention in industrial and academic communities. In this comprehensive review, the developmental timeline of MOF containing membranes for water treatment were clarified. The removal efficiencies, elimination mechanisms, as well as possible influencing factors of various MOF containing membranes that applied to water treatment were systematically summarized. The excellent removal performances of MOF containing membranes for various pollutants were determined by the size-exclusion, π-π stacking interaction, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding and so on. Since the progress of engineered MOF containing membranes for practical wastewater treatment applications lags, we further analyzed the potential environmental application of MOF containing membranes from four aspects (stability of MOFs, antifouling performance of membranes, compatibility between MOF fillers and polymer matrix, dispersity of MOF nanoparticles in matrix), hoping to provide some meaningful insights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149662DOI Listing
August 2021

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and health outcomes: a meta-research review of meta-analyses and an evidence mapping study.

Phytomedicine 2021 Oct 8;91:153699. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Evidence-Based Medicine Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China; Evidence-Based Social Science Center, School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China. Electronic address:

Background: Although a number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) have been published, no study has comprehensively summarized the clinical evidence from meta-analyses, or assessed the reporting or methodological quality of these reviews.

Purpose: The present meta-research study was designed to fill the gaps in knowledge to inform future studies and allow enhanced clinical decision-making on saffron.

Methods: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and CNKI databases were systematically searched from inception to April 3 rd, 2021, for meta-analyses of clinical trials that assessed the efficacy and safety of saffron. PRISMA 2009 and AMSTAR-2 were employed to assess the reporting and methodological quality of meta-analyses identified in the search, respectively. The present study was registered on PROSPERO with registration number CRD42020220274.

Results: Nineteen eligible systematic reviews with meta-analyses published in English were identified from 235 records. These meta-analyses were published in 12 peer-reviewed journals from 2013 to 2021. The heterogeneous results indicated that saffron significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and improved symptoms of depression, cognitive function and sexual dysfunction compared with controls (mainly placebos). Common side effects of saffron consumption included nausea, dry mouth, poor appetite, and headache, but no serious adverse reactions were reported. Primary analysis and sensitivity analysis confirmed that the reporting and methodological quality of reviews included in the study were highly correlated (p < 0.001). The quality of meta-analyses of saffron requires improvement by including a structured abstract, a prospective protocol and registration, explanation of the study designs within each study that is reviewed, the searches, risk of bias assessment, literature selection, and reporting of funding sources.

Conclusion: The available evidence indicates that saffron is a safe plant for administration as a medicine and can improve diverse clinical outcomes, but the scientific quality of the published systematic reviews needs to be improved. Moreover, the clinical effects of saffron need to be confirmed through high-quality randomized trials in multiple countries with large sample sizes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153699DOI Listing
October 2021

Wild animal and zoonotic disease risk management and regulation in China: Examining gaps and One Health opportunities in scope, mandates, and monitoring systems.

One Health 2021 Dec 5;13:100301. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

EcoHealth Alliance, New York, NY, United States of America.

Emerging diseases of zoonotic origin such as COVID-19 are a continuing public health threat in China that lead to a significant socioeconomic burden. This study reviewed the current laws and regulations, government reports and policy documents, and existing literature on zoonotic disease preparedness and prevention across the forestry, agriculture, and public health authorities in China, to articulate the current landscape of potential risks, existing mandates, and gaps. A total of 55 known zoonotic diseases (59 pathogens) are routinely monitored under a multi-sectoral system among humans and domestic and wild animals in China. These diseases have been detected in wild mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish or other aquatic animals, the majority of which are transmitted between humans and animals via direct or indirect contact and vectors. However, this current monitoring system covers a limited scope of disease threats and animal host species, warranting expanded review for sources of disease and pathogen with zoonotic potential. In addition, the governance of wild animal protection and utilization and limited knowledge about wild animal trade value chains present challenges for zoonotic disease risk assessment and monitoring, and affect the completeness of mandates and enforcement. A coordinated and collaborative mechanism among different departments is required for the effective monitoring and management of disease emergence and transmission risks in the animal value chains. Moreover, pathogen surveillance among wild animal hosts and human populations outside of the routine monitoring system will fill the data gaps and improve our understanding of future emerging zoonotic threats to achieve disease prevention. The findings and recommendations will advance One Health collaboration across government and non-government stakeholders to optimize monitoring and surveillance, risk management, and emergency responses to known and novel zoonotic threats, and support COVID-19 recovery efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358700PMC
December 2021

TMB and Inflammatory Gene Expression Associated with Clinical Outcomes following Immunotherapy in Advanced Melanoma.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Unit of Melanoma, Cancer Immunotherapy and Development Therapeutics, Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples, Italy.

Outcomes for patients with melanoma have improved over the past decade as a result of the development and FDA approval of immunotherapies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1 (PD-1), and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). However, these therapies do not benefit all patients, and an area of intensive research investigation is identifying biomarkers that can predict which patients are most likely to benefit from them. Here, we report exploratory analyses of the associations of tumor mutational burden (TMB), a 4-gene inflammatory gene expression signature, and mutation status with tumor response, progression-free survival, and overall survival in patients with advanced melanoma treated as part of the CheckMate 066 and 067 phase III clinical trials evaluating immuno-oncology therapies. In patients enrolled in CheckMate 067 receiving the anti-PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab (NIVO) alone or in combination with the anti-CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab (IPI) or IPI alone, longer survival appeared to associate with high (>median) versus low (≤median) TMB and with high versus low inflammatory signature scores. For NIVO-treated patients, the results regarding TMB association were confirmed in CheckMate 066. In addition, improved survival was observed with high TMB and absence of mutation. Weak correlations were observed between PD-L1, TMB, and the inflammatory signature. Combined assessment of TMB, inflammatory gene expression signature, and mutation status may be predictive for response to immune checkpoint blockade in advanced melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-20-0983DOI Listing
August 2021

Packing Biomolecules into Sierpiński Triangles with Global Organizational Chirality.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Sep 13;143(36):14417-14421. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Center for Carbon-based Electronics, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Fractals are found in nature and play important roles in biological functions. However, it is challenging to controllably prepare biomolecule fractals. In this study, a series of Sierpiński triangles with global organizational chirality is successfully constructed by the coassembly of l-tryptophan and 1,3-bi(4-pyridyl)benzene molecules on Ag(111). The chirality is switched when replacing l-tryptophan by d-tryptophan. The fractal structures are characterized by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy at the single-molecule level. Density functional theory calculations reveal that intermolecular hydrogen bonds stabilize the Sierpiński triangles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c05949DOI Listing
September 2021

A mixed methods study of stakeholders' practices and attitudes on avian influenza H7N9 vaccination for the yellow broiler industry in Guangxi, China.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.

In response to a sudden increase in H7N9 human infections, China introduced an H5/H7 bivalent inactivated vaccine for poultry in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces in July 2017, which subsequently became integrated into the existing compulsory national H5N1 vaccination programme from September 2017. Although the vaccination programme effectively reduced H7N9 infections in humans and poultry, there are ongoing arguments against continuing this long-term vaccination. These discussions have drawn policymakers to think about the possibility of stopping routine vaccination for H7N9 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in China; however, they have not considered the poultry industry stakeholders' practices on and attitudes towards this vaccination. This study investigated H7N9 vaccination practices in the yellow broiler industry in Guangxi and stakeholders' attitudes on H7N9 vaccination, using a mixed methods design. The study found H7N9 vaccination was well adopted in the yellow broiler industry in Guangxi regardless of the source of the vaccines. Most stakeholders believed vaccination was the best measure to control H7N9 and H5N1 AIVs, and they showed a strong willingness to continue with vaccination even without government subsidies or freely provided vaccines. The motivations by stakeholders for using vaccines to control H7N9 and H5N1 were different due to the epidemiological differences between the two strains. Understanding poultry industry stakeholders' practices and attitudes on H7N9 vaccination has important practical implications in planning vaccination policies, particularly when considering the possibility of vaccination withdrawal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14286DOI Listing
August 2021

Integrated single-cell analysis revealed immune dynamics during Ad5-nCoV immunization.

Cell Discov 2021 Aug 10;7(1):64. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

International Cooperation Laboratory on Signal Transduction, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University / Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), driven by SARS-CoV-2, is a severe infectious disease that has become a global health threat. Vaccines are among the most effective public health tools for combating COVID-19. Immune status is critical for evaluating the safety and response to the vaccine, however, the evolution of the immune response during immunization remains poorly understood. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) represents a powerful tool for dissecting multicellular behavior and discovering therapeutic antibodies. Herein, by performing scRNA/V(D)J-seq on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four COVID-19 vaccine trial participants longitudinally during immunization, we revealed enhanced cellular immunity with concerted and cell type-specific IFN responses as well as boosted humoral immunity with SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Based on the CDR3 sequence and germline enrichment, we were able to identify several potential binding antibodies. We synthesized, expressed and tested 21 clones from the identified lineages. Among them, one monoclonal antibody (P3V6-1) exhibited relatively high affinity with the extracellular domain of Spike protein, which might be a promising therapeutic reagent for COVID-19. Overall, our findings provide insights for assessing vaccine through the novel scRNA/V(D)J-seq approach, which might facilitate the development of more potent, durable and safe prophylactic vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-021-00300-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8352953PMC
August 2021

Characterization of AV422 from Haemaphysalis flava ticks in vitro.

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Aug 23;84(4):809-823. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, Research Center for Parasites & Vectors, Hunan Collaborative Innovation Center for Safety Production of Livestock and Poultry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, China.

Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites and cause a major public health threat worldwide. Development of anti-tick vaccines is regarded to be an optimal alternative for tick control. AV422, a unique protein in ticks, is secreted into hosts during blood-feeding, but its roles are not confirmed in Haemaphysalis flava ticks. We retrieved a gene fragment encoding AV422 from a transcriptome dataset of H. flava, and based on it, we reconstructed the full length of AV422 from H. flava (Hf-AV422) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Expression profiles of Hf-AV422 in whole ticks and organs of different engorgement levels were determined by qPCR. Then its opening reading frame (ORF) was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). The prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) assays were conducted to test anticoagulant activities of the purified recombinant protein (rHf-AV422). The full length of AV422 was 1152 bp. Hf-AV422 showed to be conserved as indicated by multiple sequence alignment. Expression of Hf-AV422 was significantly higher in salivary glands and cuticles than in ovaries. Its expression in whole ticks decreased during engorgement with the highest levels in 1/4 engorged ticks. rHf-AV422 prolonged PT, APTT and TT when incubated with rabbit plasma. Our data demonstrated that Hf-AV422 is a conserved salivary protein with anticoagulant activity. Further studies are needed to test in detail its functional properties to ensure it an adequate antigen candidate for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines against ticks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-021-00645-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Successful Endovascular Treatment of a Spontaneous Rupture of the Ascending Lumbar Vein: A Case Report.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2021 Jul 22:15385744211032464. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The First People's Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, China.

Although there have been a few case reports of spontaneous rupture of pelvic veins, such as the iliac vein, to date, there have been no reports of spontaneous rupture of the ascending lumbar vein. Here, we report a case of spontaneous rupture of the ascending lumbar vein for the first time. A 66-year-old woman visited the emergency department due to the swelling of the left lower limb for 2 hours. After admission, the patient developed symptoms of pain in the left lumbar region, as well as symptoms of shock, such as increased heart rate and decreased blood pressure. During emergency venography, it was found that the ascending lumbar vein was ruptured, which was accompanied by the compression and occlusion of the iliac vein (May-Thurner syndrome). During the endovascular surgical treatment, a covered stent was placed in the iliac vein, and the occluded common iliac vein was treated with a bare stent. Immediately after the surgical procedure, the patient's abdominal computed tomography examination showed the formation of a large retroperitoneal haematoma, and continuous routine blood parameter monitoring showed that haemoglobin was stable. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the ninth postoperative day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15385744211032464DOI Listing
July 2021

Molecular Imaging and Non-molecular Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaque Thrombosis.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 5;8:692915. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Thrombosis in the context of atherosclerosis typically results in life-threatening consequences, including acute coronary events and ischemic stroke. As such, early detection and treatment of thrombosis in atherosclerosis patients is essential. Clinical diagnosis of thrombosis in these patients is typically based upon a combination of imaging approaches. However, conventional imaging modalities primarily focus on assessing the anatomical structure and physiological function, severely constraining their ability to detect early thrombus formation or the processes underlying such pathology. Recently, however, novel molecular and non-molecular imaging strategies have been developed to assess thrombus composition and activity at the molecular and cellular levels more accurately. These approaches have been successfully used to markedly reduce rates of atherothrombotic events in patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by facilitating simultaneous diagnosis and personalized treatment of thrombosis. Moreover, these modalities allow monitoring of plaque condition for preventing plaque rupture and associated adverse cardiovascular events in such patients. Sustained developments in molecular and non-molecular imaging technologies have enabled the increasingly specific and sensitive diagnosis of atherothrombosis in animal studies and clinical settings, making these technologies invaluable to patients' health in the future. In the present review, we discuss current progress regarding the non-molecular and molecular imaging of thrombosis in different animal studies and atherosclerotic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.692915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286992PMC
July 2021

Characterization of nanoparticles combining polyamine detection with photodynamic therapy.

Commun Biol 2021 07 1;4(1):803. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA.

Polyamine detection and depletion have been extensively investigated for cancer prevention and treatment. However, the therapeutic efficacy is far from satisfactory, mainly due to a polyamine compensation mechanism from the systemic circulation in the tumor environment. Herein, we explore a new solution for improving polyamine detection as well as a possible consumption therapy based on a new photosensitizer that can efficiently consume polyamines via an irreversible chemical reaction. The new photosensitizer is pyrrolopyrroleaza-BODIPY pyridinium salt (PPAB-PyS) nanoparticles that can react with the over-expressed polyamine in cancer cells and produce two photosensitizers with enhanced phototoxicity on cancer destruction. Meanwhile, PPAB-PyS nanoparticles provide a simultaneous ratiometric fluorescence imaging of intracellular polyamine. This combination polyamine consumption with a chemical reaction provides a new modality to enable polyamine detection along with photodynamic therapy as well as a putative depletion of polyamines for cancer treatment and prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02317-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249666PMC
July 2021

Elastic Properties and Energy Loss Related to the Disorder-Order Ferroelectric Transitions in Multiferroic Metal-Organic Frameworks [NH][Mg(HCOO)] and [(CH)NH][Mg(HCOO)].

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;14(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

Elastic properties are important mechanical properties which are dependent on the structure, and the coupling of ferroelasticity with ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism is vital for the development of multiferroic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The elastic properties and energy loss related to the disorder-order ferroelectric transition in [NH][Mg(HCOO)] and [(CH)NH][Mg(HCOO)] were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The DSC curves of [NH][Mg(HCOO)] and [(CH)NH][Mg(HCOO)] exhibited anomalies near 256 K and 264 K, respectively. The DMA results illustrated the minimum in the storage modulus and normalized storage modulus, and the maximum in the loss modulus, normalized loss modulus and loss factor near the ferroelectric transition temperatures of 256 K and 264 K, respectively. Much narrower peaks of loss modulus, normalized loss modulus and loss factor were observed in [(CH)NH][Mg(HCOO)] with the peak temperature independent of frequency, and the peak height was smaller at a higher frequency, indicating the features of first-order transition. Elastic anomalies and energy loss in [NH][Mg(HCOO)] near 256 K are due to the second-order paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transition triggered by the disorder-order transition of the ammonium cations and their displacement within the framework channels, accompanied by the structural phase transition from the non-polar hexagonal 622 to polar hexagonal 6. Elastic anomalies and energy loss in [(CH)NH][Mg(HCOO)] near 264 K are due to the first-order paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transitions triggered by the disorder-order transitions of alkylammonium cations located in the framework cavities, accompanied by the structural phase transition from rhombohedral 3¯c to monoclinic c. The elastic anomalies in [NH][Mg(HCOO)] and [(CH)NH][Mg(HCOO)] showed strong coupling of ferroelasticity with ferroelectricity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14113125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201311PMC
June 2021

Correction: Community Mitigation of COVID-19 and Portrayal of Testing on TikTok: Descriptive Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 Jun 29;7(6):e31542. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Health and Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/29528.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/31542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278293PMC
June 2021

Effects of PET microplastics on the physiology of Drosophila.

Chemosphere 2021 Nov 19;283:131289. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

College of Automation, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018, China.

Microplastics, as a new type of pollution, have attracted global attention and have become a research focus in recent years. Given the small size of microplastics, they can be ingested by many organisms. In addition, microplastics can enter the human body through the food chain. So, the potential dangers of microplastics can't be ignored. This study took Drosophila as a model organism to delve the physiological effects of polyethylene terephthalate microplastics (PET-MPs). Here, we reported that the higher concentration of PET-MPs was, the more obvious the effect became. The amount of oviposition decreased in female flies exposed, indicating that microplastics affected reproduction. PET-MPs caused the decrease of triglyceride and glucose content in male flies, as well as the decrease of starvation resistance, suggesting the effect of microplastics on energy metabolism. In addition, the 24-h spontaneous activity of flies exposed to PET-MPs increased significantly. The experimental results can help understand the potential impact of microplastics on physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131289DOI Listing
November 2021

Demalonylation of DDX3 by Sirtuin 5 promotes antiviral innate immune responses.

Theranostics 2021 24;11(15):7235-7246. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Anesthesiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

: Hosts defend against viral infection by sensing viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns and activating antiviral innate immunity through TBK1-IRF3 signaling. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. : SiRNAs targeting Sirt1-7 were transfected into macrophages to screen the antiviral function. deficient mice or macrophages were subjected to viral infection to assess and function of Sirt5 by detecting cytokines, viral replicates and survival rate. Immunoprecipitation, WesternBlot and luciferase reporter assay were used to reveal molecular mechanism. : In this study, we functionally screened seven Sirtuin family members, and found that Sirtuin5 (Sirt5) promotes antiviral signaling and responses. deficiency leads to attenuated antiviral innate immunity and upon viral infection by decreasing TBK1-IRF3 activation and type I IFN production. Sirt5 overexpression increased antiviral innate immunity. Mechanism investigation revealed that Sirt5 interacts with DDX3 and demalonylates DDX3, which is critical for TBK1-IRF3 activation. Mutation of the demalonylation lysine sites (K66, K130, and K162) of DDX3 increased transcription. Furthermore, the acetylation on lysine 118 of DDX3 positively regulated transcription, whereas Sirt5 could not deacetylate this site. : Sirt5 promotes anti- RNA and DNA virus innate immune responses by increasing TBK1 signaling through demalonylating DDX3, which identifies a novel regulatory pathway of antiviral innate immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.52934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210596PMC
July 2021

Comparison of Clinical Efficacy of Alectinib Crizotinib in -Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:646526. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Objective: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of alectinib versus crizotinib in the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase () positive non-small-cell lung cancer.

Methods: Studies about the efficacy of alectinib versus crizotinib in the treatment of -positive non-small cell lung cancer were searched in PubMed, Scopus, Embase and the Cocharane Library from inception to February 15, 2020. Two reviewers independently screened these studies, extracted the data, assessed the risk of bias in the included studies by using the Cochrane risk assessment tool, and then used review manager 5.3 software for meta-analysis.

Results: Three studies comprising a total of 697 patients with -positive non-small cell lung cancer were included, 380 in the alectinib group and 317 in the crizotinib group. The dose of alectinib (300 mg) in J-ALEX were lower than the approved dose (600 mg), however the crizotinib group in all three studies received the recommended dose (250 mg). Performance bias was high in all three studies whereas, and the attrition bias was high in two studies (Toyoaki Hida 2017 and Solange peters 2017). The results of meta-analysis showed that: the overall response rate [OR = 2.07, 95% CI (1.41, 3.06), P = 0.0002], the progression free survival [HR = 0.34, 95% CI (0.21, 0.55), P <0.0001], the partial response [OR = 1.71, 95% CI (1.19, 2.46), P = 0.003], P = 0.001], in alectinib group were higher than that of crizotinib group. Though the total number of events in complete response and the disease control rate were more in alectinib group than that of crizotinib group, the meta-analysis results shows no significant differences between two drugs in the disease control rate [OR = 2.24, 95% CI (0.56, 8.88), P = 0.25], the complete response [OR = 1.82, 95% CI (0.75, 4.45), P = 0.19]. In addition, the number of events in the stable disease [OR = 0.45, 95% CI (0.28, O.74), P = 0.001], and the adverse events [OR = 0.50, 95% CI (0.23, 0.81), P = <0.0001] in alectinib group were lower than that of crizotinib group.

Conclusion: Alectinib in terms of overall response rate, progression-free survival and partial response is superior to crizotinib in the treatment of -positive non-small cell lung cancer and is well tolerated. Compared with crizotinib, alectinib is more effective than crizotinib and has a lower incidence of total adverse reactions. Meta-analysis results confirm the strong base for alectinib as a first-line treatment for -positive NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.646526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206528PMC
June 2021

MOG autoantibodies trigger a tightly-controlled FcR and BTK-driven microglia proliferative response.

Brain 2021 Sep;144(8):2361-2374

Multiple Sclerosis and Neurorepair Research Unit, Biogen, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

Autoantibodies are a hallmark of numerous neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, autoimmune encephalitides and neuromyelitis optica. Whilst well understood in peripheral myeloid cells, the pathophysiological significance of autoantibody-induced Fc receptor signalling in microglia remains unknown, in part due to the lack of a robust in vivo model. Moreover, the application of therapeutic antibodies for neurodegenerative disease also highlights the importance of understanding Fc receptor signalling in microglia. Here, we describe a novel in vivo experimental paradigm that allows for selective engagement of Fc receptors within the CNS by peripherally injecting anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) monoclonal antibodies into normal wild-type mice. MOG antigen-bound immunoglobulins were detected throughout the CNS and triggered a rapid and tightly regulated proliferative response in both brain and spinal cord microglia. This microglial response was abrogated when anti-MOG antibodies were deprived of Fc receptor effector function or injected into Fcγ receptor knockout mice and was associated with the downregulation of Fc receptors in microglia, but not peripheral myeloid cells, establishing that this response was dependent on central Fc receptor engagement. Downstream of the Fc receptors, BTK was a required signalling node for this response, as microglia proliferation was amplified in BtkE41K knock-in mice expressing a constitutively active form of the enzyme and blunted in mice treated with a CNS-penetrant small molecule inhibitor of BTK. Finally, this response was associated with transient and stringently regulated changes in gene expression predominantly related to cellular proliferation, which markedly differed from transcriptional programs typically associated with Fc receptor engagement in peripheral myeloid cells. Together, these results establish a physiologically-meaningful functional response to Fc receptor and BTK signalling in microglia, while providing a novel in vivo tool to further dissect the roles of microglia-specific Fc receptor and BTK-driven responses to both pathogenic and therapeutic antibodies in CNS homeostasis and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab231DOI Listing
September 2021

Next-generation Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIIB091 selectively and potently inhibits B cell and Fc receptor signaling and downstream functions in B cells and myeloid cells.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 14;10(6):e1295. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

MS Development Unit Biogen Cambridge MA USA.

Objectives: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) plays a non-redundant signaling role downstream of the B-cell receptor (BCR) in B cells and the receptors for the Fc region of immunoglobulins (FcR) in myeloid cells. Here, we characterise BIIB091, a novel, potent, selective and reversible small-molecule inhibitor of BTK.

Methods: BIIB091 was evaluated and in preclinical models and in phase 1 clinical trial.

Results: BIIB091 potently inhibited BTK-dependent proximal signaling and distal functional responses in both B cells and myeloid cells with ICs ranging from 3 to 106 nm, including antigen presentation to T cells, a key mechanism of action thought to be underlying the efficacy of B cell-targeted therapeutics in multiple sclerosis. BIIB091 effectively sequestered tyrosine 551 in the kinase pocket by forming long-lived complexes with BTK with of more than 40 min, thereby preventing its phosphorylation by upstream kinases. As a key differentiating feature of BIIB091, this property explains the very potent whole blood ICs of 87 and 106 nm observed with stimulated B cells and myeloid cells, respectively. , BIIB091 blocked B-cell activation, antibody production and germinal center differentiation. In phase 1 healthy volunteer trial, BIIB091 inhibited naïve and unswitched memory B-cell activation, with an IC of 55 nm and without significant impact on lymphoid or myeloid cell survival after 14 days of dosing.

Conclusion: Pharmacodynamic results obtained in preclinical and early clinical settings support the advancement of BIIB091 in phase 2 clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cti2.1295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204096PMC
June 2021

Mangiferin Promotes Bregs Level, Activates Nrf2 Antioxidant Signaling, and Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression in Murine Splenic Mononuclear Cells In Vitro.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Jun 15;41(3):454-464. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071, China.

Recent studies indicated that regulatory B cells (Bregs) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant signaling pathway play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Mangiferin (MA), a polyphenol compound, has been reported to activate Nrf2/antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) signaling pathway. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of MA on Bregs and Nrf2 antioxidant signaling in murine splenic mononuclear cells (MNCs) in vitro. Our results revealed that MA could increase the Bregs level in murine splenic MNCs. Moreover, MA up-regulated the expression of Bregs-associated immunosuppressive factor interleukin-10 (IL-10) by activating the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in murine splenic MNCs. Meanwhile, MA inhibited the proinflammatory cytokines IL-2 and interferon-γ (INF-γ) at both mRNA and protein levels. MA also enhanced the transcription and protein expression of Nrf2 and NADPH quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), whereas decreased that of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in murine splenic MNCs. Moreover, MA promoted the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of murine splenic MNCs. These results suggested that MA exerts immunosuppressive effects by upregulating the Bregs level, activating the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, and inhibiting the expression of pro-immunoinflammatory factors. MA, as a natural immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent, may have a potential role in the prophylaxis and treatment of cGVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2371-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for osteoporosis: A protocol for an overview with an evidence map and a network meta-analysis of trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26429

Clinical College of Chinese Medicine, Gansu University of Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, China.

Background: Osteoporosis is a common bone disease that has a significant social and economic effect. Many meta-analyses of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for osteoporosis have been reported, but the findings may be contradictory, and both the reporting and methodological quality remain unknown. As a result, an overview that includes a network meta-analysis was proposed to address these issues.

Methods: The Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, CBM, and CNKI databases will be systematically searched for meta-analyses of osteoporosis interventions from inception to May 2021. In order to evaluate the reporting and methodological quality of each included meta-analysis, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 2020 (PRISMA-2020), and A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR-2) will be used. For the assessment of the relative efficacy and safety of treatments reported in the randomized controlled trials included in the meta-analyses identified by the overview, a Bayesian network meta-analysis will be carried out. The odds ratio and standard mean difference with their 95% credible intervals will be used to present the binary and continuous outcomes, respectively, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation method will be used to determine the certainty of the evidence through Confidence In Network Meta-Analysis. Data analysis will be performed using WinBUGS, R, and Stata, with a 2-sided P < .05 considered as statistically significant.

Results: The findings of this overview, which includes a network meta-analysis, will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication.

Conclusion: An overview with network meta-analysis will provide evidence on the efficacy and safety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for osteoporosis, while also identifying the flaws in previously published meta-analyses. All of these results may be used to improve clinical decision-making and future studies.

Inplasy Registration Number: INPLASY202150022.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213325PMC
June 2021

Assessment of Exenatide loaded Biotinylated Trimethylated Chitosan/HP-55 Nanoparticles.

Curr Drug Deliv 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Jinhua Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 365 Renmin East Road, Jinhua321000, China.

Background: Exenatide (EXE) is an anti-hyperglycemic agent approved for treating type 2 diabetes by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, twice-daily injection of exenatide inconveniences most patients.

Objective: In this study, biotinylated trimethylated chitosan (Bio-TMC) based nanoparticles were proposed to promote oral absorption of exenatide. Realizing the oral administration of exenatide is very important to alleviate patient suffering and improve patient compliance.

Methods: Bio-TMC was synthesized, and the chemical structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were prepared through polyelectrolyte interaction in the presence of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HP-55). The formulations were physically and chemically characterized. In vitro release was investigated in different pH media. In vivo antidiabetic activities of biotin modified and non-biotin modified chitosan were evaluated in db/db mice.

Results: EXE-loaded Bio-TMC/HP-55 nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a mean diameter of 156.2 nm and zeta potential of +11.3 mV. The drug loading efficiency and loading contents were 52.38% and 2.08%, respectively. In vitro release revealed that EXE-loaded Bio-TMC/HP-55 nanoparticles were released faster in pH 1.2 than pH 6.8 (63.71% vs. 50.12%), indicating that nanoparticles had enteric characteristics. Antidiabetic activity study revealed that after oral administration to diabetic mice, the relative pharmacological bioavailability (FPharm%) of the biotin modified nanoparticles was found to be 1.27-fold higher compared with the unmodified ones and the hypoglycemic effect was also better.

Conclusion: Bio-TMC/HP-55 nanoparticles are feasible as oral drug carriers of exenatide and have the potential to be extended to other drugs that are not readily oral, such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, genes, etc., thus, this would be beneficial for pharmaceutical industries. Further research will focus on the biodistribution of Bio-TMC/HP-55 nanoparticles after oral administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201818666210614100603DOI Listing
June 2021

A cucurbituril-pillararene ring-on-ring complex.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul 11;57(53):6562-6565. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

A new type of non-intertwined ring-on-ring assembly was formed by the portal binding between a perfunctionalized polycationic pillar[5]arene and a cucurbit[10]uril, demonstrating a facile approach to solubilize a large macrocycle in water. Different binding behaviors towards guests were observed for the high-order complex, enriching the functional supramolecular systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01777bDOI Listing
July 2021

Acute kidney disease in hospitalized acute kidney injury patients.

PeerJ 2021 24;9:e11400. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University; Hunan Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease and Blood Purification, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have become worldwide public health problems, but little information is known about the epidemiology of acute kidney disease (AKD)-a state in between AKI and CKD. We aimed to explore the incidence and outcomes of hospitalized patients with AKD after AKI, and investigate the prognostic value of AKD in predicting 30-day and one-year adverse outcomes.

Methods: A total of 2,556 hospitalized AKI patients were identified from three tertiary hospitals in China in 2015 and followed up for one year.AKD and AKD stage were defined according to the consensus report of the Acute Disease Quality Initiative 16 workgroup. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for confounding variables were used to examine the association of AKD with adverse outcomes.

Results: AKD occurred in 45.4% (1161/2556) of all AKI patients, 14.5% (141/971) of AKI stage 1 patients, 44.6% (308/691) of AKI stage 2 patients and 79.6% (712/894) of AKI stage 3 patients. AKD stage 1 conferred a greater risk of Major Adverse Kidney Events within 30 days (MAKE30) (odds ratio [OR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval 95% CI [1.66-3.36]) than AKD stage 0 but the association only maintained in AKI stage 3 when patients were stratified by AKI stage. However, compared with AKD stage 0, AKD stage 2-3 was associated with higher risks of both MAKE30 and one-year chronic dialysis and mortality independent of the effects of AKI stage with OR being 31.35 (95% CI [23.42-41.98]) and 2.68 (95% CI [2.07-3.48]) respectively. The association between AKD stage and adverse outcomes in 30 days and one year was not significantly changed in critically ill and non-critically ill AKI patients. The results indicated that AKD is common among hospitalized AKI patients. AKD stage 2-3 provides additional information in predicting 30-day and one-year adverse outcomes over AKI stage. Enhanced follow-up of renal function of these patients may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158174PMC
May 2021
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