Publications by authors named "Hao Ma"

238 Publications

Healthy Sleep Patterns and Risk of Incident Arrhythmias.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Sep;78(12):1197-1207

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging evidence has linked sleep behaviors with the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. The various sleep behaviors are typically correlated; however, most of the previous studies only focused on the individual sleep behavior, without considering the overall sleep patterns.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the associations between a healthy sleep pattern with the risks of cardiac arrhythmias.

Methods: A total of 403,187 participants from UK Biobank were included. A healthy sleep pattern was defined by chronotype, sleep duration, insomnia, snoring, and daytime sleepiness. Weighted genetic risk score for atrial fibrillation was calculated.

Results: The healthy sleep pattern was significantly associated with lower risks of atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) (HR comparing extreme categories: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.64-0.80) and bradyarrhythmia (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.54-0.77), but not ventricular arrhythmias, after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and genetic risk factors. Compared with individuals with a healthy sleep score of 0-1 (poor sleep group), those with a healthy sleep score of 5 had a 29% and 35% lower risk of developing AF and bradyarrhythmia, respectively. Additionally, the genetic predisposition to AF significantly modified the association of the healthy sleep pattern with the risk of AF (P interaction = 0.017). The inverse association of the healthy sleep pattern with the risk of AF was stronger among those with a lower genetic risk of AF.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that a healthy sleep pattern is associated with lower risks of AF and bradyarrhythmia, independent of traditional risk factors, and the association with AF is modified by genetic susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.07.023DOI Listing
September 2021

Obesity and the relation between joint exposure to ambient air pollutants and incident type 2 diabetes: A cohort study in UK Biobank.

PLoS Med 2021 Aug 30;18(8):e1003767. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America.

Background: Air pollution has been related to incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We assessed the joint association of various air pollutants with the risk of T2D and examined potential modification by obesity status and genetic susceptibility on the relationship.

Methods And Findings: A total of 449,006 participants from UK Biobank free of T2D at baseline were included. Of all the study population, 90.9% were white and 45.7% were male. The participants had a mean age of 56.6 (SD 8.1) years old and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.4 (SD 4.8) kg/m2. Ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) with diameters ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5), between 2.5 μm and 10 μm (PM2.5-10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. An air pollution score was created to assess the joint exposure to the 4 air pollutants. During a median of 11 years follow-up, we documented 18,239 incident T2D cases. The air pollution score was significantly associated with a higher risk of T2D. Compared to the lowest quintile of air pollution score, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for T2D was 1.05 (0.99 to 1.10, p = 0.11), 1.06 (1.00 to 1.11, p = 0.051), 1.09 (1.03 to 1.15, p = 0.002), and 1.12 (1.06 to 1.19, p < 0.001) for the second to fifth quintile, respectively, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, genetic factors, and other covariates. In addition, we found a significant interaction between the air pollution score and obesity status on the risk of T2D (p-interaction < 0.001). The observed association was more pronounced among overweight and obese participants than in the normal-weight people. Genetic risk score (GRS) for T2D or obesity did not modify the relationship between air pollution and risk of T2D. Key study limitations include unavailable data on other potential T2D-related air pollutants and single-time measurement on air pollutants.

Conclusions: We found that various air pollutants PM2.5, PM2.5-10, NO2, and NO, individually or jointly, were associated with an increased risk of T2D in the population. The stratified analyses indicate that such associations were more strongly associated with T2D risk among those with higher adiposity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8439461PMC
August 2021

Antidepressant-like Effect of 3-n-Butylphthalide in Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress: Modulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Level and mTOR Activation in Cortex.

Neurochem Res 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Chemistry and Biological Engineering Academy, Yichun University, Yichun, 336000, China.

3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP), an extract from seeds of Apium graveolens Linn. (Chinese celery), has been demonstrated to have antidepressant effects in suspension chronic-stressed rats by our group. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the antidepressant mechanism of NBP. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was applied for 6 weeks to induced a depressive-like behavior, characterized by decreased locomotor activity, sucrose preference and the NE, DA and 5-HT levels in cortex. Oral treatment with NBP (30 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), similarly to fluoxetine (2 mg/kg, p.o.), can prevention of these alterations. The NBP (30 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.) reversed the decrease in the BDNF, p-ERK, mTOR and synapsin-1 protein levels in rat cortex caused by CUMS. And rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, completely inhibited the antidepressant-like activity of NBP in vivo. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NBP treatment attenuated the depression-like behaviors through the modulation of serotonergic system and BDNF-ERK-mTOR signaling in rat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03397-9DOI Listing
August 2021

808 nm Near-Infrared Light-Triggered Payload Release from Green Light-Responsive Donor-Acceptor Stenhouse Adducts Polymer-Coated Upconversion Nanoparticles.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Aug 4:e2100318. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

College of Biomass Science and Engineering, National Engineering Research Center of Clean Technology in Leather Industry, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, P. R. China.

Owing to deep activation in biotissues and enhanced targeting efficiency, developing photoresponsive polymer-upconversion nanoparticles (PP-UCNPs) nanovectors has witnessed rapid growth in the past decade. However, up to date, all developed nanovectors require high-order photon processes to initiate the release of cargos. The photodamage caused by high-power near-infrared laser light may be a critical obstacle to their clinical application. Here, for the first time, by leveraging absorption-emission spectral matching between donor-acceptor Stenhouse adducts (DASA) PP and UCNPs (λ , 808 nm) in the green region (≈530 nm), the designed nanovector is capable of releasing cargos at a low-power 808 nm excitation (0.2 W). Considering the high molar absorptivity, biobenign, and synthetic tunability of DASA, DASA PP can be utilized as an up-and-coming candidate to design and synthesize the next generation of upconversion nanovectors without photodamage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202100318DOI Listing
August 2021

Targeting Dermal Fibroblast Subtypes in Antifibrotic Therapy: Surface Marker as a Cellular Identity or a Functional Entity?

Front Physiol 2021 15;12:694605. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Fibroblasts are the chief effector cells in fibrotic diseases and have been discovered to be highly heterogeneous. Recently, fibroblast heterogeneity in human skin has been studied extensively and several surface markers for dermal fibroblast subtypes have been identified, holding promise for future antifibrotic therapies. However, it has yet to be confirmed whether surface markers should be looked upon as merely lineage landmarks or as functional entities of fibroblast subtypes, which may further complicate the interpretation of cellular function of these fibroblast subtypes. This review aims to provide an update on current evidence on fibroblast surface markers in fibrotic disorders of skin as well as of other organ systems. Specifically, studies where surface markers were treated as lineage markers and manipulated as functional membrane proteins are both evaluated in parallel, hoping to reveal the underlying mechanism behind the pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis contributed by various fibroblast subtypes from multiple angles, shedding lights on future translational researches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.694605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319956PMC
July 2021

Radioactive impacts of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident on blue sharks in the Northwest Pacific.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 14;285:131537. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address:

The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (FDNPPA) derived Cs, Cs and Ag in blue sharks captured in the Northwest Pacific during 2011-2018 were assessed for the first time in the aspects of radioactive contamination, temporal variation, maternal-to-fetus transfer, tissue distribution and radiation dose, to demonstrate the impacts of the FDNPPA on blue sharks. The contribution of the FDNPPA derived radiocesium in blue sharks (>52%) was estimated based on Cs/Cs. The effective and ecological half-lives of the FDNPPA derived Cs (270 d, 410 d), and Cs (430 d, 450 d) were calculated. These contaminations decreased with time and returned to the level before the FDNPPA during the period of Sep. 2017-Sep. 2018.Cs and Cs tended to distribute in muscles, while Ag mainly distribute in their guts. Cs and Cs were also transferred to fetuses and the activities were up to ~30% of the maternal activities. Dose assessment demonstrated that the highest FDNPPA derived dose rate in blue sharks (~0.42 nGy/h) was far below the ERICA ecosystem screening benchmark of 10 μGy/h and the committed effective dose in humans from ingesting blue shark meat (0.06-0.90 μSv) was far less than that from annual consumption of food and water. It was far from causing radiation harm to blue sharks and humans, suggesting that the impacts of the FDNPPA on blue sharks were not significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131537DOI Listing
July 2021

Doping and facet effects synergistically mediated interfacial reaction mechanism and selectivity in photocatalytic NO abatement.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 9;604:624-634. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Yangtze Delta Region Institute (Huzhou) & School of Resources and Environment, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Huzhou 313001, China. Electronic address:

The surface atomic coordination and arrangement largely determine photocatalytic properties. Whereas, the intrinsic impact of surface microstructures on the reaction mechanism and pathway is still unclear. Herein, via constructing N-doped BiOCO photocatalysts with diverse exposed facets, (1 1 0) and (0 0 1) facet, we testify that the pivotal roles of crystal facet and doping effect on the intermediate production and reactivity for photocatalytic nitric oxide (NO) abatement. The photoreactivity of N-doped BiOCO is documented to be higher than that of the pure samples because of the enhanced light absorption and charge transfer. Further in situ probing experiments and theoretical calculations verify that the unique adsorption patterns and activated intermediates on the (1 1 0) facet facilitate the formation of final products and inhibit the generation of toxic NO by-product in terms of thermodynamics. More importantly, we found that the selective and nonselective oxidation processes are emerged over (1 1 0) and (0 0 1) facets of BiOCO, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.07.018DOI Listing
July 2021

Surface Plasmon Resonance from Gallium-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Electromagnetic Enhancement Contribution to Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 19;13(29):35038-35045. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China.

In recent years, semiconductor-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates have received considerable attention and led to a forefront in the SERS field. However, the lack of electromagnetic (EM) enhancement contributions highly precludes the development of semiconductive-substrate-based SERS. In this study, Ga-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated and employed as novel SERS substrates based on the EM enhancement contribution of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The obtained Ga-doped ZnO NPs exhibited obvious SPR absorptions in the visible and near- and mid-infrared regions. SPR absorption can be readily tuned by changing the doping ratios of Ga ions. The SERS spectra of Ga-doped ZnO/4-mercaptopyridine (MPy) were investigated at different excitation wavelengths of 488, 532, 633, and 785 nm. The spectral enhancement of Ga-doped ZnO substrates depended on the doping ratios, excitation wavelengths, and nearby SPR absorption. Ga-doped ZnO NPs with the highest free charge carrier density and the doping ratio of 5% showed the strongest SERS spectra. For the fixed doping ratio of 5%, the better is the match between excitation wavelengths and SPR absorption, the higher is the SERS spectral enhancement. This study showed the feasibility of EM contributions to SERS by using semiconductive substrates and can contribute to the development of the semiconductor-based EM mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05804DOI Listing
July 2021

Genomic Insights Into the Admixture History of Mongolic- and Tungusic-Speaking Populations From Southwestern East Asia.

Front Genet 2021 22;12:685285. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.

As a major part of the modern Eurasian or Altaic language family, most of the Mongolic and Tungusic languages were mainly spoken in northern China, Mongolia, and southern Siberia, but some were also found in southern China. Previous genetic surveys only focused on the dissection of genetic structure of northern Altaic-speaking populations; however, the ancestral origin and genomic diversification of Mongolic and Tungusic-speaking populations from southwestern East Asia remain poorly understood because of the paucity of high-density sampling and genome-wide data. Here, we generated genome-wide data at nearly 700,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 Mongolians and 55 Manchus collected from Guizhou province in southwestern China. We applied principal component analysis (PCA), ADMIXTURE, statistics, analysis, , TreeMix, Fst, and ALDER to infer the fine-scale population genetic structure and admixture history. We found significant genetic differentiation between northern and southern Mongolic and Tungusic speakers, as one specific genetic cline of Manchu and Mongolian was identified in Guizhou province. Further results from ADMIXTURE and statistics showed that the studied Guizhou Mongolians and Manchus had a strong genetic affinity with southern East Asians, especially for inland southern East Asians. The -based estimates of ancestry admixture proportion demonstrated that Guizhou Mongolians and Manchus people could be modeled as the admixtures of one northern ancestry related to northern Tungusic/Mongolic speakers or Yellow River farmers and one southern ancestry associated with Austronesian, Tai-Kadai, and Austroasiatic speakers. The -based phylogeny and neighbor-joining tree further confirmed that Guizhou Manchus and Mongolians derived approximately half of the ancestry from their northern ancestors and the other half from southern Indigenous East Asians. The estimated admixture time ranged from 600 to 1,000 years ago, which further confirmed the admixture events were mediated the Mongolians Empire expansion during the formation of the Yuan dynasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.685285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258170PMC
June 2021

Adherence to a healthy sleep pattern is associated with lower risks of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer-specific mortality.

J Intern Med 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Background: Individual unhealthy sleep behaviours have been associated with increased risks of all-cause mortality and deaths due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer. The evidence regarding the association of sleep patterns with these risks is limited.

Objective: To examine the associations of sleep patterns with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in a large prospective cohort.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included 283,443 adults from UK Biobank without CVD and cancer at baseline. We created a healthy sleep score and sleep patterns combining five individual sleep behaviours.

Results: During a mean (standard deviation) of 8.9 (1.1) years (2.5 million person-years) of follow up, a total of 7936 all-cause deaths, 762 CVD-caused deaths, and 4540 cancer-caused deaths occurred during follow up. One point increase of the healthy sleep score was associated with a 4-11% lower risk of all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio [HR], 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.96), CVD mortality (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95) and cancer mortality (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99), with adjustment for age, sex, assessment centres, smoking status, alcohol intake status, socioeconomic status and physical activity. Compared with participants with an unfavourable sleep pattern, those with a favourable sleep pattern had 24-42% lower risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. The association with all-cause mortality tended to be stronger among underweight participants and those with insufficient physical activity.

Conclusions: A healthy sleep pattern was associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality and mortality from CVD and cancer. Our findings highlight the importance of improving overall sleep behaviours in lowering mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.13367DOI Listing
July 2021

Alcohol Consumption Levels as Compared With Drinking Habits in Predicting All-Cause Mortality and Cause-Specific Mortality in Current Drinkers.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 07;96(7):1758-1769

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the joint associations of amounts of alcohol consumed and drinking habits with the risks of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality.

Patients And Methods: A total of 316,627 healthy current drinkers, with baseline measurements between March 13, 2006, and October 1, 2010, were included in this study. We newly created a drinking habit score (DHS) according to regular drinking (frequency of alcohol intake ≥3 times/wk) and whether consuming alcohol with meals (yes).

Results: During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, we documented 8652 incident cases of all-cause death, including 1702 cases of cardiovascular disease death, 4960 cases of cancer death, and 1990 cases of other-cause death. After adjustment confounders and amount of alcohol consumed, higher DHS was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, cancer mortality, or other-cause mortality (P<.001, P=.03, P<.001, and P<.001, respectively). We observed that the amount of alcohol consumed have different relationships with the risks of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality among participants with distinct drinking habits, grouped by DHS. For example, in the joint analyses, a J-shaped association between the amount of alcohol consumed and all-cause mortality was observed in participants with unfavorable DHS (P=.02) while the association appeared to be U-shaped in participants with favorable DHS (P=.003), with lower risks in those consuming greater than or equal to 50 g/wk and less than 300 g/wk.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that alcohol consumption levels have different relationships with the risk of mortality among current drinkers, depending on their drinking habits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262073PMC
July 2021

Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria with Inhibitory Activity against ETEC K88 as Feed Additive and the Effects on Sows and Piglets.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 9;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Henan Key Lab Ion Beam Bioengineering, School of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Enterotoxigenic (ETEC), which expresses K88 is the principal microorganism responsible for bacterial diarrhea in pig husbandry, and the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has caused many problems; therefore, antibiotics need to be replaced in order to prevent diarrhea caused by ETEC K88. The objective of this study was to screen excellent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that inhibit ETEC K88 and explore their effects as probiotic supplementation on reproduction, growth performance, diarrheal incidence, and antioxidant capacity of serum in sows and weaned piglets. Three LAB strains, P7, P8, and P15, screened from 295 LAB strains and assigned to () , , and with high inhibitory activity against ETEC K88 were selected for a study on feeding of sows and weaned piglets. These strains were chosen for their good physiological and biochemical characteristics, excellent exopolysaccharide (EPS) production capacity, hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation ability, survival in gastrointestinal (GI) fluids, lack of hemolytic activity, and broad-spectrum activity against a wide range of microorganisms. The results indicate that LAB strains P7, P8, and P15 had significant effects on improving the reproductive performance of sows and the growth performance of weaned piglets, increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and immune indexes in both.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11061719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227144PMC
June 2021

Joint Associations of Actual Age and Genetically Determined Age at Menarche With Risk of Mortality.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2115297. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Importance: Previous studies have shown an association between actual age at menarche and risk of all-cause mortality; however, the results are inconsistent, and no study has analyzed the joint associations between genetic susceptibility and actual age at menarche with the risk of mortality in prospective cohorts.

Objectives: To investigate joint associations of actual age and genetically determined age at menarche with risk of all-cause mortality.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted using data from the UK Biobank population across the United Kingdom from March 13, 2006, to October 1, 2010. A total of 264 546 women aged between 39 and 71 years with actual menarcheal age were included in this study; 246 676 of these women had genetic data available. Actual age at menarche was obtained from the touchscreen questionnaire at recruitment from 2006 to 2010. Genetically determined age at menarche was assessed by a genetic risk score. Statistical analysis was performed from August 22 to December 12, 2019.

Exposure: Age at menarche.

Main Outcomes And Measures: A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess associations of actual or genetically determined age at menarche with risk of all-cause mortality.

Results: The mean (SD) age of the study population at baseline was 56.4 (8.0) years, and the mean (SD) age at menarche included in the analyses was 13.0 (1.6) years. During a median of 9.0 years (range, 8.3-9.7 years) of follow-up, 7761 deaths were documented among the women with actual age at menarche, and 7054 deaths were documented among the women with genetically determined age at menarche. Both the actual age at menarche and the genetically determined age at menarche showed a U-shaped association with the risk of all-cause mortality (lowest actual age [<12 years] vs reference age [15 years]: hazard ratio [HR], 1.16 [95% CI, 1.07-1.26]; highest actual age [≥16 years] vs reference age [15 years]: HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.05-1.31]; P < .001 for quadratic trend; genetic risk score [GRS] of 1 vs reference score [GRS of 4]: HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.01-1.19; GRS of 6 vs reference score [GRS of 4]: HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.00-1.18]; P = .03 for quadratic trend). Significant interactions were also found between actual age at menarche and genetically determined age at menarche with all-cause mortality (HR of mortality associated with age of menarche <12 year was 1.24 [95% CI, 1.10-1.40] in the GRS of 1 group and 1.44 [95% CI, 1.21-1.72] in the GRS of 6 group; P = .001 for interaction). Women with mismatch of actual age and genetically determined age at menarche had the highest mortality risks; participants with the lowest genetic risk score and the highest age at menarche had an HR of 2.12 (95% CI, 1.58-2.83), and participants with the highest GRS and the lowest age at menarche had an HR of 1.44 (95% CI, 1.21-1.72).

Conclusions And Relevance: The results suggest that both actual age and genetically determined age at menarche exhibit U-shaped associations with all-cause mortality. Women with mismatch of actual age and genetically determined age at menarche may have the highest risk of all-cause mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.15297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246309PMC
June 2021

High-efficiency charge transfer on SERS-active semiconducting KTiO nanowires enables direct transition of photoinduced electrons to protein redox centers.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Nov 19;191:113452. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Chemistry, Institute for Molecular Science and Fusion Technology, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, 24341, South Korea. Electronic address:

Photoinduced charge transfer (PICT) plays a crucial role in the chemical mechanism of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), in which small organic molecules are generally used as probes. Herein, semiconducting KTiO nanowires (NWs) are synthesized and are found to exhibit high SERS activity probed by 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal high-efficiency CT on the KTiO nanowires. Furthermore, PICT on the KTiO NWs is for the first time evidenced by a redox protein, cytochrome c (Cyt c). Under optimized experimental conditions, the transformation of oxidized Cyt c to its reduced state clearly verifies the electron transfer (ET) from the KTiO nanowire to the protein. The ET mechanism is explored based on energy levels of semiconductors and molecular dynamics simulations, thus revealing the importance of energy level matching and electron tunneling from the semiconductor surface to the redox center. This study indicates a great potential of multiple-layered KTiO NWs in the application of SERS on semiconducting materials and more importantly, it provides a new route for the rational design of protein-semiconductor interfaces for investigating electron transfer processes of redox proteins and biocatalytic reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113452DOI Listing
November 2021

Replacement of Sedentary Behavior by Various Daily-Life Physical Activities and Structured Exercises: Genetic Risk and Incident Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes Care 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, LA

Objective: To prospectively analyze the association of sedentary behavior time with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk and perform the isotemporal substitution analyses to estimate the effect of substitution of sedentary behaviors by equal time of different types of daily-life physical activities and structured exercise. We also examined modifications by the genetic predisposition to T2D.

Research Design And Methods: We included 475,502 participants free of T2D in the UK Biobank. Sedentary time was quantified by summing up the time spent on television watching, computer use, and driving.

Results: During a median follow-up of 11 years, we documented 18,169 incident T2D cases. In comparison of the extreme categories (≥6 vs. <2 h/day), the hazard ratio for T2D was 1.58 (95% CI 1.47, 1.71) after adjustment for age, race, sex, lifestyle factors, and other covariates. Replacing 30 min of sedentary behavior per day with an equal amount of time of different types of daily-life activities and structured exercise was significantly associated with a 6-31% risk reduction of T2D, with strenuous sports showing the strongest (31%, 95% CI 24, 37) benefit. Moreover, we found a significant interaction between sedentary behavior and genetic predisposition for the risk of T2D ( = 0.0008). The association was more profound among participants with a lower genetic risk of T2D.

Conclusions: Our study indicates that sedentary behavior time is associated with an increased risk of T2D; replacing sedentary behavior with a short duration (30 min/day) of daily-life physical activities or structured exercise is related to a significant reduction in T2D risk. Furthermore, such association was stronger among those with a lower genetic risk of T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc21-0455DOI Listing
June 2021

Nitrogen Doped Carbon Coated Bi Microspheres as High-performance Anode for Half and Full Sodium Ion Batteries.

Chem Asian J 2021 Aug 30;16(16):2314-2320. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

The College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, 180 Si-Wang-Ting Road, Yangzhou, 225002, P. R. China.

As two-dimensional (2D) materials, bismuth (Bi) has large interlayer spacing along c-axis (0.395 nm) which provides rich active sites for sodium ions, thus guaranteeing high sodium ion storage activity. However, its poor electrical conductivity, combined with its degraded cycling performance, restricts its practical application. Herein, Bi microsphere coated with nitrogen-doped carbon ([email protected]) was synthesized. Owing to the unique Bi crystals and nitrogen-doped carbon layer, the obtained [email protected] anode exhibited satisfactory cycling stability and superior rate capability. Moreover, after assembling [email protected] anode with Na V (PO ) @C cathode to full battery, excellent sodium storage performance was obtained (57 mA h g after 2000 cycles at 1.0 A g ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100519DOI Listing
August 2021

MHSU-Net: A more versatile neural network for medical image segmentation.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Sep 6;208:106230. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa ON, K1S 5B6, Canada.

Background And Objective: Medical image segmentation plays an important role in clinic. Recently, with the development of deep learning, many convolutional neural network (CNN)-based medical image segmentation algorithms have been proposed. Among them, U-Net is one of the most famous networks. However, the standard convolutional layers used by U-Net limit its capability to capture abundant features. Additionally, the consecutive maximum pooling operations in U-Net cause certain features to be lost. This paper aims to improve the feature extraction capability of U-Net and reduce the feature loss during the segmentation process. Meanwhile, the paper also focuses on improving the versatility of the proposed segmentation model.

Methods: Firstly, in order to enable the model to capture richer features, we have proposed a novel multiscale convolutional block (MCB). MCB adopts a wider and deeper structure, which can be applied to different types of segmentation tasks. Secondly, a hybrid down-sampling block (HDSB) has been proposed to reduce the feature loss via replacing the maximum pooling layer. Thirdly, we have proposed a context module (CIF) based on atrous convolution and SKNet to extract sufficient context information. Finally, we combined the CIF module with Skip Connection of U-Net, and further proposed the Skip Connection+ structure.

Results: We name the proposed network MHSU-Net. MHSU-Net has been evaluated on three different datasets, including lung, cell contour, and pancreas. Experimental results demonstrate that MHSU-Net outperforms U-Net and other state-of-the-art models under various evaluation metrics, and owns greater potential in clinical applications.

Conclusions: The proposed modules can greatly improve the feature extraction capability of the segmentation model and effectively reduce the feature loss during the segmentation process. MHSU-Net can also be applied to different types of medical image segmentation tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106230DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparisons among rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, populations of maternal transcript profile associated with egg viability.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 15;22(1):448. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

USDA/ARS Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA, USA.

Background: Transcription is arrested in the late stage oocyte and therefore the maternal transcriptome stored in the oocyte provides nearly all the mRNA required for oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early cleavage of the embryo. The transcriptome of the unfertilized egg, therefore, has potential to provide markers for predictors of egg quality and diagnosing problems with embryo production encountered by fish hatcheries. Although levels of specific transcripts have been shown to associate with measures of egg quality, these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) have not been consistent among studies. The present study compares differences in select transcripts among unfertilized rainbow trout eggs of different quality based on eyeing rate, among 2 year classes of the same line (A1, A2) and a population from a different hatchery (B). The study compared 65 transcripts previously reported to be differentially expressed with egg quality in rainbow trout.

Results: There were 32 transcripts identified as DEGs among the three groups by regression analysis. Group A1 had the most DEGs, 26; A2 had 15, 14 of which were shared with A1; and B had 12, 7 of which overlapped with A1 or A2. Six transcripts were found in all three groups, dcaf11, impa2, mrpl39_like, senp7, tfip11 and uchl1.

Conclusions: Our results confirmed maternal transcripts found to be differentially expressed between low- and high-quality eggs in one population of rainbow trout can often be found to overlap with DEGs in other populations. The transcripts differentially expressed with egg quality remain consistent among year classes of the same line. Greater similarity in dysregulated transcripts within year classes of the same line than among lines suggests patterns of transcriptome dysregulation may provide insight into causes of decreased viability within a hatchery population. Although many DEGs were identified, for each of the genes there is considerable variability in transcript abundance among eggs of similar quality and low correlations between transcript abundance and eyeing rate, making it highly improbable to predict the quality of a single batch of eggs based on transcript abundance of just a few genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07773-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207762PMC
June 2021

Phytochemical composition and bioactive effects of ethyl acetate fraction extract (EAFE) of Glechoma hederacea L.

J Food Biochem 2021 07 14;45(7):e13815. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant cancer that exists worldwide. Herbal medicine plays an important role in the management and treatment of various diseases worldwide. The herbal medicine Glechoma hederacea L. has a variety of biological activities and belongs to the Labiatae family. The current study investigated the in vitro effects of ethyl acetate fraction extract (EAFE) of G. hederacea on HepG2 cells and its possible mechanism. The phytochemical composition of EAFE was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioactive effects of the EAFE were assessed using the MTT assay, annexin V-FITC/PI staining, PhiphiLux-G D kit, DAPI and comet assay, flow cytometry, western blotting. In this study, we found that rosmarinic acid (RA), caffeic acid (CA), and ferulic acid (FA) were the abundant polyphenols in EAFE of G. hederacea. This fraction extract could significantly inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation, make cells apoptosis, and cause S phase arrest. The apoptogenic activity of EAFE involved reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction, Ca accumulation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) destruction, regulate the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspases 3, 9 cascade. We propose that the EAFE can inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cell via intracellular ROS mediated apoptosis. EAFE could be developed as a possible anti-HCC agent or pharmaceutical industries. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: 1. The rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were the main polyphenolic components in the ethyl acetate fraction extract (EAFE) of Glechoma hederacea. 2. The EAFE treatment exerted cytotoxicity by inducing S arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. 3. Antitumor effect of EAFE through the mitochondria-mediated pathway and ROS-mediated ER stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13815DOI Listing
July 2021

Perinatal exposure to maternal smoking and adulthood smoking behaviors in predicting cardiovascular diseases: A prospective cohort study.

Atherosclerosis 2021 07 26;328:52-59. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Little is known about the associations between perinatal exposure to maternal smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in offspring, and whether such associations are modified by adulthood and genetically determined smoking behaviors.

Methods: A total of 414,588 participants without CVD at baseline were included from the UK Biobank in 2006-2010 and followed up through 2018. Cox-proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of perinatal maternal smoking with CVD, and both multiplicative and additive interaction analyses were performed to investigate the modification effects of own smoking behaviors.

Results: During a median follow-up of 8.93 years, we observed 10,860 incident CVD events, including 7006 myocardial infarction (MI) and 4147 stroke. We found that perinatal exposure to maternal smoking was associated with increased risks of CVD (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05-1.14), MI (1.10; 1.05-1.16) and stroke (1.10; 1.03-1.18). In addition, we observed significant interactions between perinatal exposure to maternal smoking and adulthood exposure to own smoking on CVD and MI on both the multiplicative and additive scales (all p < 0.05). The attributable proportions due to additive interaction between perinatal and adulthood exposure to smoking were 14% (9%-19%) for CVD and 16% (10%-22%) for MI, respectively. Perinatal exposure to maternal smoking also showed an interaction with genetically determined smoking on MI (p < 0.05), but no interactions were found on the total CVD and stroke.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that perinatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with increased risks of CVD events, and such relations are modified by adulthood smoking behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.05.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254766PMC
July 2021

Training Data Selection and Optimal Sensor Placement for Deep-Learning-Based Sparse Inertial Sensor Human Posture Reconstruction.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 May 10;23(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Biomimetic Robotics and Intelligent Systems, Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Although commercial motion-capture systems have been widely used in various applications, the complex setup limits their application scenarios for ordinary consumers. To overcome the drawbacks of wearability, human posture reconstruction based on a few wearable sensors have been actively studied in recent years. In this paper, we propose a deep-learning-based sparse inertial sensor human posture reconstruction method. This method uses bidirectional recurrent neural network (Bi-RNN) to build an a priori model from a large motion dataset to build human motion, thereby the low-dimensional motion measurements are mapped to whole-body posture. To improve the motion reconstruction performance for specific application scenarios, two fundamental problems in the model construction are investigated: training data selection and sparse sensor placement. The problem of deep-learning training data selection is to select independent and identically distributed (IID) data for a certain scenario from the accumulated imbalanced motion dataset with sufficient information. We formulate the data selection into an optimization problem to obtain continuous and IID data segments, which comply with a small reference dataset collected from the target scenario. A two-step heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the data selection problem. On the other hand, the optimal sensor placement problem is studied to exploit most information from partial observation of human movement. A method for evaluating the motion information amount of any group of wearable inertial sensors based on mutual information is proposed, and a greedy searching method is adopted to obtain the approximate optimal sensor placement of a given sensor number, so that the maximum motion information and minimum redundancy is achieved. Finally, the human posture reconstruction performance is evaluated with different training data and sensor placement selection methods, and experimental results show that the proposed method takes advantages in both posture reconstruction accuracy and model training time. In the 6 sensors configuration, the posture reconstruction errors of our model for walking, running, and playing basketball are 7.25°, 8.84°, and 14.13°, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e23050588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151896PMC
May 2021

Puerarin ameliorates depression-like behaviors of with chronic unpredictable mild stress mice by remodeling their gut microbiota.

J Affect Disord 2021 07 27;290:353-363. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School of Aesthetic Medicine, Yichun University, Yichun 336000, China. Electronic address:

Background: Puerarin is an isoflavone derivative isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Pueraria Lobelia, which has proven to relieve depression-like behavior. However, its underlying antidepressant mechanisms have been poorly characterized. Herein, we explored whether Puerarin's antidepressant effect is associated with changes in the gut microbiota (GM).

Methods: The model of depression in mice featuring chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was eastablished, and its antidepressant effect was estimated by sugar water preference and forced swimming test. Genomic DNA extracted from fecal samples was employed to sequence the 16S rRNA gene for gut microbiota identification.

Results: Puerarin (100 mg/kg) treatment was found to alleviate the CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors. Furthermore, chronic stress led to pathological microbial flora, which was principally marked by the increased abundance of pathogenic bacteria (Proteobacteria, Flexispira, Desulfovibrio) and the decreased abundance of beneficial bacteria (Firmicutes, Bacillales, Lactobacillus). Intriguingly, puerarin treatment reversed these changes.

Limitations: The specific role and anti-depression mechanism of characteristic gut microflora were not confirmed.

Conclusion: Puerarin can remedy stress-induced disruptions of normal gut microflora. It is suggested that the antidepressant mechanism of puerarin may closely interact with restoring beneficial microflora.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.04.037DOI Listing
July 2021

Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking to Explore the Underlying Mechanism of Huangqi Gegen Decoction for Treating Diabetic Nephropathy.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 6;2021:9928282. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Aesthetic Medicine, Yichun University, Yichun, Jiangxi 336000, China.

Background: Huangqi Gegen decoction (HGD), a Chinese herb formula, has been widely used to treat diabetic nephropathy in China, while the pharmacological mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, the present study aims to explore the underlying mechanism of HGD for treating diabetic nephropathy (DN).

Materials And Methods: Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database (TCMSP), UniProt, and SwissTargetPrediction databases were used to search the active ingredients and potential targets of HGD. In addition, multiple disease-related databases were used to collect DN-related targets. Common targets of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were established using the STRING database. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the DAVID database. At last, AutoDockVina was used to conduct molecular docking verification for the core components and targets.

Results: A total of 27 active ingredients and 354 putative identified target genes were screened from HGD, of which 99 overlapped with the targets of DN and were considered potential therapeutic targets. Further analysis showed that the HGD activity of quercetin, formononetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and beta-sitosterol ingredients is possible through VEGFA, IL6, TNF, AKT1, and TP53 targets involved in TNF, toll-like receptors, and MAPK-related pathways, which have anti-inflammatory, antiapoptosis, antioxidation, and autophagy effects, relieve renal fibrosis and renal cortex injury, and improve renal function, thus delaying the development of DN. The molecular docking results showed that quercetin, formononetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, beta-sitosterol had a good binding activity with VEGFA, IL6, TNF, AKT1, and TP53.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that HGD might take part in the treatment of DN through multicomponent, multitarget, and multichannel combined action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9928282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8121566PMC
May 2021

Remarkably Weak Anisotropy in Thermal Conductivity of Two-Dimensional Hybrid Perovskite Butylammonium Lead Iodide Crystals.

Nano Lett 2021 May 3;21(9):3708-3714. Epub 2021 May 3.

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, United States.

Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites consisting of alternating organic and inorganic layers are a new class of layered structures. They have attracted increasing interest for photovoltaic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications, where knowing their thermal transport properties is critical. We carry out both experimental and computational studies on thermal transport properties of 2D butylammonium lead iodide crystals and find their thermal conductivity is ultralow (below 0.3 W m K) with very weak anisotropy (around 1.5) among layered crystals. Further analysis reveals that the unique structure with the preferential alignment of organic chains and complicated energy landscape leads to moderately smaller phonon lifetimes in the out-of-plane direction and comparable phonon group velocities in in-plane and out-of-plane directions. These new findings may guide the future design of novel hybrid materials with desired thermal conductivity for various applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04550DOI Listing
May 2021

Simple and efficient registration of 3D point cloud and image data for an indoor mobile mapping system.

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2021 Apr;38(4):579-586

Registration of 3D lidar point clouds with optical images is critical in the combination of multisource data. Geometric misalignment originally exists in the pose data between lidar point clouds and optical images. To improve the accuracy of the initial pose and the applicability of the integration of 3D points and image data, we develop a simple but efficient registration method. We first extract point features from lidar point clouds and images: point features are extracted from single-frame lidar and point features are extracted from images using a classical Canny operator. The cost map is subsequently built based on Canny image edge detection. The optimization direction is guided by the cost map, where low cost represents the desired direction, and loss function is also considered to improve the robustness of the proposed method. Experiments show positive results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.414042DOI Listing
April 2021

Longibramides A-E, Peptaibols Isolated from a Mushroom Derived Fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai DMG-3-1-1.

Chem Biodivers 2021 May 14;18(5):e2100128. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, 100850, P. R. China.

Five new peptaibols, longibramides A-E (1-5) with 11 amino acid residues, were isolated from a fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai DMG-3-1-1, which was isolated from a mushroom Clitocybe nebularis (Batsch) P. Kumm collected from coniferous forest in the subboreal area of northeast China. The structures of longibramides A-E were determined by their spectroscopic data (NMR and MS-MS spectra), their absolute configurations were determined by X-ray diffractions and Marfey's analyses. The X-ray diffractions of longibramides A, B, and the similar CD spectra of A-E showed that they all had α-helix conformations. Longibramides B and E showed moderate cytotoxicities against BV2 and MCF-7 cells and also showed some inhibitory effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA T144. L-trans-Hyp was not commonly found in natural peptaibols, which was the 6 or 10 amino acid residue in longibramides C-E. The X-ray diffractions of longibramides A and B afforded the accuracy conformations of their secondary structures, which maybe help to interpret the structure-activity relationships of the family of peptaibols in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100128DOI Listing
May 2021

Birth weight modifies the relation between adulthood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 01;9(1)

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine,Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

Introduction: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated in fetal and early-life growth and development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to examine the interaction between circulating IGF-1 and birth weight in relation to risk of T2D.

Research Design And Methods: We included 181 090 adults, aged 39-70 years in the UK Biobank Study, who were free of diabetes or major cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Serum IGF-1 levels were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay method. Birth weight was self-reported; a Genetic Risk Score (GRS) was calculated to define the genetically determined birth weight. The outcome was the incidence of T2D.

Results: We identified 3299 incident T2D cases over an average of 9.9 years of follow-up. Among the participants with birth weight of ≥2.5 kg, IGF-1 levels were inversely associated with T2D risk in a dose-dependent manner (ptrend<0.001). In contrast, the association was not significant among those with birth weight of <2.5 kg (p-interaction=0.001). The GRS of birth weight did not interact with IGF-1 levels on T2D risk.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that birth weight significantly modifies the relation between adulthood levels of circulating IGF-1 and the risk of T2D. Our findings highlight the importance of early-life risk factors in the development of the lifecourse prevention strategies targeting IGF-1 and T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925240PMC
January 2021

Vibrational spectroscopy and DFT analysis of 4-cyanophenylhydrazine: A potential SERS probe.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 May 13;253:119574. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, PR China. Electronic address:

4-Cyanophenylhydrazine (4-CPH) is an organic synthesis intermediate. To date, several products derived from 4-CPH have been well studied; however, 4-CPH itself has not been extensively investigated. Herein, we performed vibrational and theoretical analyses of 4-CPH. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were applied to predict the IR and Raman spectra of 4-CPH, which were compared with the experimental spectra. The calculated and experimental spectral results were in good agreement, except for an abnormal transformation of the protonated 4-CPH cyano group (C≡N), which was observed in the theoretical IR spectrum. Several wavefunction analyses revealed that this transformation was due to the protonation-induced depolarization of the molecule. Moreover, we verified the applicability of 4-CPH as a probe for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). We observed a pH-dependent shift in the cyano bond frequency within the silent region and determined, as a novel discovery, that this shift was induced by 4-CPH protonation. Our results provide considerable, fundamental information that confirms the potential of 4-CPH as a SERS probe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119574DOI Listing
May 2021

An ECG Signal Classification Method Based on Dilated Causal Convolution.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 2;2021:6627939. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Shandong Artificial Intelligence Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, China.

The incidence of cardiovascular disease is increasing year by year and is showing a younger trend. At the same time, existing medical resources are tight. The automatic detection of ECG signals becomes increasingly necessary. This paper proposes an automatic classification of ECG signals based on a dilated causal convolutional neural network. To solve the problem that the recurrent neural network framework network cannot be accelerated by hardware equipment, the dilated causal convolutional neural network is adopted. Given the features of the same input and output time steps of the recurrent neural network and the nondisclosure of future information, the network is constructed with fully convolutional networks and causal convolution. To reduce the network depth and prevent gradient explosion or gradient disappearance, the dilated factor is introduced into the model, and the residual blocks are introduced into the model according to the shortcut connection idea. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified in the MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation Database (MIT-BIH AFDB). In the experiment of the MIT-BIH AFDB database, the classification accuracy rate is 98.65%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6627939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872762PMC
September 2021

Fatty liver index and left ventricular mass: prospective associations from two independent cohorts.

J Hypertens 2021 05;39(5):961-969

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, Louisiana, USA.

Objectives: Heart disease is the most common cause of death in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Emerging data have shown that NAFLD may affect subclinical myocardial remodeling, mainly left ventricular hypertrophy; however, evidence from the prospective studies is still lacking.

Methods: Prospective analyses were performed to investigate the association of fatty liver index (FLI) with left ventricular mass (LVM) among 1962 participants from the Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS, 1995-2010) and 1547 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS, 2001-2011) free of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) at baseline. LVM was assessed by two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiography and indexed (LVMI) to body height (m2.7). Multivariable regression models were applied after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors.

Results: In both cohorts, we observed significant and positive associations between FLI and LVM (BHS: β=0.59, P < 0.001; YFS: β=0.41, P < 0.001) and LVMI (BHS: β=0.14, P < 0.001; YFS: β=0.09, P < 0.001). In addition, we found that the relationship between FLI and LVMI was stronger in women than men (BHS: P-interaction = 0.01; YFS: P-interaction < 0.01); and the relationship between FLI and LVM/LVMI was stronger in black than white individuals (LVM: P-interaction = 0.02; LVMI: P-interaction = 0.04). Moreover, we found that the associations of FLI with LVM and LVMI were attenuated by high physical activity, especially in BHS (P-interaction = 0.02).

Conclusion: Our findings from two independent prospective cohorts indicate that FLI is positively associated with LVM/LVMI, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Such relationships are more pronounced among women and black individuals and are attenuated by high physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002716DOI Listing
May 2021
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