Publications by authors named "Hao Li"

3,698 Publications

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Assessment of Trends in Guideline-Based Oral Anticoagulant Prescription for Patients With Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation in China.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2118816. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Importance: Adherence to oral anticoagulants (OACs) per guideline recommendations is crucial in reducing ischemic stroke and systemic thromboembolism in high-risk patients with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. However, data on OAC use are underreported in China.

Objective: To assess adherence to the Chinese Stroke Association or the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association's clinical management guideline-recommended prescription of OACs, the temporal improvement in adherence, and the risk factors associated with OAC prescriptions.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This quality improvement study was conducted at 1430 participating hospitals in the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance (CSCA) among patients with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation enrolled in the CSCA between August 1, 2015, and July 31, 2019.

Exposure: Calendar year.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Adherence to the Chinese Stroke Association or the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association's clinical management guideline-recommended prescribing of OACs (warfarin and non-vitamin K OACs, including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) at discharge.

Results: Among 35 767 patients (18 785 women [52.5%]; mean [SD] age, 75.5 [9.2] years) with previous atrial fibrillation at admission, the median CHA2DS2-VASc (cardiac failure or dysfunction, hypertension, age 65-74 [1 point] or ≥75 years [2 points], diabetes, and stroke, transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism [2 points]-vascular disease, and sex category [female]) score was 4.0 (interquartile range, 3.0-5.0); 6303 (17.6%) were taking OACs prior to hospitalization for stroke, a rate that increased from 14.3% (20 of 140) in the third quarter of 2015 to 21.1% (118 of 560) in the third quarter of 2019 (P < .001 for trend). Of 49 531 eligible patients (26 028 men [52.5%]; mean [SD] age, 73.4 [10.4] years), 20 390 (41.2%) had an OAC prescription at discharge, an increase from 23.2% (36 of 155) in the third quarter of 2015 to 47.1% (403 of 856) in the third quarter of 2019 (P < .001 for trend). Warfarin was the most commonly prescribed OAC (11 956 [24.2%]) and had the largest temporal increase (from 5.8% [9 of 155] to 20.7% [177 of 856]). Older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] per 5 year increase, 0.89;95% CI, 0.89-0.90), lower levels of education (aOR for below elementary school, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74-0.95 ), lower income (aOR for ≤¥1000 [$154], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.59-0.73), having new rural cooperative medical scheme insurance (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.96), prior antiplatelet use (aOR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.66-0.74), having several cardiovascular comorbid conditions (including stroke or transient ischemic attack [aOR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.75-0.82], hypertension [aOR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.89], diabetes [aOR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99], dyslipidemia [aOR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.94], carotid stenosis [aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.98], and peripheral vascular disease [aOR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71-0.90]), and admission to secondary hospitals (aOR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68-0.74) or hospitals located in the central region of China (aOR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75-0.84) were associated with not being prescribed an OAC at discharge.

Conclusions And Relevance: This quality improvement study suggests that, despite significant improvement over time, OAC prescriptions remained low. Efforts to increase OAC prescriptions, especially non-vitamin K OACs, are needed for vulnerable subgroups by age, socioeconomic status, and presence of comorbid conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.18816DOI Listing
July 2021

Tiny golden angle ultrashort echo-time lung imaging in mice.

NMR Biomed 2021 Jul 28:e4591. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm University Medical Centre, Ulm, Germany.

Imaging the lung parenchyma with MRI is particularly difficult in small animals due to the high respiratory and heart rates, and ultrashort T2* at high magnetic field strength caused by the high susceptibilities induced by the air-tissue interfaces. In this study, a 2D ultrashort echo-time (UTE) technique was combined with tiny golden angle (tyGA) ordering. Data were acquired continuously at 11.7 T and retrospective center-of-k-space gating was applied to reconstruct respiratory multistage images. Lung (proton) density (f ), T2*, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), fractional ventilation (FV) and perfusion (f) were quantified, and the application to dynamic contrast agent (CA)-enhanced (DCE) qualitative perfusion assessment tested. The interobserver and intraobserver and interstudy reproducibility of the quantitative parameters were investigated. High-quality images of the lung parenchyma could be acquired in all animals. Over all lung regions a mean T2* of 0.20 ± 0.05 ms was observed. FV resulted as 0.31 ± 0.13, and a trend towards lower SNR values during inspiration (EX: SNR = 12.48 ± 6.68, IN: SNR = 11.79 ± 5.86) and a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in lung density (EX: f  = 0.69 ± 0.13, IN: f  = 0.62 ± 0.13) were observed. Quantitative perfusion results as 34.63 ± 9.05 mL/cm /min (systole) and 32.77 ± 8.55 mL/cm /min (diastole) on average. The CA dynamics could be assessed and, because of the continuous nature of the data acquisition, reconstructed at different temporal resolutions. Where a good to excellent interobserver reproducibility and an excellent intraobserver reproducibility resulted, the interstudy reproducibility was only fair to good. In conclusion, the combination of tiny golden angles with UTE (2D tyGA UTE) resulted in a reliable imaging technique for lung morphology and function in mice, providing uniform k-space coverage and thus low-artefact images of the lung parenchyma after gating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.4591DOI Listing
July 2021

Exosomal miR-101-3p and miR-423-5p inhibit medulloblastoma tumorigenesis through targeting FOXP4 and EZH2.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, and the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, International Co-laboratory of Medical Epigenetics and Metabolism, Ministry of Science and Technology, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the development and progression of a variety of tumors; however, whether they contribute to medulloblastoma (MB) tumorigenesis remains to be elucidated. To address this, we first characterized the miRNA profiles of circulating exosomes by miRNA sequencing to identify miRNAs differentially expressed between children with MB and healthy controls. Then, we conducted in vitro and in vivo functional assays with the identified miRNAs and their predicted targets. We found that, compared with healthy controls, 35 miRNAs were upregulated and 5 downregulated in exosomes isolated from the plasma of MB patients. We further found that the expression of miR-101-3p and miR-423-5p was significantly higher in plasma exosomes from MB patients than in healthy controls in an expanded cohort and these exosomal miRNAs could be delivered to tumor cells via exosomes. An in vitro functional analysis of miR-101-3p and miR-423-5p showed that treating MB cells with the corresponding mimics significantly inhibited the proliferation, colony-forming ability, migratory ability, and invasive capacity of tumor cells, and promoted cell apoptosis. Additionally, miR-101-3p and miR-423-5p were found to act as tumor suppressors by directly targeting a common gene, FOXP4, which encodes a transcription factor with a vital role in embryonic development and tumorigenesis. Moreover, miR-101-3p also targeted EZH2, a histone methyltransferase, to reinforce its tumor inhibitory effects. Using a xenograft nude mouse model of MB, we further identified that the overexpression of miR-101-3p and miR-423-5p inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo. Our findings provide novel insights into the functions of exosomal miRNAs in mediating MB progression and suggest a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of children with MB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00838-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Preparation of p-amino salicylic acid-modified polysuccinimide as water-based nanocarriers for enhancing pesticide stability and insecticidal activity.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jul 19;207:111990. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Innovative Institute for Plant Health, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Green Fine Chemicals of Guangdong Higher Education Institution, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510225, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Avermectin (AVM) is a biopesticide with low toxicity and high activity, but has limited use due to its poor water solubility and easy decomposition. A delivery system that can stabilize this biopesticide can play a significant role for improving its biological activity. Herein, water-dispersible functionalized polysuccinimide nanoparticles (PAD) were prepared by a ring-opening reaction and subsequently used to encapsulate AVM via self-assembly to form [email protected] nanoparticles with a loading ratio of 10.04 %. The half-life under UV radiation (300 W) of [email protected] was three times higher than that of free AVM, demonstrating the excellent protective ability of PAD. In addition, [email protected] nanoparticles could sustain the release of AVM for 70 h with a cumulative release rate of 70 %. [email protected] nanoparticles also showed a pH-responsive release, and their maximum cumulative release rate was at neutral pH. Moreover, the median lethal concentration (LC) value of [email protected] with respect to Plutella xylostella was 34.50 mg/L, while that of free AVM was 56.05 mg/L. These results showed that the [email protected] nanoparticles can potentially and effectively promote drug stability and biological activity in agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.111990DOI Listing
July 2021

A newly developed PCR-based method revealed distinct Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies infection patterns in colorectal cancer.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200072, China.

Fusobacterium nucleatum, which has four subspecies (nucleatum, animalis, vincentii and polymorphum), plays an important role in promoting colorectal cancer (CRC). However, as there is no efficient method of differentiating these subspecies in the context of a rich gut microbiota, the compositions in CRC remain largely unknown. In this study, a PCR-based differentiation method enabling profiling of F. nucleatum infection in CRC at the subspecies level was developed. Based on the analysis of 53 F. nucleatum genomes, we identified genetic markers specific to each subspecies and designed primers for the conserved sequences of those markers. The PCR performance of the primers was tested with F. nucleatum and non-nucleatum Fusobacterium strains, and complete consistence with taxonomy was achieved. Additionally, no non-specific amplification occurred when using human DNA. The method was then applied to faecal (n = 58) and fresh-frozen tumour tissue (n = 100) samples from CRC patients, and wide heterogeneity in F. nucleatum subspecies compositions in the gut microbiota among CRC patients was observed. Single-subspecies colonization was common, whereas coexistence of four subspecies was rare. Subspecies animalis was most prevalent, while nucleatum was not frequently detected. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the pathogenicity of F. nucleatum at the subspecies level and the method developed has potential for clinical and epidemiological use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13900DOI Listing
July 2021

Mechanistic study of the aqueous reaction of organic peroxides with HSO3- on the surface of a water droplet.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Center for Eco-Environmental Engineering, CHINA.

Aqueous reactions between organic peroxides and SO2 are of intense interest in atmospheric science because of their ubiquitous implications for sulfate formation in secondary aerosols. However, the relative yields of the reaction products (inorganic vs organic sulfates) remain controversial (i.e., 90% vs 40-70% for inorganic sulfate) due in part to the lack of understanding of the underlying reaction mechanisms. Here, our computational results suggest that the reactions of HSO3- (dissolved SO2) with organic peroxides are initiated on the surface of water nanodroplets and then proceed under two reaction pathways, in which the S atom of HSO3- attacks either the O1 or O2 atom of the peroxide group -O(O2)O(O1)H, leading to the formation of inorganic and organic sulfates, respectively. Notably, we find that the reaction initiated by O1 atom exhibits a relatively low energy barrier and high reaction rate, which favours the formation of inorganic sulfate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202105416DOI Listing
July 2021

Alterations, Interactions, and Diagnostic Potential of Gut Bacteria and Viruses in Colorectal Cancer.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 6;11:657867. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Institute for Intestinal Diseases, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Gut microbiome alteration was closely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Previous studies had demonstrated the bacteria composition changes but lacked virome profiles, trans-kindom interactions, and reliable diagnostic model explorations in CRC. Hence, we performed metagenomic sequencing to investigate the gut microbiome and microbial interactions in adenoma and CRC patients. We found the decreased microbial diversity in CRC and revealed the taxonomic alterations of bacteria and viruses were highly associated with CRC at the species level. The relative abundance of oral-derived species, such as , , , and , increased. At the same time, butyrate-producing and anti-inflammatory microbes decreased in adenoma and CRC by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Despite that, the relative abundance of and increased, whereas some phages, including and , decreased along with CRC development. Gut bacteria was negatively associated with viruses in CRC and healthy control by correlation analysis (P=0.017 and 0.002, respectively). Viruses were much more dynamic than the bacteria as the disease progressed, and the altered microbial interactions were distinctively stage-dependent. The degree centrality of microbial interactions decreased while closeness centrality increased along with the adenoma to cancer development. was the key bacteriophage that enriched in healthy controls and positively associated with butyrate-producing bacteria. Diagnostic tests based on bacteria by random forest confirmed in independent cohorts showed better performance than viruses for CRC. In conclusion, our study revealed the novel CRC-associated bacteria and viruses that exhibited specific differences and intensive microbial correlations, which provided a reliable diagnostic panel for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.657867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294192PMC
July 2021

Responses of two dominant desert plant species to the changes in groundwater depth in hinterland natural oasis, Tarim Basin.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 16;11(14):9460-9471. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology College of Resources and Environmental Science Xinjiang University Urumqi China.

Groundwater is increasingly becoming a permanent and steady water source for the growth and reproduction of desert plant species due to the frequent channel cutoff events in arid inland river basins. Although it is widely acknowledged that the accessibility of groundwater has a significant impact on plant species maintaining their ecological function, little is known about the water use strategies of desert plant species to the groundwater availability in Daryaboyi Oasis, Central Tarim Basin. This study initially determined the desirable and stressing groundwater depths based on ecological and morphological parameters including UAV-based fractional vegetation cover (FVC) images and plant growth status. Then, leaf δC values of small- and big-sized plants were analyzed to reveal the water use strategies of two dominant woody species ( and ) in response to the groundwater depth gradient. The changes in FVC and growth status of plants suggested that the actual groundwater depth should be kept at an appropriate range of about 2.1-4.3 m, and the minimum groundwater depth should be less than 7 m. This will ensure the protection of riparian woody plants at a normal growth state and guarantee the coexistence of both plant types. Under a desirable groundwater condition, water alternation (i.e., flooding and rising groundwater depth) was the main factor influencing the variation of plant water use efficiency. The obtained results indicated that big-sized plants are more salt-tolerant than small ones, and has strong salt palatability than . . With increasing groundwater depth, continuously decreases its growth status to maintain hydraulic efficiency in drought condition, while mainly increases its water use efficiency first and decreases its growth status after then. Besides, in a drought condition, has strong adaptability than . . This study will be informative for ecological restoration and sustainable management of Daryaboyi Oasis and provides reference materials for future research programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293730PMC
July 2021

Inhibitory Role of an TIR Domain Effector in Antibacterial Immunity by Targeting TLR Signaling Complexes in Zebrafish.

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:694081. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory for Cell and Gene Engineering of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain is a structural unit responsible for the assembly of signal protein complexes in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor signaling pathways. TIR domain homologs are found in a considerable number of bacteria and enhance bacterial infection and survival in host organisms. However, whether TIR domain homologs exist in , a ubiquitous waterborne bacterium in aquatic environments, remains poorly understood. In this study, a TIR domain protein (TcpAh) was identified from . JBN2301. TIR domain of TcpAh is highly homologous to the counterpart domains in TLRs and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). The zebrafish infected with mutant . with deletion had a remarkably lower mortality than those infected with the wild-type strain. This result suggests that TcpAh is a crucial virulence factor for . infection. TcpAh exhibited a strong ability to associate with MyD88, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) and TRAF-associated NF-κB activator-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) in TIR-TIR, TIR-Death domain (DD), and other alternative interactions. This finding suggests that TcpAh extensively interferes with MyD88 and TIR domain-containing adapter inducing interferon (IFN)-β (TRIF) signaling pathways downstream of TLRs. Consequently, CD80/86 expression was suppressed by TcpAh via attenuating TLR-stimulated NF-κB activation, which ultimately led to the impairment of the major costimulatory signal essential for the initiation of adaptive humoral immunity against . infection. We believe that this study is the first to show a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying . evades from host antibacterial defense by intervening CD80/86 signal, which bridges innate and adaptive immunity. The mechanism will benefit the development of therapeutic interventions for . infection and septicemia by targeting TcpAh homologs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.694081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297594PMC
July 2021

The exposure-response association between humidex and bacillary dysentery: A two-stage time series analysis of 316 cities in mainland China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 2;797:148840. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China; Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Jinan 250012, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Many studies have reported the interactive effects between relative humidity and temperature on infectious diseases. However, evidence regarding the combined effects of relative humidity and temperature on bacillary dysentery (BD) is limited, especially for large-scale studies. To address this research need, humidex was utilized as a comprehensive index of relative humidity and temperature. We aimed to estimate the effect of humidex on BD across mainland China, evaluate its heterogeneity, and identify potential effect modifiers.

Methods: Daily meteorological and BD surveillance data from 2014 to 2016 were obtained for 316 prefecture-level cities in mainland China. Humidex was calculated on the basis of relative humidity and temperature. A multicity, two-stage time series analysis was then performed. In the first stage, a common distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was established to obtain city-specific estimates. In the second stage, a multivariate meta-analysis was conducted to pool these estimates, assess the significance of heterogeneity, and explore potential effect modifiers.

Results: The pooled cumulative estimates showed that humidex could promote the transmission of BD. The exposure-response relationship was nearly linear, with a maximum cumulative relative risk (RR) of 1.45 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-1.63] at a humidex value of 40.94. High humidex had an acute adverse effect on BD. The humidex-BD relationship could be modified by latitude, urbanization rate, the natural growth rate of population, and the number of primary school students per thousand persons.

Conclusions: High humidex could increase the risk of BD incidence. Thus, it is suitable to incorporate humidex as a predictor into the early warning system of BD and to inform the general public in advance to be cautious when humidex is high. This is especially true for regions with higher latitude, higher urbanization rates, lower natural growth rates of population, and lower numbers of primary school students per thousand persons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148840DOI Listing
July 2021

Nano-selenium alleviating the lipid metabolism disorder of LMH cells induced by potassium dichromate via down-regulating ACACA and FASN.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Veterinary Clinical Medicine Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Shizishan Street, Wuhan, 430070, People's Republic of China.

Chromium (Cr) VI is a common environmental contaminant highly toxic to livers. To explore the protective effect of nano-selenium (NANO-Se) on broiler liver damage caused by Cr (VI), this experiment was conducted with chicken hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (LMH) as the research object, using potassium dichromate (PDC) and NANO-Se gel for culturing cells. The results indicated that: (1) in the PDC-exposure group, LMH cells being treated with 20 μmol/L PDC for 24 h, IC50 (median inhibition concentration) = 23.427 could significantly reduce cell activity (p < 0.01) which decreased over time. PDC markedly increased the concentration of triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in LMH cells (p < 0.01), which increased over time. In addition, PDC could substantially augment the transcription and protein levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylases alpha (ACACA) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in LMH cells (p < 0.01). (2) Compared with the PDC-exposure group, the addition of 8 μmol/L NANO-Se after 12 h of PDC treatment could significantly increase the cell viability (p < 0.01) but decreased over time; the levels of TG and LDL-C in LMH cells declined markedly (p < 0.01). In addition, the transcription and protein levels of ACACA and FASN in LMH cells were significantly reduced (p < 0.01). (3) The LMH cells were cultured in advance with 8 μmol/L NANO-Se for 12 h and then with PDC for 24 h. The obtained results were similar to the above. There were no obvious differences in TG and LDL-C levels (p > 0.05). However, significant differences were found in the activity of LMH cells and the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism (p < 0.05).All these results suggest that the exposure to PDC promotes the increase of lipid synthesis in LMH cells and causes disorders in the lipid metabolism. Moreover, NANO-Se can partially attenuate the damage caused by PDC through down-regulating of the lipid metabolism-related genes (ACACA and FASN) in LMH cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14775-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Prediction of ICU admission after orthopedic surgery in elderly patients.

Pak J Med Sci 2021 Jul-Aug;37(4):1179-1184

Dr. Ziyi Guo, MM. Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shulan (Hangzhou) Hospital, Hangzhou, China. Department of Orthopedic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: Prediction of ICU admission after surgery are important for rational decision-making for different patients in clinical practice. Little information is available about the risk factors of postoperative ICU admission in elderly patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. This study aimed to identify risk factors and develop a predictive model for postoperative ICU admission in elderly patients undergoing orthopedic surgery.

Methods: A total of 2826 cases of elderly patients receiving orthopedic surgery from October 2010 to September 2016 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the impacts of covariates. Support vector machine (SVM) was employed to develop a predictive model based on all pre-operative covariates and the demographic information.

Results: There were 256 patients transferred to ICU after surgery. ASA III or IV and emergency surgery were found to be independent risk factors while neuraxial anesthesia and joint surgery were protective factors. In addition, a SVM-based predictive model was developed, which had a sensitivity of 90.99%, a specificity of 99.10% and an area under ROC curve of 0.9678.

Conclusions: Our study revealed that emergency surgery, anesthesia method, surgery type and ASA grade were risk factors to predict postoperative ICU admission in elderly orthopedic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.4.3371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281162PMC
July 2020

Scalable Synthesis of WS2 Nanosheets for Alkali-acid Electrocatalytic Sulfion Recycle and H2 Generation.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Science, Institute of Materials, 155 Yangqiao Road West, 350002, Fuzhou, CHINA.

WS 2 nanosheets hold great promise for a variety of applications yet face a grand challenge in implementing large-scale synthesis. We herein report a reliable, scalable, and high-yield (> 93%) synthetic strategy to fabricate WS 2 nanosheets, which exhibit highly desirable electrocatalytic properties toward both alkaline sulfion (S 2- ) oxidation reaction (SOR) and acidic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), prompting us to develop a hybrid alkali-acid electrochemical cell with the WS 2 nanosheets as bifunctional electrode catalysts of alkaline anodic SOR and acidic cathodic HER, such proof-of-concept device may hold promise for self-powder or low-electricity electrolytic H 2 generation and environmentally friendly recycling of sulfion with enhancing electron utilization efficiency, and thus potentially steering and stepping forward its technoeconomic feasibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202108992DOI Listing
July 2021

[AuAgH(SPhCl)]: An Au-Ag Alloy Nanocluster with 12 Hydrides and Its Enlightenment on Nanocluster Structural Evolution.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Chemistry and Centre for Atomic Engineering of Advanced Materials, Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Chemistry for Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Functionalized Materials, Key Laboratory of Structure and Functional Regulation of Hybrid Materials of Ministry of Education, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, P. R. China.

The structural determination of alloy hydride nanoclusters with high nuclearity remains challenging. We herein report the synthetic procedure and the structural elucidation of an Au-Ag alloy nanocluster with 12 hydride ligands-[AuAgH(SPhCl)]. The structure of [AuAgH(SPhCl)] comprises an AuAg kernel that is stabilized by 12 hydride ligands, 8 thiol bridges, and 6 Ag(SR) motif units. The 12 hydride ligands in AuAg have been confirmed by both H NMR and ESI-MS measurements, and their positions have been theoretically evaluated, located at the interlayer between the AuAg kernel and the Ag-SR shell. The metastable [AuAgH(SPhCl)] can convert to [AuAg(SPhCl)] spontaneously. Structurally, the AuAg kernel of [AuAgH(SPhCl)] could be regarded as the overlapping of two hollow AuAg cages via sharing an Ag line, which is in contrast to the solely icosahedral Au kernel of [AuAg(SPhCl)]. Besides, the overall construction of AuAg or AuAg follows a complementing or overlapping assembly mode, respectively. Overall, the structural anatomy of AuAgH(SPhCl) sheds some new insight into the structural evolution of metal nanoclusters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01624DOI Listing
July 2021

Residual Inflammatory Risk Predicts Poor Prognosis in Acute Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Patients.

Stroke 2021 Jul 20:STROKEAHA120033152. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing.

Background And Purpose: It is still unclear whether the residual cholesterol and inflammatory risk in the acute phase is associated with prognosis of stroke. We aimed to investigate the proportion and relative contribution of residual cholesterol and inflammatory risk, determined by baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, to the risk of recurrent stroke and poor functional outcome at 1 year.

Methods: In this prospective multicenter cohort study, 10 499 consecutive acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack patients with levels of LDL-C and hsCRP were enrolled. Patients were divided into 4 groups: residual cholesterol risk only (LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L and hsCRP <3 mg/L), residual inflammatory risk (RIR) only (LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L and hsCRP ≥3 mg/L), both risk (LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L and hsCRP ≥3 mg/L), and neither risk (LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L and hsCRP <3 mg/L). The primary outcomes consisted of stroke recurrence and a modified Rankin Scale score of 2 to 6 within 1 year.

Results: The relative proportions of patients with RIR only, residual cholesterol risk only, both risk, and neither were 21.3%, 23.7%, 14.4%, and 40.6%, respectively. RIR only was independently associated with recurrent stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.00-1.40]; =0.05). The association was slightly attenuated after further adjusting for usage of antiplatelet agent and statin during 1-year follow-up in addition to the traditional risk factors (hazard ratio, 1.31 [95% CI, 0.99-1.76]; =0.07). When applying the LDL-C cutoff value of 1.8 mmol/L in the sensitivity analyses, such association in large-artery atherosclerosis subtype was more significant (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.06-2.67]; =0.03). Patients with RIR only also had increased risk of poor functional outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.24-1.64]; <0.0001).

Conclusions: In the patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, RIR only could be predictive for recurrent stroke, especially for those with large-artery atherosclerosis, and poor functional outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033152DOI Listing
July 2021

Revisiting Orthotopic Rat Liver Transplant.

Exp Clin Transplant 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

From the Section 6 of Hepatopancreaticobiliary Surgical Department, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: Orthotopic liver transplant remains technically challenging.

Materials And Methods: We performed whole graft orthotopic liver transplants with different anhepatic times (≤20 min, n = 19; vs 30 min, n = 9) and partial orthotopic liver transplants in rats including a male-to-male Sprague-Dawley group (n = 15), a male-to-male Lewis-to-Brown Norway group (n = 20), and a male-to-male Sprague-Dawley-to-Lewis group (n = 20); there was also a female-to-male SpragueDawley group (n = 19).

Results: For the groups with ≤20-minute or 30-minute anhepatic time, 14-day and 30-day survival rates were 94.7%, 89.5%, 88.9%, and 88.9%, respectively, and there was no difference in survival (P = .716). For 50% orthotopic liver transplants from the male-tomale Sprague-Dawley group, 14-day and 30-day survival rates were 93.3% and 86.7%, respectively, with no difference between whole and 50% graft orthotopic liver transplant. The 14-day and 30-day survival rates were, respectively, 30% and 10% for the Lewis-to-Brown Norway group and 30% and 6.6% for the Sprague-Dawley-to-Lewis group, with no differences between the 2 groups (P = .564). Most of the recipient rats died within 72 hours. Acute rejections and wound dehiscence were the causes of death. Recipients from the female-to-male SpragueDawley orthotopic liver transplant group died shortly after surgery.

Conclusions: Orthotopic liver transplants can be performed to achieve high success rates in the extended anhepatic time; however, orthotopic liver transplants from female Sprague-Dawley donor rats have a high risk of failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2020.0364DOI Listing
July 2021

Leukocyte subtypes and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(9):748

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Our study aimed to evaluate whether the effects on adverse clinical outcomes, defined as death, recurrent stroke, and poor functional outcomes, differed by leukocyte subtype in patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events, including both ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA).

Methods: We derived data from the Third China National Stroke Registry (CNSR-III). The counts and percentages of each leukocyte subtype were collected within the first 24 hours after admission. Enrolled patients were classified into four groups by the quartiles of each leukocyte subtype count or percentage. Hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of adverse clinical outcomes were calculated, with the lowest quartile group as the reference category. We used C statistics, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and the net reclassification index (NRI) to evaluate each leukocyte subtype's incremental predictive value beyond conventional risk factors.

Results: A total of 14,174 patients were enrolled. Higher counts of leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes were associated with elevated risks of adverse clinical outcomes. In contrast, higher counts of lymphocytes and eosinophils were related to reduced risks of adverse clinical outcomes. Meanwhile, basophil counts seemed to not correlate with adverse clinical outcomes. Furthermore, there were also significant associations between the percentages of leukocyte subtypes and adverse clinical outcomes.

Conclusions: Leukocyte subtypes had different relationships with adverse clinical outcomes at 3-month and 1-year follow-up in patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events and could slightly increase the predictive value compared with the conventional model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-7931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246222PMC
May 2021

Factors that influence hydrogen binding at metal-atop sites.

J Chem Phys 2021 Jul;155(2):024703

Department of Chemistry and the Oden Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-0231, USA.

The d-band model has proven to be effective for understanding trends in the chemisorption of various adsorbates on transition metal surfaces. However, hydrogen adsorption at the atop site of transition metals and their bimetallic alloy surfaces do not always correlate well with the d-band center of the adsorption site. Additionally, the d-band model cannot explain the disappearance of the local minima for H adsorption at the hollow site on the potential energy surface of 5d single-atom element doped Au and Ag(111) surfaces. Here, we use a simple model with factors, including the d-band center, filling of the d-band, renormalized adsorbate states, coupling matrix elements, and surface-adsorbate bond lengths, to correlate with the density functional theory calculated H binding energies on both mono- and bimetallic (111) surfaces. Our results suggest that H adsorption at metal-atop sites is determined by all these factors, not only by the d-band center. The strong adsorption of H at the atop sites of 5d metal surfaces can be explained by their lower repulsive contribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0056774DOI Listing
July 2021

Large-area TaN superconducting microwire single photon detectors for X-ray detection.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(14):21400-21408

With the development of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors, increasing numbers of important applications are being explored, covering not only low-energy optical photon detection but also high-energy photon and particle detection. In this work, 100-nm-thick TaN superconducting microwire single photon detectors (SMSPDs) with large active areas were prepared for X-ray detection, and their response characteristics to X-rays were studied. The results showed that our TaN SMSPDs were able to detect X-rays at a wide range of bias currents and working temperatures. The detectors could distinguish different energy X-rays under suitable working conditions, and the energy resolving power was strongly related to the bias current.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.422581DOI Listing
July 2021

Physiological function and application of dietary fiber in pig nutrition: A review.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 17;7(2):259-267. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China.

Dietary fiber (DF), divided into soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), has attracted increasing attention in the field of pig nutrition. Although DF reduces nutrient digestibility and inhibits energy deposition in most cases, fiber-rich feeds have been widely used in pig diets. This is not only because of lower feed costs, but also from the continuous discovery about the nutritional value of DF, mainly including the improvement of piglet intestinal health and sow reproductive performance. The addition timing has also been further considered, which potentially enables the nutritional value of DF to be accurately used in applicable pig models. Furthermore, fiber degrading enzymes have been shown to alleviate the anti-nutritional effects of DF and have ensured the improvement effect of fiber on intestinal health in young piglet models. However, the regulatory effect of fiber on pork quality is still unclear, which requires consideration of the wide range of fiber sources and the complexity of the basic diet composition, as well as the impact of pig breeds. Taken together, future research needs to gain more insight into the combined effects of SDF and IDF, processing methods, and addition timing to improve the nutritional value of DF, and further explore the physiological functions and regulatory mechanisms of DF fermentation products short-chain fatty acids in pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245790PMC
June 2021

Geminiviruses encode additional small proteins with specific subcellular localizations and virulence function.

Nat Commun 2021 07 13;12(1):4278. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Geminiviruses are plant viruses with limited coding capacity. Geminivirus-encoded proteins are traditionally identified by applying a 10-kDa arbitrary threshold; however, it is increasingly clear that small proteins play relevant roles in biological systems, which calls for the reconsideration of this criterion. Here, we show that geminiviral genomes contain additional ORFs. Using tomato yellow leaf curl virus, we demonstrate that some of these small ORFs are expressed during the infection, and that the encoded proteins display specific subcellular localizations. We prove that the largest of these additional ORFs, which we name V3, is required for full viral infection, and that the V3 protein localizes in the Golgi apparatus and functions as an RNA silencing suppressor. These results imply that the repertoire of geminiviral proteins can be expanded, and that getting a comprehensive overview of the molecular plant-geminivirus interactions will require the detailed study of small ORFs so far neglected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24617-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277811PMC
July 2021

Social Media and Attitude Change: Information Booming Promote or Resist Persuasion?

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:596071. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China.

Emerging social media platforms such as Twitter and its Chinese equivalent Weibo have become important in information-sharing and communication. They are also gradually becoming stronger in guiding public opinion. When compared with traditional media, these platforms have salient characteristics, such as highly efficient dissemination of information and interactive commentary, which can contribute to information overload. In earlier research, only the effect of social media on attitude change has been studied, but the specific mechanism of this effect in the context of information overload has not been found. To answer this question, we measured the attitude change of participants after they read Weibo posts about street vendors. A 2 (post-attitude: positive posts vs. negative posts) × 4 (reading time: 35 vs. 25 vs. 15 vs. 5 min) experiment was set up, and the Single Category Implicit Attitude Test was used to measure the implicit attitudes. The interaction effect revealed that in both positive and negative posts, less reading time (i.e., information overload) had a stronger influence. Users were more easily persuaded by posts under high overload. Furthermore, the changes in the attitudes of users were not simply stronger with more information. We found three stages, namely, obedience, resistance, and acceptance, with different mechanisms. Therefore, in the positive information overload condition, the attitudes of individuals eventually change in a positive way. In the negative information overload condition, individuals tend to be biased against the group being reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.596071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264363PMC
June 2021

An ancient interleukin-16-like molecule regulates hemocyte proliferation via integrin β1 in invertebrates.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 8;297(2):100943. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Laboratory of Invertebrate Immunological Defense & Reproductive Biology, School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Interleukins (ILs) are cytokines with crucial functions in innate and adaptive immunity. IL genes are only found in vertebrates, except for IL-16, which has been cloned in some arthropod species. However, the function of this gene in invertebrates is unknown. In the present study, an IL-16-like gene (EsIL-16) was identified from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. EsIL-16 was predicted to encode a precursor (proEsIL-16) that shares similarities with pro-IL-16 proteins from insects and vertebrates. We show that caspase-3 processes proEsIL-16 into an approximately 144-kDa N-terminal prodomain with nuclear import activity and an approximately 34-kDa mature peptide that might be secreted into the extracellular region. EsIL-16 mRNA could be detected in all analyzed tissues and was significantly upregulated after immune challenge both in vitro and in vivo. T7 phage display library screening suggested potential binding activity between EsIL-16 and integrin, which was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation assay. Interestingly, EsIL-16 promoted cell proliferation via integrin β1 in primary cultured crab hemocytes and Drosophila S2 cells. Furthermore, the interaction between EsIL-16 and integrin β1 was necessary to efficiently protect the host from bacterial infection. To our knowledge, this study revealed integrin β1 as a receptor for IL-16 and the function of this interaction in hemocyte proliferation in invertebrates for the first time. These results provide new insights into the regulation of innate immune responses in invertebrates and shed the light on the evolution of ILs within the animal kingdom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100943DOI Listing
July 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Ticagrelor and Aspirin in Patients With Moderate Ischemic Stroke: An Exploratory Analysis of the THALES Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Dean's Office, Dell Medical School, University of Texas at Austin.

Importance: Prior trials of dual antiplatelet therapy excluded patients with moderate ischemic stroke. These patients were included in the Acute Stroke or Transient Ischaemic Attack Treated With Ticagrelor and ASA for Prevention of Stroke and Death (THALES) trial, but results have not been reported separately, raising concerns about safety and efficacy in this subgroup.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor plus aspirin in patients with moderate ischemic stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score of 4 to 5).

Design, Setting, And Participants: The THALES trial was a randomized trial conducted at 414 hospitals in 28 countries in January 2018 and December 2019. This exploratory analysis compared patients with moderate stroke (baseline NIHSS score of 4 to 5) with patients with less severe stroke (NIHSS score of 0 to 3). A total of 9983 patients with stroke were included in the present analysis, after excluding 2 patients with NIHSS scores greater than 5 and 1031 patients with transient ischemic attack. Data were analyzed from March to April 2021.

Interventions: Ticagrelor (180-mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily on days 2 to 30) or placebo within 24 hours after symptom onset. All patients received aspirin, 300 to 325 mg, on day 1 followed by aspirin, 75 to 100 mg, daily on days 2 to 30. Patients were observed for 30 additional days.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was time to stroke or death within 30 days. The primary safety outcome was time to severe bleeding.

Results: In total, 3312 patients presented with moderate stroke and 6671 presented with less severe stroke. Of those in the moderate stroke group, 1293 (39.0%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 64.5 (10.8) years; of those in the less severe stroke group, 2518 (37.7%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 64.8 (11.2) years. The observed primary outcome event rate in patients with moderate stroke was 7.6% (129 of 1671) for those in the ticagrelor group and 9.1% (150 of 1641) for those in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.66-1.06); the primary outcome event rate in patients with less severe stroke was 4.7% (158 of 3359) for those in the ticagrelor group and 5.7% (190 of 3312) for those in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66-1.01) (P for interaction = .88). Severe bleeding occurred in 8 patients (0.5%) in the ticagrelor group and in 4 patients (0.2%) in the placebo group in those with moderate stroke compared with 16 patients (0.5%) and 3 patients (0.1%), respectively, with less severe stroke (P for interaction = .26).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, patients with a moderate ischemic stroke had consistent benefit from ticagrelor plus aspirin vs aspirin alone compared with patients with less severe ischemic stroke, with no further increase in the risk of intracranial bleeding or other severe bleeding events.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03354429.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.2440DOI Listing
July 2021

Field Test of Twin-Field Quantum Key Distribution through Sending-or-Not-Sending over 428 km.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jun;126(25):250502

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology ofChina, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China.

Quantum key distribution endows people with information-theoretical security in communications. Twin-field quantum key distribution (TF-QKD) has attracted considerable attention because of its outstanding key rates over long distances. Recently, several demonstrations of TF-QKD have been realized. Nevertheless, those experiments are implemented in the laboratory, and therefore a critical question remains about whether the TF-QKD is feasible in real-world circumstances. Here, by adopting the sending-or-not-sending twin-field QKD (SNS-TF-QKD) with the method of actively odd parity pairing (AOPP), we demonstrate a field-test QKD over 428 km of deployed commercial fiber and two users are physically separated by about 300 km in a straight line. To this end, we explicitly measure the relevant properties of the deployed fiber and develop a carefully designed system with high stability. The secure key rate we achieved breaks the absolute key rate limit of repeaterless QKD. The result provides a new distance record for the field test of both TF-QKD and all types of fiber-based QKD systems. Our work bridges the gap of QKD between laboratory demonstrations and practical applications and paves the way for an intercity QKD network with measurement-device-independent security.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.250502DOI Listing
June 2021

AuAg nanocluster: Controllable preparation, structural determination, and optical property investigation.

J Chem Phys 2021 May;154(18):184302

Department of Chemistry and Centre for Atomic Engineering of Advanced Materials, Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Chemistry for Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Functionalized Materials, Key Laboratory of Structure and Functional Regulation of Hybrid Materials, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, People's Republic of China.

The structure/composition of nanoclusters has a decisive influence on their physicochemical properties. In this work, we obtained two different Au-Ag nanoclusters, [AuAg(SAdm)(dppm)Cl] and AuAg(dppm)(SAdm)(CN), via controlling the Au/Ag molar ratios by a one-pot synthetic approach. The structure of nanoclusters was confirmed and testified by single-crystal x-ray diffraction, electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, XPS, powder x-ray diffraction, and electron paramagnetic resonance. The AuAg nanocluster possessed a M core caped by four Au atoms and four dppm and four AdmS ligands. Interestingly, four CN are observed to locate at the equator of the M core. Both nanoclusters contain a similar icosahedral M core, whereas their surface structures are totally different. However, the AuAg nanocluster exhibits good stability and strong red photoluminescence in solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0050079DOI Listing
May 2021

Obese Individuals Show Disrupted Dynamic Functional Connectivity between Basal Ganglia and Salience Networks.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Center for Brain Imaging, School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710071, China.

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have showed obesity (OB)-related alterations in intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) within and between different resting-state networks (RSNs). However, few studies have examined dynamic functional connectivity (DFC). Thus, we employed resting-state fMRI with independent component analysis (ICA) and DFC analysis to investigate the alterations in FC within and between RSNs in 56 individuals with OB and 46 normal-weight (NW) controls. ICA identified six RSNs, including basal ganglia (BG), salience network (SN), right executive control network/left executive control network, and anterior default-mode network (aDMN)/posterior default-mode network. The DFC analysis identified four FC states. OB compared with NW had more occurrences and a longer mean dwell time (MDT) in state 2 (positive connectivity of BG with other RSN) and also had higher FC of BG-SN in other states. Body mass index was positively correlated with MDT and FCs of BG-aDMN (state 2) and BG-SN (state 4). DFC analysis within more refined nodes of RSNs showed that OB had more occurrences and a longer MDT in state 1 in which caudate had positive connections with the other network nodes. The findings suggest an association between caudate-related and BG-related positive FC in OB, which was not revealed by traditional FC analysis, highlighting the utility of adding DFC to the more conventional methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhab190DOI Listing
July 2021

Interaction between Aβ and Tau in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 27;17(9):2181-2192. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute of Geriatrics, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China.

Extracellular neuritic plaques composed of amyloid‑β (Aβ) protein and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles containing phosphorylated tau protein are the two hallmark proteins of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the separate neurotoxicity of these proteins in AD has been extensively studied. However, interventions that target Aβ or tau individually have not yielded substantial breakthroughs. The interest in the interactions between Aβ and tau in AD is increasing, but related drug investigations are in their infancy. This review discusses how Aβ accelerates tau phosphorylation and the possible mechanisms and pathways by which tau mediates Aβ toxicity. This review also describes the possible synergistic effects between Aβ and tau on microglial cells and astrocytes. Studies suggest that the coexistence of Aβ plaques and phosphorylated tau is related to the mechanism by which Aβ facilitates the propagation of tau aggregation in neuritic plaques. The interactions between Aβ and tau mediate cognitive dysfunction in patients with AD. In summary, this review summarizes recent data on the interplay between Aβ and tau to promote a better understanding of the roles of these proteins in the pathological process of AD and provide new insights into interventions against AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.57078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241728PMC
May 2021

Anoctamin 5 promotes osteosarcoma development by increasing degradation of Nel-like proteins 1 and 2.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 07 9;13(13):17316-17327. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Orthopedics, Guiyang Maternal and Child Health-Care Hospital, Guiyang 550009, Guizhou, China.

Anoctamin 5 (ANO5) is a member of the Anoctamin (ANO) family of calcium-activated chloride channels. Although ANO5 expression is upregulated in various cancers, its role in osteosarcoma remains largely unknown. In this study, bioinformatics analysis, western blot, and immunohistochemical staining revealed that ANO5 was upregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and osteosarcoma tissues, and ANO5 expression was positively associated with tumor size, tumor grade, and metastasis. Functional experiments demonstrated that inhibition of ANO5 decreased, while ANO5 overexpression increased, osteosarcoma cell proliferation and mobility . Immunoprecipitation, western blot, and confocal microscopy experiments showed that ANO5 bound to and promoted the degradation of Nel-like proteins 1 (NELL1) and 2 (NELL2). Moreover, a subcutaneous tumor transplantation model revealed that ANO5 knockdown reduced osteosarcoma cell proliferation and increased NELL1 and NELL2 expression . Finally, rescue experiments showed that knockdown of NELL1 or NELL2 reversed the inhibitory effects of ANO5 knockdown on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration. These results demonstrated that upregulation of ANO5 promoted osteosarcoma development by decreasing the stability of the NELL1 and NELL2 proteins and that ANO5 may be an effective target for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312408PMC
July 2021

Efficacy of antidepressant drugs in the treatment of depression in Alzheimer disease patients: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

J Psychopharmacol 2021 Jul 9:2698811211030181. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Scientific Research Center, Maoming People's Hospital, Maoming, China.

Background: Depression is considered as one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Prescription of antidepressants is a current clinical practice well-established as the first-line treatment for such patients. Our study was aimed at systematically examining the evidence on the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of depression in AD patients.

Methods: We conducted a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials retrieved by systematic search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, and CNKI databases. Primary outcomes included mean depression score and safety. Secondary outcomes were cognition. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve was performed to estimate a ranking probability for different treatments.

Results: A total of 25 studies including 14 medications met the inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo, only mirtazapine (standard mean deviation [SMD], -1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.53 to -0.36;  < 0.05) and sertraline (SMD, -1.16; 95% CI, -2.17 to -0.15;  < 0.05) showed a slightly better effect in treating symptoms of depression. Clomipramine increased risk of adverse events than placebo (odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.45 to 4.57;  < 0.05). In terms of cognitive function, there was no statistically significant difference between antidepressants and placebo.

Conclusion: Overall, in the short-term treatment, these data suggest that commonly used antidepressants sertraline and mirtazapine should be considered as an alternative treatment for depression in AD patients. However, more high-quality trials with large samples and longer following-up are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02698811211030181DOI Listing
July 2021
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