Publications by authors named "Hao Lei"

286 Publications

Increased lipogenesis is critical for self-renewal and growth of breast cancer stem cells: Impact of omega-3 fatty acids.

Stem Cells 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Laboratory for Lipid Medicine and Technology (LLMT), Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Aberrant lipid metabolism has recently been recognized as a new hallmark of malignancy, but the characteristics of fatty acid metabolism in breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) and potential interventions targeting this pathway remain to be addressed. Here, by using the in vitro BCSC models, mammosphere-derived MCF-7 cells and HMLE-Twist-ER cells, we found that the cells with stem cell-like properties exhibited a very distinct profile of fatty acid metabolism compared with that of their parental cancer cells, characterized by increased lipogenesis, especially the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) responsible for the production of monounsaturated fatty acids, and augmented synthesis and utilization of the omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA). Suppression of SCD1 activity by either enzyme inhibitors or small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown strikingly limited self-renewal and growth of the BCSC, suggesting a key role for SCD1 in BCSC proliferation. Furthermore, elevated levels of SCD1 and other lipogenic enzymes were observed in human breast cancer tissues relative to the noncancer tissues from the same patients and correlated with the pathological grades. Interestingly, treatment of BCSC with omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, effectively downregulated the expression of the lipogenic enzymes and markedly suppressed BCSC self-renewal and growth. Dietary supplementation of nude mice bearing BCSC-derived tumors with omega-3 fatty acids also significantly reduced their tumor load. These findings have demonstrated that increased lipogenesis is critical for self-renewal and growth of BCSC, and that omega-3 fatty acids are effective in targeting this pathway to exert their anticancer effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.3452DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of Diet and Dietary Components on the Composition of the Gut Microbiota.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 15;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA 15705, USA.

Diet and dietary components have profound effects on the composition of the gut microbiota and are among the most important contributors to the alteration in bacterial flora. This review examines the effects the "Western", "plant-based", "high-fat", "medical ketogenic", and "Mediterranean" diets have on the composition of the gut microbiota in both mice and human subjects. We show that specific dietary components that are commonly found in the "plant-based" and "Mediterranean" diet play a role in shifting the microbial composition. This review further evaluates the bacterial metabolites that are associated with diet, and their role in systemic inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia. Furthermore, the associations between diet/dietary components and altering bacterial composition, may lead to potential therapeutic targets for type II diabetes, obesity, and inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13082795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398149PMC
August 2021

Cost-benefit analysis of hepatic resection, radiofrequency ablation and liver transplantation in small hepatocellular carcinoma.

Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qingdao Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine(Qingdao Hiser hospital), Qingdao, China.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio of surgical treatment options for small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHC) by using the decision tree model and providing a reference for the clinical therapeutic decisions for SHC.

Methods: The data of 719 cases with SHC in the BCLC 0-A who were treated in the past were collected. The survival duration and treatment cost of patients in each experimental group after hepatic resection (HR), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) were statistically analyzed. The Markov decision tree of the surgical treatments of SHC was constructed by the TreeAge Pro 2011 software, and a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed based on the value of the data reviewed. The cost analysis diagram and the cost-effectiveness acceptance curve were obtained by using the Monte Carlo probability sensitivity analysis with the simulation of a cycle of 1,000 people.

Results: For SHC with a diameter of less than 3.0 cm, HR, RFA, and OLT had similar cost-effectiveness ratios. OLT could achieve a longer life expectancy, but it was greatly affected by the dropout rate while waiting for the liver donor. RFA was preferred when the willingness to pay (WTP) < 2,5000 RMB/QALY, OLT was preferred when WTP > 75,000 RMB/QALY, and HR was preferred when WTP was between the two.

Conclusion: HR in SHC with OLT had the longest life expectancy, but due to the limitations of organ sources, OLT was the preferred treatment option when the WTP was large enough, and the difference in the efficacy and cost-effectiveness between the HR and RFA was not obvious.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737167.2021.1973432DOI Listing
August 2021

Assessment of structural brain changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using the MRI-based brain atrophy and lesion index.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Mar;17(3):618-624

Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often have cognitive impairment and structural brain abnormalities. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based brain atrophy and lesion index can be used to evaluate common brain changes and their correlation with cognitive function, and can therefore also be used to reflect whole-brain structural changes related to T2DM. A total of 136 participants (64 men and 72 women, aged 55-86 years) were recruited for our study between January 2014 and December 2016. All participants underwent MRI and Mini-Mental State Examination assessment (including 42 healthy control, 38 T2DM without cognitive impairment, 26 with cognitive impairment but without T2DM, and 30 T2DM with cognitive impairment participants). The total and sub-category brain atrophy and lesion index scores in patients with T2DM with cognitive impairment were higher than those in healthy controls. Differences in the brain atrophy and lesion index of gray matter lesions and subcortical dilated perivascular spaces were found between non-T2DM patients with cognitive impairment and patients with T2DM and cognitive impairment. After adjusting for age, the brain atrophy and lesion index retained its capacity to identify patients with T2DM with cognitive impairment. These findings suggest that the brain atrophy and lesion index, based on T1-weighted and T2-weighted imaging, is of clinical value for identifying patients with T2DM and cognitive impairment. Gray matter lesions and subcortical dilated perivascular spaces may be potential diagnostic markers of T2DM that is complicated by cognitive impairment. This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of University of South China (approval No. USC20131109003) on November 9, 2013, and was retrospectively registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration No. ChiCTR1900024150) on June 27, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.320996DOI Listing
March 2022

A 2H-MoS/carbon cloth composite for high-performance all-solid-state supercapacitors derived from a molybdenum dithiocarbamate complex.

Dalton Trans 2021 Sep 10;50(34):11954-11964. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Supramolecular Coordination Materials and Applications, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

A molecular complex MoO(μ-S)(Etdtc) (dtc = dithiocarbamate) is prepared and loaded onto carbon cloth (CC) through facile solvothermal treatment, followed by subsequent single-source pyrolysis. This results in a highly porous 2H-MoS/CC composite with a sponge-like stacked lamellar morphology. Due to its high porosity and unique nano/microstructure, the MoS/CC composite exhibits a specific capacitance of 550.0 F g at 1 A g, outperforming some 1T-MoS based electrodes. The composite is further assembled into a symmetric all-solid-state supercapacitor, which can be operated stably at a wide potential window and shows a specific capacitance of 127.5 F g at 1 A g. In addition, the device delivers a high energy density of 70.8 W h kg at 1 kW kg, which still remains 15.0 W h kg at 18.0 kW kg. 75% of the performance of the device can be retained after 8000 cycles. Such remarkable electrochemical performance is attributed to its novel nano/microstructures with a large surface area, convenient ion transport pathways, enhanced conductivity, and improved structural stability. Thus, this work demonstrates a highly promising dithiocarbamate-based single-precursor pyrolysis route towards the fabrication of metal sulfides/carbon composites for energy storage applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt01643aDOI Listing
September 2021

General, Straightforward, and Atom-Economical Synthesis of Vinyl Triflimides.

Chemistry 2021 Aug 29;27(48):12272-12275. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Chemistry, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi'an Key Laboratory of Sustainable Energy Materials Chemistry, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No.28, West Xianning Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710049, P.R. China.

Vinyl triflimides were only accessible recently and their chemistry is yet to be discovered. Herein, we describe a general, straightforward and atom-economical synthesis of these materials from alkynes and triflimide. A vast array of terminal and internal alkynes with broad spectrum of functionalities could be employed to generate various di- and trisubstituted vinyl triflimides regiospecifically with high to specific stereoselectivity. Moreover, the protocol could be conducted on gram scale using terminal and internal alkynes. Preliminarily attempts to probe the unprecedented reactivity of vinyl triflimides revealed part of its chemical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202102369DOI Listing
August 2021

Gaussian fitting algorithm with multi-geometric parameters for rotated elliptical beam profiling using pixel ion chamber.

Med Phys 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei, China.

Purpose: A high-precision rotated elliptical beam profiling method based on pixel ion chamber is proposed in this paper. This method aims to improve the accuracy by modeling the transverse profile of rotated beam as an ellipse with additional correlation coefficient and eliminating the fitting error due to the volume averaging effect of pixel ion chamber.

Methods: In pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy systems, the transverse beam profile model is generally represented as a standard Gaussian distribution. Considering the elliptical spots, two-dimensional (2D) joint Gaussian distribution characterized with the correlation coefficient ρ is adopted in this study. Gaussian-type particle distribution with white noise was generated and processed in MATLAB to simulate the secondary particle collection in the pixel ion chamber. The simulated pixel ion chamber is a commercially available ion chamber which consists of 12 × 12 small square pixels (3.75 × 3.75 mm ) with a 0.05 mm interval. The simulated signals were preprocessed by filtering with the noise threshold and extracting the maximum simply connected domain (MSCD) of the signal. Then, five geometric parameters that identify the transverse beam profiles were fitted under different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions: the center of the beam (x , y ), the spot size (σ , σ ), and the rotation angle θ formed between the major axes of elliptical spot and the x axes of the ion chamber. First, the simulated signals were preprocessed by filtering with the noise threshold and extracting the MSCD of the signal. Second, a rectification curve of systematic error in fitted spot size versus the prescribed spot size was used to predict the systematic error due to the volume averaging effect. Finally, the effects of fitting errors on therapeutic dose were evaluated in terms of gamma index and relative dose difference.

Results: When the SNR is not less than 20 dB, the relative fitting error of spot size and the absolute fitting error of angle θ are less than 1% and 6.1°, respectively. The fitting error of beam center increases with spot size and will not exceed 0.22 mm when spot size reaches up to 12 mm. At a SNR equal to 20 dB, neither cold nor hot spots were presented in dose distribution calculated with the fitted spot parameters.

Conclusion: The improved Gaussian fitting algorithm performs well when SNR is not less than 20 dB. This method can effectively distinguish the nominal beam and rotated elliptical beam. An ideal systematic error curve can be predicted and used to correct the fitted spot size, thus eliminating the systematic error due to the volume averaging effect of the pixel ion chamber. The fitting error of spot size cannot be fully corrected, but it is negligible and shows little effect on the overall therapeutic dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15140DOI Listing
July 2021

TAFs contributes the function of PTPN2 in colorectal carcinogenesis through activating JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(6):3085-3097. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pathology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University Nanjing 210006, China.

The morbidity and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks fourth worldwide, moreover, the tumor microenvironment (TME) of CRC is quite complex, and is one of the necessary factors affecting promotion of tumor metastasis. PTPN2 is a tumor suppressor which plays an important role in cancer-related downstream molecular pathway. FSP-1 is highly-expressed in multiple types of tumor tissues and is a biomarker of stromal fibroblasts. To examine the function of PTPN2 in the metastasis of CRC, the study evaluated the co-expression level of PTPN2 and FSP-1 in CRC tissues by double staining, and demonstrated the relationship with clinical information about each patient. The roles of PTPN2 and FSP-1 were detected by proliferation and transwell assay through knockdown of expression level of PTPN2. Lower PTPN2 with higher FSP-1 expression was correlated with poor survival outcomes in CRC. TAFs contribute to the migration function of PTPN2 in CRC through inducing changes in the level of TGF-β1. Western blot and qRT-PCR assays were used to detect the mechanism of PTPN2 regulation of migration with TAFs in the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, moreover, TAFs contributed the function of PTPN2 in colorectal carcinogenesis . In summary, the study shed light on the effect of TAFs contributes the function of PTPN2 in colorectal carcinogenesis through activating JAK/STAT signaling pathway. In addition, double-staining assay could give us a unique perspective from which to study TME in CRC.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263690PMC
June 2021

Analysis of efficacy of intervention strategies for COVID-19 transmission: A case study of Hong Kong.

Environ Int 2021 11 18;156:106723. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

By the end of February 2021, COVID-19 had spread to over 230 countries, with more than 100 million confirmed cases and 2.5 million deaths. To control infection spread with the least disruption to economic and societal activities, it is crucial to implement the various interventions effectively. In this study, we developed an agent-based SEIR model, using real demographic and geographic data from Hong Kong, to analyse the efficiency of various intervention strategies in preventing infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Close contact route including short-range airborne is considered as the main transmission routes for COVID-19 spread. Contact tracing is not that useful if all other interventions have been fully deployed. The number of infected individuals could be halved if people reduced their close contact rate by 25%. For reducing transmission, students should be prioritized for vaccination rather than retired older people and preschool aged children. Home isolation, and taking the nucleic acid test (NAT) as soon as possible after symptom onset, are much more effective interventions than wearing masks in public places. Temperature screening in public places only disrupted the infection spread by a small amount when other interventions have been fully implemented. Our results may be useful for other highly populated cities, when choosing their intervention strategies to prevent outbreaks of COVID-19 and similar diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214805PMC
November 2021

Predicting COVID-19 epidemiological trend by applying population mobility data in two-stage modeling.

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 02;50(1):68-73

Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310003,China.

:To predict the epidemiological trend of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by mathematical modeling based on the population mobility and the epidemic prevention and control measures. : As of February 8,2020,the information of 151 confirmed cases in Yueqing,Zhejiang province were obtained,including patients' infection process,population mobility between Yueqing and Wuhan,etc. To simulate and predict the development trend of COVID-19 in Yueqing, the study established two-stage mathematical models,integrating the population mobility data with the date of symptom appearance of confirmed cases and the transmission dynamics of imported and local cases. : It was found that in the early stage of the pandemic,the number of daily imported cases from Wuhan (using the date of symptom appearance) was positively associated with the number of population travelling from Wuhan to Yueqing on the same day and 6 and 9 days before that. The study predicted that the final outbreak size in Yueqing would be 170 according to the number of imported cases estimated by consulting the population number travelling from Wuhan to Yueqing and the susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model; while the number would be 165 if using the reported daily number of imported cases. These estimates were close to the 170,the actual monitoring number of cases in Yueqing as of April 27,2020. : The two-stage modeling approach used in this study can accurately predict COVID-19 epidemiological trend.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/zdxbyxb-2021-0043DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of socioeconomic status,population mobility and control measures on COVID-10 development in major cities of China.

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 02;50(1):52-60

Yale School of Public Health,Yale University,New Haven 06520,Connecticut,USA.

:To evaluate the impact of socioeconomic status,population mobility,prevention and control measures on the early-stage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) development in major cities of China. : The rate of daily new confirmed COVID-19 cases in the 51 cities with the largest number of cumulative confirmed cases as of February 19,2020 (except those in Hubei province) were collected and analyzed using the time series cluster analysis. It was then assessed according to three aspects,that is, socioeconomic status,population mobility,and control measures for the pandemic. : According to the analysis on the 51 cities,4 development patterns of COVID-19 were obtained,including a high-incidence pattern (in Xinyu),a late high-incidence pattern (in Ganzi),a moderate incidence pattern (in Wenzhou and other 12 cities),and a low and stable incidence pattern (in Hangzhou and other 35 cities). Cities with different types and within the same type both had different scores on the three aspects. : There were relatively large difference on the COVID-19 development among different cities in China,possibly affected by socioeconomic status,population mobility and prevention and control measures that were taken. Therefore,a timely public health emergency response and travel restriction measures inside the city can interfere the development of the pandemic. Population flow from high risk area can largely affect the number of cumulative confirmed cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/zdxbyxb-2021-0028DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of Wuhan lockdown on the spread of COVID-19 in China: a study based on the data of population mobility.

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 02;50(1):61-67

Department of Surgical Oncology,Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital,Zhejiang University School of Medicine,Hangzhou 310016,China.

This study aimed to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of the Wuhan lockdown measure on controlling the spread of coronavirus diesase 2019 (COVID-19). : Firstly,estimate the daily new infection rate in Wuhan before January 23,2020 when the city went into lockdown by consulting the data of Wuhan population mobility and the number of cases imported from Wuhan in 217 cities of Mainland China. Then estimate what the daily new infection rate would have been in Wuhan from January 24 to January 30th if the lockdown measure had been delayed for 7 days,assuming that the daily new infection in Wuhan after January 23 increased in a high,moderate and low trend respectively (using exponential, linear and logarithm growth models). Based on that,calculate the number of infection cases imported from Wuhan during this period. Finally,predict the possible impact of 7-day delayed lockdown in Wuhan on the epidemic situation in China using the susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) model. : The daily new infection rate in Wuhan was estimated to be 0.021%,0.026%,0.029%,0.033% and 0.070% respectively from January 19 to January 23. And there were at least 20 066 infection cases in Wuhan by January 23,2020. If Wuhan lockdown measure had been delayed for 7 days,the daily new infection rate on January 30 would have been 0.335% in the exponential growth model,0.129% in the linear growth model,and 0.070% in the logarithm growth model. Correspondingly,there would have been 32 075,24 819 and 20 334 infection cases travelling from Wuhan to other areas of Mainland China,and the number of cumulative confirmed cases as of March 19 in Mainland China would have been 3.3-3.9 times of the officially reported number. Conclusions: Timely taking city-level lockdown measure in Wuhan in the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak is essential in containing the spread of the disease in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/zdxbyxb-2021-0021DOI Listing
February 2021

Evidence for lack of transmission by close contact and surface touch in a restaurant outbreak of COVID-19.

J Infect 2021 08 29;83(2):207-216. Epub 2021 May 29.

Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangdong province, China; School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory disease that has become a global pandemic. Close contact plays an important role in infection spread, while fomite may also be a possible transmission route. Research during the COVID-19 pandemic has identified long-range airborne transmission as one of the important transmission routes although lack solid evidence.

Methods: We examined video data related to a restaurant associated COVID-19 outbreak in Guangzhou. We observed more than 40,000 surface touches and 13,000 episodes of close contacts in the restaurant during the entire lunch duration. These data allowed us to analyse infection risk via both the fomite and close contact routes.

Results: There is no significant correlation between the infection risk via both fomite and close contact routes among those who were not family members of the index case. We can thus rule out virus transmission via fomite contact and interpersonal close contact routes in the Guangzhou restaurant outbreak. The absence of a fomite route agrees with the COVID-19 literature.

Conclusions: These results provide indirect evidence for the long-range airborne route dominating SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the restaurant. We note that the restaurant was poorly ventilated, allowing for increasing airborne SARS-CoV-2 concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2021.05.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164346PMC
August 2021

Bone marrow stromal cells reverse the microglia type from pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor a microglia to anti-inflammatory CD206 microglia of middle cerebral artery occlusion rats through triggering secretion of CX3CL1.

Folia Neuropathol 2021 ;59(1):20-31

Geriatric Neurological Department of the Second Medical Center & National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model has been extensively applied to study ischaemic stroke. This study attempted to clarify effect of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on infarct injury of MCAO rats. BMSCs were isolated and identified by staining CD29/CD44 and CD31/CD45. CX3CL1 silencing vector (pLVX-shRNA-CX3CL1) was generated and infected to BMSCs. pLVX-shRNA-CX3CL1 infected BMSCs were transplanted into brain tissue of MCAO rats. Real-time PCR was used to determine CX3CL1 expression. Infarct areas were stained with TTC to evaluate infarct size. Double-staining immunofluorescence was conducted to determine anti-inflammatory type CD206 and pro-inflammatory type tumour necrosis factor a (TNF-a) microglia. Isolated BMSCs were positively presented for CD29/CD44, and negatively for CD31/CD45. CX3CL1 was significantly lower in the BMSC + pLVX-shRNA2-CX3-CL1 group compared to the BMSCs + pLVX group (p < 0.05). According to TTC and neurological scores, MCAO rats were successfully generated. BMSCs transplantation significantly increased CD206 microglia and decreased TNF-a microglia. However, shRNA-CX3CL1-infected BMSCs remarkably reduced CD206 microglia and enhanced TNF-a microglia compared to the MCAO + BMSCs group. In conclusion, BMSCs reverse microglia from pro-inflammatory type TNF-a microglia to anti-inflammatory type CD206 microglia in the infarct region of MCAO rats (3rd to 7th days post BMSC transplantation), through triggering of CX3CL1 secretion. Therefore, the potential effects of CX3CL1 secreted by BMSCs would provide an insight for stem cell-dependent therapeutic strategies in treating ischaemic stroke-associated disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/fn.2021.105129DOI Listing
January 2021

Anatomic study of carpal tunnel in adults using monoenergetic reconstruction of dual-energy computed tomography.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Feb;71(2(B)):663-671

Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Heping, Shenyang, China.

Objective: To seek optimal keV settings for imaging carpal tunnel in adults by dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) monoenergetic technique; to describe anatomic characteristics of carpal tunnel and to observe correlation between carpal bony and soft tissue structures.

Methods: DECT images of 20 wrists (11 left and 9 right wrists; 14 men, mean age 26.93±1.38 years, range 23 to 28, and 6 women, mean age 24.17 ± 0.98 years, range 23 to 26) were evaluated. Monoenergetic images were reconstructed at 42, 62, 82, 102, 122, and 142 keV. Image quality was assessed along a 5-point Likert scale, and the highest-quality images were chosen for quantitative analysis. Two musculoskeletal radiologists performed both analyses independently.

Results: The optimal energy spectrum with the best contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for monoenergetic images were at 62 keV (19 wrists, 95%) and 61 keV (1 wrist, 5%). There was substantial interobserver agreement between the readers in the 5-point Likert scale analysis of image quality (k= 0.793). Bland-Altman plots also indicated good agreement between observers in quantitative analysis. Intra-category 1 and 2 correlation was mostly discovered at hamate hook level and middle level of pisiform (P < 0.05), while bony and soft tissue structures partly reached correlation (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The optimal energy spectrum for monoenergetic DECT imaging of carpal tunnel structures was 62 keV. DECT monoenergetic imaging could predict changes in soft tissue structures and demonstrate carpal tunnel anatomic structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.1203DOI Listing
February 2021

Intercalation and delamination of TiSnC with high lithium ion storage capacity.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr 13;13(15):7355-7361. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Shaoyang University, Shaoyang, Hunan 422000, PR China.

Li-ion batteries attract great attention due to the rapidly increasing and urgent demand for high energy storage devices. MAX phase compounds, layered ternary transition metal carbides and/or nitrides show promise as candidate materials of electrodes for Li-ion batteries. However, the highest specific capacity reported up to now is relatively low (180 mA h g), preventing them from use in real applications. Exploring more MAX phase compounds with delaminated two-dimensional structure is an effective solution to increase the specific capacity. Herein, we report the reversible electrochemical intercalation of Li into TiSnC (MAX phase) nanosheets. Owing to the synergistic effects of intercalation and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-assisted exfoliation, TiSnC nanosheets are successfully obtained via sonication in DMSO. Moreover, when using as an anode of a Li-ion battery, TiSnC nanosheets exhibited an increasing specific capacity with cycling due to the exfoliation of TiSnC nanosheets via reversible Li-ion intercalation. After 1000 charge-discharge cycles, TiSnC nanosheets delivered a high specific capacity of 735 mA h g at a current density of 50 mA g, which is far better than other MAX phases, such as TiSC, TiSiC and NbSnC. The current work demonstrates the Li-ion storage potential and indicates a novel strategy for further intercalation and delamination of MAX phases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr06260jDOI Listing
April 2021

Socioeconomic Disparities Affect Children's Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry via Stress Hormone Response.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 08 11;90(3):173-181. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Brain Imaging and Connectomics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: The socioeconomic status (SES) of a family can affect almost all aspects of a child's life, including health and current and future achievement. The potential adverse effects of low SES on children's emotional development are thought to result from proximal factors such as stress. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms, however, remain elusive.

Methods: The effect of SES on children's integrative cortisol secretion and its modulations on emotion-related brain systems and connectivity were examined in children aged 6 to 12 years. In study 1, we investigated the relationship between SES and cortisol secretion in 239 children. In study 2, using resting-state and task-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging in a subsample of 50 children, we investigated how SES affects children's amygdala-prefrontal functional organization through cortisol secretion.

Results: Children from lower SES exhibited lower cortisol secretion, considering basal cortisol, nocturnal cortisol activity during sleep, and cortisol awakening response, which mediated higher amygdala nuclei intrinsic functional connectivity with the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Critically, these children also exhibited higher task-evoked ventromedial PFC activity through higher intrinsic connectivity of the centromedial amygdala with the medial PFC. They also exhibited higher functional coupling of the centromedial amygdala with the dorsolateral PFC when processing negative emotions.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that SES shapes children's amygdala-prefrontal circuitry through stress-sensitive cortisol secretion, with the most prominent effect in the centromedial amygdala's functional coordination with the ventromedial and dorsolateral PFC involved in processing negative emotions. Our findings provide important insight into the neurobiological etiology underlying how socioeconomic disparities shape children's emotional development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.02.002DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of exogenous spermidine on poplar resistance to leaf and root herbivory as affected by soil cadmium stress.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 7;288:112467. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of National Forestry & Grassland Administration on Forest Resources Conservation and Ecological Safety in the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, College of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 611130, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Elemental defense hypothesis (EDH) proposed that metal accumulation in plants could increase plant resistance to herbivores. However, the over-accumulation of metals in low-accumulators such as woody plants will cause adverse effects on plant health. Thus, the application of EDH on low-accumulators in metal contaminated areas is strongly limited. Since the supplement of exogenous spermidine (Spd) was reported to alleviate metal-induced toxicity in plants while stimulating metal accumulation in plant tissues, we hypothesized that such application will further improve plant resistance to herbivores. In this study, we employed a woody plant species, Populus yunnanensis, to test this hypothesis. We first tested a Spd concentration series applied on plants subjected to soil cadmium (Cd) stress and found that the 1 mM Spd strongly promoted plant growth while stimulated Cd accumulation in plant leaves and roots. We further conducted herbivore bioassays to test the growth performance and feeding preference of two leaf herbivore species and a root herbivore species that fed on plants from different treatments. The results showed that the inhibition effect of Cd stressed-plants on herbivore growth was significantly magnified by the addition of Spd. The growth weight of all the three tested herbivores were negatively correlated with increased Cd concentrations in plant tissues. In addition, the feeding preferences of the two leaf herbivore species were strongly repelled by leaf discs from Cd-treated plants with Spd supplement. The results suggested that the application of exogenous Spd at a certain dose could enhance elemental defense of plants against herbivory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112467DOI Listing
June 2021

Browning white adipose tissue using adipose stromal cell-targeted resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles for combating obesity.

J Control Release 2021 05 23;333:339-351. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA; College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA. Electronic address:

Enhancing thermogenic energy expenditure via promoting the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a potential therapeutic strategy to manage energy imbalance and the consequent comorbidities associated with excess body weight. Adverse effects and toxicities of currently available methods to induce browning of WAT have retarded exploration of this promising therapeutic approach. Targeted delivery of browning agents to adipose stromal cells (ASCs) in subcutaneous WAT to induce differentiation into beige adipocytes may overcome these barriers. Herein, we report for the first time, ASC-targeted delivery of trans-resveratrol (R), a representative agent, using ligand-coated R-encapsulated nanoparticles (L-Rnano) that selectively bind to glycanation site-deficient decorin receptors on ASCs. After biweekly intravenous administration of L-Rnano to obese C57BL/6 J mice for 5 weeks targeted R delivery significantly induced ASCs differentiation into beige adipocytes, which subsequently resulted in 40% decrease in fat mass, accompanied by improved glucose homeostasis and decreased inflammation. Our results suggest that the ASC-targeted nanoparticle delivery of browning agents could be a transformative technology in combating obesity and its comorbidities with high efficacy and low toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.03.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396108PMC
May 2021

Mapping Domain- and Age-Specific Functional Brain Activity for Children's Cognitive and Affective Development.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Jun 20;37(6):763-776. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China.

The human brain undergoes rapid development during childhood, with significant improvement in a wide spectrum of cognitive and affective functions. Mapping domain- and age-specific brain activity patterns has important implications for characterizing the development of children's cognitive and affective functions. The current mainstay of brain templates is primarily derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thus is not ideal for mapping children's cognitive and affective brain development. By integrating task-dependent functional MRI data from a large sample of 250 children (aged 7 to 12) across multiple domains and the latest easy-to-use and transparent preprocessing workflow, we here created a set of age-specific brain functional activity maps across four domains: attention, executive function, emotion, and risky decision-making. Moreover, we developed a toolbox named Developmental Brain Functional Activity maps across multiple domains that enables researchers to visualize and download domain- and age-specific brain activity maps for various needs. This toolbox and maps have been released on the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse website ( http://www.nitrc.org/projects/dbfa ). Our study provides domain- and age-specific brain activity maps for future developmental neuroimaging studies in both healthy and clinical populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00650-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192667PMC
June 2021

A Facile Reaction Strategy for the Synthesis of MOF-Based Pine-Needle-Like Nanocluster Hierarchical Structure for Efficient Overall Water Splitting.

Inorg Chem 2021 Mar 5;60(6):4047-4057. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule of the Ministry of Education, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Chemistry Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, Northwest University, No. 1, Xuefu Avenue, Xi'an 710127, People's Republic of China.

Solvothermal reactions of Co(NO)·6HO, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid afforded a Co-MOF: {[Co(Hatz)(bta)]·HO}. Furthermore, a unique metal-organic-framework-based pine-needle-like nanocluster hierarchical architecture has been rationally designed and prepared on a nickel foam skeleton via a simple solvothermal method based on the Co(OH)F intermediate and directly adopted as an optimum bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting. The Co-MOF/NF exhibited enhanced catalytic performance for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The optimized catalyst reveals the highest electrocatalytic characteristics, affording current densities of 50 mA cm at an overpotential of 266 mV for the OER and 10 mA cm at an overpotential of 115 mV forthe HER in 1 M KOH. Meanwhile, the catalyst exhibits an ultrastability in the OER process and long-term test at 20 mA cm for 100 h led to only a 9.4% increase in overpotential. Furthermore, an electrolytic cell assembled from the bifunctional Co-MOF/NF delivers a current density of 10 mA cm at a cell voltage of 1.548 V. This excellent performance is believed to be the result of the exotic pine-needle-like nanocluster structure with effective accessibility of dense catalytically active sites, as well as the high specific surface area and the promotion of reversible chemisorption for oxygen species due to the linkers interacting with Co ions. Further SEM, TEM, and XPS analyses of the catalyst after OER stability tests reveal that the formation of CoO on the surface and unconsolidated architecture withinthe electrode materials are responsible for the high catalytic activity. This work extends the applications of MOFs in the field of electrocatalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00098DOI Listing
March 2021

Repeated fluoxetine treatment induces transient and long-term astrocytic plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex of normal adult rats.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 04 20;107:110252. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, PR China. Electronic address:

Fluoxetine (Flx)-induced neuronal plasticity plays an important role in the effective treatment of depression and mood disorders. It is less understood whether repeated Flx treatment induces astrocytic plasticity that outlasts the presence of the drug in the body. We showed previously that Flx-induced neuronal plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) persisted up to 20 days after the treatment. In this study, adult rats were subjected to a 15-day repeated Flx treatment at a daily dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. Astrocytic metabolites and markers were assessed in the mPFC at day 1 (d1) and day 20 (d20) after the treatment. Significant transient reductions in the concentrations of astrocytic metabolites taurine and myo-inositol and the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) were observed in the mPFC of Flx-treated rats at d1, which recovered to the control levels at d20. Further, Flx treatment resulted in long-lasting changes in Kir4.1 expression in the mPFC, which remained downregulated at d20. The expression of 5-HT receptor in the mPFC of Flx-treated rats was downregulated at d1 but became upregulated at d20. In summary, repeated Flx treatment induces both transient and long-term astrocytic plasticity in the mPFC of adult rats. The changes observed at d1 are consistent with disturbed water homeostasis and astrocytic de-maturation in the mPFC. The persistent changes in the expressions of Kir4.1 and 5-HT at d20, presumably of the astrocytic origin, might have contributed to the long-term neurotrophic effects of repeated Flx treatment in the mPFC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110252DOI Listing
April 2021

The role and research progress of the balance and interaction between regulatory T cells and other immune cells in obesity with insulin resistance.

Adipocyte 2021 12;10(1):66-79

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , Changsha, Hunan, China.

Metabolic homoeostasis in adipose tissue plays a major role in obesity-related insulin resistance (IR). Regulatory T (Treg) cells have been recorded to regulate metabolic homoeostasis in adipose tissue. However, their specific mechanism is not yet known. This review aims to present the role of Treg cells and other immune cells in obesity-associated IR, focusing on the balance of numbers and functions of Treg cells and other immune cells as well as the crucial role of their interactions in maintaining adipose tissue homoeostasis. Th1 cells, Th17 cells, CD8 T cells, and pro-inflammatory macrophages mediate the occurrence of obesity and IR by antagonizing Treg cells, while anti-inflammatory dendritic cells, eosinophils and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) regulate the metabolic homoeostasis of adipose tissue by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of Treg cells. γ δ T cells and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have complex effects on Treg cells, and their roles in obesity-associated IR are controversial. The balance of Treg cells and other immune cells can help maintain the metabolic homoeostasis of adipose tissue. Further research needs to explore more specific molecular mechanisms, thus providing more precise directions for the treatment of obesity with IR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21623945.2021.1876375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834085PMC
December 2021

In situ electrochemical redox tuning of Pd-Co hybrid electrocatalysts for high-performance methanol oxidation: Strong metal-support interaction.

Authors:
Hao Lei Qibo Zhang

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 28;588:476-484. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Key Laboratory of Ionic Liquids Metallurgy, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Cleaning Utilization in Yunnan Province, Kunming 650093, PR China. Electronic address:

Construction of strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) is of fundamental interest in the preparation of supported metal nanoparticle catalysts with enhanced catalytic activity. Herein, we report a facile in situ electrochemical redox tuning approach to build strong interactions between metals and supports. As for a typical example, a composite electrocatalyst of Pd-Co hybrid nanoparticles directly developed on Ni substrate is found to follow a distinct surface self-reconstruction process in alkaline media via an in situ electrochemical redox procedure, which results in structural transition from the original nanoparticles (NPs) to nanosheets (NSs) coupled with a phase transformation of the Co component, Co → CoO/Co(OH). The SMSI is observed in the electrochemically tuned Pd-Co hybrid system and leads to significantly enhanced catalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) due to the modified atomic/electronic structure, increased surface area, and more exposed electroactive sites. Compared with commercial Pd/C catalyst, the electrochemically tuned Pd-Co hybrid catalyst with SMSI exhibits superior catalytic activity (2330 mA∙mg) and much better stability (remains 503 mA∙mg after 1000 cycles and 172 mA∙mg after 5000 s), and therefore has great potential in practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.12.091DOI Listing
April 2021

Synthesis and Antiproliferatory Activities Evaluation of Multi-Substituted Isatin Derivatives.

Molecules 2020 Dec 31;26(1). Epub 2020 Dec 31.

China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Food Nutrition/Safety and Medicinal Chemistry, College of Bioengineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China.

A series of multi-substituted isatin derivatives were synthesized using the powerful Sandmeyer reaction. The structures of these derivatives were confirmed by H-NMR, C-NMR, and HR-MS. Inhibition of proliferation activities of these derivatives against human leukemia cells (K562), human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and human colon carcinoma cells (HT-29) were evaluated in vitro using the MTT assay. Among the series, compound exhibited strong antiproliferatory activities against K562, HepG2 and HT-29 cells with IC values of 1.75, 3.20, and 4.17 μM, respectively. The morphological, growth inhibitory and apoptosic effects of compound in K562 cells, wound healing effect in HepG2 cells, and tube formating effect in matrix gel of HUVEC cells were evaluated consequently. All results indicated that compound could be used as a potential antitumor agent in further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795683PMC
December 2020

Interaction Between Smoking and Internet Gaming Disorder on Spontaneous Brain Activity.

Front Psychiatry 2020 3;11:586114. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Converging lines of evidence indicates that smoking and internet gaming disorder (IGD) affect spontaneous brain activity, respectively. However, little is known about whether these two factors work together on the human brain. In this study, we investigated the interaction between smoking and IGD on local spontaneous brain activity using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) based on resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). Forty-six cigarette smokers, 38 IGD individuals, 34 participants with both IGD and cigarette smoking (IGD-Smoking), and 60 healthy individuals involved in the study. Voxel-wise analysis of covariance of ALFF revealed that there were significant interactions between IGD by smoking in the right medial pre-frontal cortex (MPFC)/ventral striatum, bilateral cerebellar, and visual-related regions as well as the left temporal gyrus. In the right MPFC/ventral striatum and left temporal gyrus, ALFF in smoking group was significantly higher than healthy group while there were no significant ALFF differences between IGD-Smoking group and IGD group. While in the bilateral cerebellar and visual-related regions, ALFF in the smoking group was significantly lower than healthy group while ALFF in IGD-Smoking group did not show significant difference with IGD group. In addition, in the smoking group, ALFF of the right MPFC/ventral striatum was associated positively with anxiety and depression scores while the ALFF value in the smoking group had a trend toward negative correlation with SDS scores in the bilateral cerebellar and visual-related regions. The ALFF value in the smoking group was associated positively with anxiety score in the left temporal gyrus. These findings indicate that smoking and IGD interacted with each other in the human brain. Our results, in terms of spontaneous brain activity, may imply the fact that IGD people are more tended to get smoking. Moreover, it is possible to predict that smokers may be more easily to get internet addiction than healthy people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.586114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744462PMC
December 2020

Effects of Human Behavior Changes During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic on Influenza Spread in Hong Kong.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 09;73(5):e1142-e1150

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to threaten human life worldwide. We explored how human behaviors have been influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong, and how the transmission of other respiratory diseases (eg, influenza) has been influenced by human behavior.

Methods: We focused on the spread of COVID-19 and influenza infections based on the reported COVID-19 cases and influenza surveillance data and investigated the changes in human behavior due to COVID-19 based on mass transit railway data and the data from a telephone survey. We did the simulation based on a susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) model to assess the risk reduction of influenza transmission caused by the changes in human behavior.

Results: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of passengers fell by 52.0% compared with the same period in 2019. Residents spent 32.2% more time at home. Each person, on average, came into close contact with 17.6 and 7.1 people per day during the normal and pandemic periods, respectively. Students, workers, and older people reduced their daily number of close contacts by 83.0%, 48.1%, and 40.3%, respectively. The close contact rates in residences, workplaces, places of study, restaurants, shopping centers, markets, and public transport decreased by 8.3%, 30.8%, 66.0%, 38.5%, 48.6%, 41.0%, and 36.1%, respectively. Based on the simulation, these changes in human behavior reduced the effective reproduction number of influenza by 63.1%.

Conclusions: Human behaviors were significantly influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. Close contact control contributed more than 47% to the reduction in infection risk of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799278PMC
September 2021

Reduction in hippocampal volumes subsequent to heavy cannabis use: a 3-year longitudinal study.

Psychiatry Res 2021 01 24;295:113588. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Special Children's Impairment and Intervention, Nanjing Normal University of Special Education, Nanjing, China; State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Cannabis exposure is related to neuroanatomical changes in brain regions rich in cannabinoid receptors, such as the hippocampus. However, researchers have not clearly determined whether persistent heavy cannabis use leads to morphological changes in the hippocampus or whether an earlier age of onset of first cannabis use and/or higher doses of cannabis exposure exacerbate these alterations. In this longitudinal study, we investigated whether continued heavy cannabis use in young adults is associated with an altered hippocampal volume. Twenty heavy cannabis users (CBs) and 22 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a comprehensive psychological assessment and a T1 structural scan at baseline and at a 3-year follow-up visit. Volumes of the hippocampus and its subregions were estimated using volBrain software. Except for the cornu ammonis 2 (CA2)/CA3 subregions, age had significant effects on all hippocampal subregions in both the CB and HC groups. The relative right hippocampal volume and absolute and relative right CA1 volumes displayed a greater rate of decrease in CBs compared to HCs. In addition, we explored the relationship between alterations in hippocampal volume and cannabis use characteristics. Changes in the relative right hippocampal volume and the relative right CA1 volume were related to age at first cannabis use but not to age at onset of frequent cannabis use. Alterations in the relative right hippocampal volume and absolute and relative right CA1 volumes were associated with Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test (CUDIT) scores. Based on these results, heavy cannabis use in early adulthood is a risk factor for a greater rate of decrease in the volume of the right hippocampus (particularly the right CA1).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113588DOI Listing
January 2021

Protective effect of Chushizi (Fructus Broussonetiae) on acetaminophen-induced rat hepatitis by inhibiting the Toll-like receptor 3/c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-jun/c-fos/janus protein tyrosine kinase/activators of transcription 3 pathway.

J Tradit Chin Med 2020 12;40(6):965-973

Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Objective: To observe the intervention of Chushizi (Fructus Broussonetiae) (CSZ) on drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in rats, as well as indicators of liver function, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, and expression of proteins and mRNA associated with toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in the liver [TLR3, janus protein tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2), c-jun, c-fos, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2), and STAT3].

Methods: Forty specified pathogen free grade Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, the silybin group and the CSZ group. Rats were given acetaminophen (APAP) to trigger DILI. Histopathology of the liver was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), direct bilirubin (DBIL), and total bilirubin (TBIL) in serum were detected by a semi-automatic biochemical instrument. Content of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-13, and IL-22 in serum were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the expression of TLR3, phosphorylation of JAK2 (p-JAK2), while c-jun and c-fos proteins in the liver were determined by immunohistochemistry; expression of JNK2, and STAT3 in the liver were assayed by Western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. P-JNK2 and p-STAT3 in the liver were assayed by Western blot.

Results: After treatment, the activity of ALT, AST, and concentrations of TBIL, DBIL, TNF-α, IL-6, as well as IL-13 in serum, were lower than those in the model group, and expression of p-JAK2, TLR3, c-jun, c-fos, p-STAT3, and p-JNK2 could be downregulated.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that CSZ is a valid medicine to alleviate APAP-induced DILI, while its partial mechanism may regulate the TLR3/JNK/ c-jun/c-fos/JAK/STAT3 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19852/j.cnki.jtcm.2020.06.008DOI Listing
December 2020
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