Publications by authors named "Hao Cheng"

600 Publications

Elevated Residual Apnea-Hypopnea Index on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Download after Transition to Full-Face Mask.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Mar;18(3):524-526

Department of Neurology, Sleep Disorders Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.202006-725CCDOI Listing
March 2021

ASAS-NANP SYMPOSIUM: prospects for interactive and dynamic graphics in the era of data-rich animal science1.

J Anim Sci 2021 Feb;99(2)

Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Statistical graphics, and data visualization, play an essential but under-utilized, role for data analysis in animal science, and also to visually illustrate the concepts, ideas, or outputs of research and in curricula. The recent rise in web technologies and ubiquitous availability of web browsers enables easier sharing of interactive and dynamic graphics. Interactivity and dynamic feedback enhance human-computer interaction and data exploration. Web applications such as decision support systems coupled with multimedia tools synergize with interactive and dynamic graphics. However, the importance of graphics for effectively communicating data, understanding data uncertainty, and the state of the field of interactive and dynamic graphics is underappreciated in animal science. To address this gap, we describe the current state of graphical methodology and technology that might be more broadly adopted. This includes an explanation of a conceptual framework for effective graphics construction. The ideas and technology are illustrated using publicly available animal datasets. We foresee that many new types of big and complex data being generated in precision livestock farming create exciting opportunities for applying interactive and dynamic graphics to improve data analysis and make data-supported decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa402DOI Listing
February 2021

HPV58 E7 Protein Expression Profile in Cervical Cancer and CIN with Immunohistochemistry.

J Cancer 2021 18;12(6):1722-1728. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Dermatology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

The persistent infection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is one of the most common causes of cervical cancer worldwide, and HPV type 58 (HPV58) is the third most common HPV type in eastern Asia. The E7 oncoprotein is constitutively expressed in HPV58-associated cervical cancer cells and plays a key role during tumorigenesis. This study aimed to assess the HPV58 E7 protein expression in the tissues of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). A total of 67 HPV58-positive cervical samples were collected, including 25 cervical cancer samples and 42 CIN samples. All the tissues were examined by HPV58 E7, p16 and Ki67 immunohistochemistry (IHC). At last, we analyzed their association with clinical and pathological variables. HPV58 E7 expression was detected in 96% of the HPV58 DNA-positive cervical cancer tissues and 85.7% of HPV58-positive CIN tissues. 65 samples of cervical cancer and CIN tissues had p16-positive staining, while 59 samples were Ki-67 positive. HPV58 E7 protein is highly expressed in both cervical cancer and CIN tissues. HPV58 E7 IHC could be sensitive and specific for evaluating HPV-driven cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions, in combination with p16 and Ki-67 IHC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.50816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890325PMC
January 2021

S100A8 Promotes Inflammation Toll-Like Receptor 4 After Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

Front Neurosci 2020 3;14:616559. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yijishan Hospital, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, China.

Introduction: S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8) is also known as macrophage-related protein 8, which is involved in various pathological processes in the central nervous system post-traumatic brain injury (TBI), and plays a critical role in inducing inflammatory cytokines. Accumulating evidences have indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is considered to be involved in inflammatory responses post TBI. The present study was designed to analyze the hypothesis that S100A8 is the key molecule that induces inflammation TLR4 in TBI.

Methods: The weight-drop TBI model was used and randomly implemented on mice that were categorized into six groups: Sham, NS, S100A8, S100A8+TAK-242, TBI, and TBI+TAK-242 groups. In the S100A8+TAK-242 and TBI+TAK-242 groups, at half an hour prior to the intracerebroventricular administration of S100A8 or TBI, mice were intraperitoneally treated with TAK-242 that acts as a selective antagonist and inhibitor of TLR4. Furthermore, the protein recombinant of S100A8 was injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain of mice in the S100A8 and S100A8+TAK-242 groups. Sterile normal saline was injected into the lateral ventricle in the NS group. To evaluate the association between S100A8 and TLR4, Western blot, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Nissl staining were employed. Simultaneously, the neurological score and brain water content were assessed. In the analysis, BV-2 microglial cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide LPS or S100A8 recombinant protein, with or without TAK-242. The expression of the related proteins was subsequently detected by Western blot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: The levels of S100A8 protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated after TBI. There was a reduction in the neurological scores of non-TBI animals with remarkable severe brain edema after the intracerebroventricular administration of S100A8. Furthermore, the TLR4, p-p65, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) levels were elevated after the administration of S100A8 or TBI, which could be restored by TAK-242. Meanwhile, in the analysis, due to the stimulation of S100A8 or LPS, there was an upregulation of p-p65 and MyD88, which could also be suppressed by TAK-242.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the TLR4-MyD88 pathway was activated by S100A8, which is essential for the development of inflammation in the brain after TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.616559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887321PMC
February 2021

Meiotic arrest with roscovitine and sexual maturity improve competence of mouse oocytes by regulating expression of competence-related genes.

J Reprod Dev 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an City 271018, P. R. China.

We have studied the mechanisms by which meiotic arrest maintenance (MAM) with roscovitine, female sexual maturity, and the surrounded nucleoli (SN) chromatin configuration improve the competence of mouse oocytes by observing the expression of oocyte competence-related genes in non-surrounded nucleoli (NSN) and SN oocytes from prepubertal and adult mice following maturation with or without MAM. The results demonstrated that MAM with roscovitine significantly improved the developmental potential of adult SN and prepubertal NSN oocytes, but had no effect on that of prepubertal SN oocytes. Without MAM, while 40% of the 2-cell embryos derived from prepubertal SN oocytes developed into 4-cell embryos, none of the 2-cell embryos derived from prepubertal NSN oocytes did, and while 42% of the 4-cell embryos derived from adult SN oocytes developed into blastocysts, only 1% of the 4-cell embryos derived from prepubertal SN oocytes developed into blastocysts. Furthermore, MAM with roscovitine, SN configuration, and female sexual maturity significantly increased the mRNA levels of competence-beneficial genes and decreased those of competence-detrimental genes. In conclusion, our results suggest that MAM with roscovitine, SN chromatin configuration, and female sexual maturity improve oocyte competence by regulating the expression of competence-related genes, suggesting that Oct4, Stella, Mater, Zar1, Mapk8, and Bcl2 are oocyte competence-beneficial genes, whereas Foxj2, Ship1, and Bax are competence-detrimental genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1262/jrd.2020-142DOI Listing
February 2021

Field evaluation of diffusive gradients in thin-film passive samplers for wastewater-based epidemiology.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 30;773:145480. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Psychoactive Substances Monitoring and Safety, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

There is a need for a simple water sampling technique to enable routine monitoring of community drug consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE). This study investigates the potential use of diffusive gradients in thin films to sample organic compounds (o-DGT) for WBE. Three types of resin gels (HLB, XAD 18, and XDA-1) within o-DGT samplers each were deployed in triplicate at the inlets of two sewage treatment plants of Southern Asian cities. The target compounds included 15 illicit drugs and 18 antibiotics. A comprehensive evaluation was undertaken regarding each resin's ability to accumulate the target compounds and accuracy by comparing active samples. The organic compounds accumulated on each resin gel were characterised at the molecular level using Fourier transform ion-cyclotron-resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). The results showed that the HLB resin performed better than the XAD 18 and XDA-1 resins. Based on calculations using the HLB-DGT data, methamphetamine and heroin were the two most popular illicit drugs consumed among the studied populations, and were followed by ketamine and codeine, which agreed well with the authoritative reports and reference data. The total drug consumption in Hanoi was one order of magnitude higher than that in Guangzhou, thus implying a probably more serious drug situation in the former. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrate that o-DGT passive samplers are a promising tool for WBE studies, particularly at WWTPs or in urban streams where an automatic sampler for taking composite water samples is absent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145480DOI Listing
January 2021

Target Designing Phase Transition Materials through Halogen Substitution.

Chemphyschem 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Nanchang University, College of chemistry, CHINA.

Crystal materials have received extensive attention due to their extraordinary physical and chemical properties. Among them, phase transition materials have attracted great attention in the fields of photovoltaic, switchable dielectric devices, and ferroelectric memories, etc . However, many of them suffer from low phase transition temperatures, which limits their practical application. In this work, we systematically designed crystalline materials, (TMXM) 2 PtCl 6 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) through halogen substitution on the cations, aiming to improving phase transition temperature. The resulting phase transition of (TMXM) 2 PtCl 6 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) get a significant enhancement, compared to the parent compound [(CH 3 ) 4 N] 2 PtCl 6 ((TM) 2 PtCl 6 ). Such phase transition temperature enhancement can be attributed to the introduction of halogen atoms that increase the potential energy barrier of the cation rotation. In addition, (TMBM) 2 PtCl 6 and (TMIM) 2 PtCl 6 have a low symmetry and crystallize in the space group C 2 /c and P 2 1 2 1 2 1 , respectively. This work highlights the halogen substitution in designing crystal materials with high phase transition temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cphc.202100040DOI Listing
February 2021

Human small intestine cancer cell membrane-camouflaged quercetin-melanin for antibacterial and antitumor activity.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Heifei, 230036, China.

E. coli has become an important factor that can lead to cancer because of its ability to cause diverse intestinal changes. Nano-polymer materials provide ideal drug delivery systems for preparing antibacterial and anti-cancer drugs because of their unique structure, easy modification, and high drug loading. The modified natural melanin has the potential to be an excellent nano-carrier. By improving the water-solubility and biocompatibility of the loaded natural drug quercetin, the antibacterial effect of quercetin can be fully played. Here, natural melanin was extracted from frozen squid to synthesize carrier polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles, and the natural drug quercetin (Q) was modified on the surface of PDA by π-π bond and covalent bond action to produce melanin-quercetin (PDA-Q). We also developed human small intestinal cancer cells (HIC) membrane-camouflaged melanin-Quercetin (PDA-Q) nanoparticles as an anti-cancer platform in vivo. The potential bacteriostatic mechanism was likely driven by the penetration of PDA-Q in E. coli cells, damaging the integrity of the membranes of E. coli and inducing cell death. The mice wound experiment and bacteremia model experiment revealed that C@PDA-Q had a strong inhibitory effect on E. coli in vivo. In addition, the results of the in vitro tumor test also revealed that C@PDA-Q had strong anti-tumor activity against HIC cells of human small intestinal cancer, and the IC50 value was 12.3 ± 0.7 μg/ml, which was slightly better than that for cisplatin. As both melanin nanoparticles and HIC membrane are natural biomaterials, the synthesized C@PDA-Q nano-polymer material shows great potential for use in anti-cancer nano-drug loading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34813DOI Listing
February 2021

Sprayable hydrogel dressing accelerates wound healing with combined reactive oxygen species-scavenging and antibacterial abilities.

Acta Biomater 2021 Feb 6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Orthopedic, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Wound management poses a considerable economic burden on the global healthcare system, considering the impacts of wound infection, delayed healing and scar formation. To this end, multifunctional dressings based on hydrogels have been developed to stimulate skin healing. Herein, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a sprayable hydrogel-based wound dressing loaded with cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeONs) and an antimicrobial peptide (AMP), for combined reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging and antibacterial properties. We adopted a mussel-inspired strategy to chemically conjugate gelatin with dopamine motifs and prepared a hydrogel dressing with improved binding affinity to wet skin surfaces. Additionally, the release of AMP from the hydrogel demonstrated rapid release ablation and contact ablation against four representative bacterial strains, confirming the desired antimicrobial activities. Moreover, the CeONs-loaded hydrogel dressing exhibited favorable ROS-scavenging abilities. The biocompatibility of the multifunctional hydrogel dressing was further proven in vitro by culturing with HaCaT cells. Overall, the benefits of the developed hydrogel wound dressing, including sprayability, adhesiveness, antimicrobial activity, as well as ROS-scavenging and skin-remodeling ability, highlight its promissing translational potentials in wound management. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Various hydrogel-based wound-dressing materials have been developed to stimulate wound healing. However, from the clinical perspective, few of the current wound dressings meet all the intended multifunctional requirements of preventing infection, promoting rapid wound closure, and minimizing scar formation, while simultaneously offering the convenience of application. In the current study, we adopted a mussel-inspired strategy to functionalize the GelMA hydrogels with DOPA to fabricate GelMA-DOPA hydrogel which exhibited an enhanced binding affinity for wound surfaces, AMP HHC-36 and CeONs are further encapsulated into the GelMA-DOPA hydrogel to confer the hydrogel wound dressing with antimicrobial and ROS-scavenging abilities. The GelMA-DOPA-AMP-CeONs dressing offered the benefits of sprayability, adhesiveness, antimicrobial activity, as well as ROS-scavenging and skin-remodeling ability, which might address the therapeutic and economic burdens associated with chronic wound treatment and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.02.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Metabolic Choice Tunes Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Function.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1278:81-94

Shanghai Institute of Immunology, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Metabolic programs and dynamic nutrient signaling can direct cell biological function. Cellular metabolism and biological function are coordinated to cell activity. Regulatory T cells (Foxp3+ Tregs) expressing the key transcription factor FOXP3 play critical roles in the maintenance of immune tolerance and in the control of immune homeostasis. A bundle of data demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs were influenced and regulated by Toll-cell receptor (TCR) and costimulatory signals, cytokine conditions and metabolic changes, including metabolites, etc. In this context, Foxp3+ Tregs are impacted by different environmental conditions and metabolic differences associated with diverse transcriptional patterns, which, in turn, display a high degree of plasticity and tissue specificity. During the past decades, significant progresses have been made in understanding the correlation between metabolic changes and manipulation of Foxp3+ Treg function. Taken together, this chapter aims to summarize the important advances in the fields, decipher what metabolic ways are involved in Foxp3+ Tregs, and how metabolism modulates Foxp3 expression, stability, and suppressive functions, which may provide a potential pace on lightening up Foxp3+ Treg-mediated immune functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-6407-9_5DOI Listing
February 2021

Small nucleolar RNA of silkworm can translocate from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm under abiotic stress.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

China-UK-NYNU-RRes Joint Laboratory of Insect Biology, Henan Key Laboratory of Insect Biology in Funiu Mountain, Nanyang Normal University, 1638 Wolong Road, Nanyang, Henan, 473061, China.

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are thought to be exclusively nuclear and guide nucleotide modifications of ribosomal RNAs. Recently, more and more evidence has suggested that the nucleolus is a stress sensor for changes in growth status and that snoRNAs may orchestrate the response to environmental stress through molecular interactions outside of the nucleus. We previously showed that a box C/D snoRNA Bm-15 had both nuclear and cytoplasmic location in BmN4 cell line of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. To further study the functional roles of Bm-15, changes in expression level and cellular location of Bm-15 were examined in BmN4 cells subjected to serum starvation and ultraviolet (UV) ray radiation. Results indicated that total RNA level of Bm-15 was unchanged after 24 h serum starvation, but exhibited 3-fold increases in the cytoplasm, and the nuclear-to-cytosolic distribution ratio was reduced from 5:1 to 2:1. Moreover, UV radiation also causes rapid decline in nuclear Bm-15 and progressive cytoplasmic accumulation with a percentage of 22% and 57% after 6 and 24 h UV radiation. UV treatment results in a dramatic decrease in Bm-15 nuclear-to-cytosolic ratio from 7:1 to 2:1 and 2:1 to 1:20 after 6 and 24 h UV radiation, respectively. We show here for the first time that box C/D snoRNAs can translocate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm under the abiotic stress of nutritional deficiency and UV radiation. The rapid translocation of snoRNAs from nucleus to cytoplasm may slow down the maturation of rRNAs and synthesis of ribosomes to enhance the stress resistance of cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11555DOI Listing
January 2021

The Effect of Arm Position on Breast Volume Measurement Using Three-dimensional Imaging.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Aesthetic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 33 Ba-Da-Chu Road, Shi-Jing-Shan District, Beijing, 100144, China.

Background: Three-dimensional (3D) imaging offers an objective and quantitative way to evaluate the breast volume. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether arm position can be a factor influencing the measurement of breast volume and which arm position is more stable when using 3D breast imaging in evaluating the fat volume retention rate in autologous fat grafting for breast augmentation.

Methods: Patients undergoing breast augmentation with autologous fat grafting in our department were selected for the first part of this study. Preoperative 3D breast imaging was performed at three different arm positions: at the sides, akimbo and with hands on the head. Scans on each arm position were repeated on the first day after surgery, taking six scans in total. Breast volume change (BVC) was compared before and after surgery. The patients planning to receive bilateral mammaplasty in our department were selected for the second part of this study. Two repeated 3D scans were performed at the sides, akimbo and hands on the head, and then, the breast volume change error (BVCE) was compared.

Results: Twenty-five patients (n = 50 breasts) were included in the first part of study. For the patients who received 100-200 ml fat injection, compared with hands on the head, a statistically significant difference in the average BVC was found at the sides and akimbo (p = 0.02). For the patients receiving more than 200 ml fat injection, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). Twenty-six patients (n = 52 breasts) were enrolled in the second part. For the average BVCE, there was no significant difference between the groups (p = 0.11).

Conclusions: The arm position during 3D breast imaging, to some extent, affects the evaluation of BVC after breast augmentation using autologous fat grafting, particularly for patients receiving less fat grafting. The arm position should be kept consistent when using 3D breast imaging in evaluating the fat volume retention rate.

Level Of Evidence Iv: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-020-02113-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Electrostatic-Mediated Affinity Tuning of Lysostaphin Accelerates Bacterial Lysis Kinetics and Enhances Efficacy.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA 03755

Drug-resistant bacterial pathogens are a serious threat to global health, and antibacterial lysins are at the forefront of innovative treatments for these life-threatening infections. While lysins' general mechanism of action is well understood, the design principles that might enable engineering of performance-enhanced variants are still being formulated. Here we report a detailed analysis of molecular determinants underlying the efficacy of lysostaphin, a canonical anti-MRSA lysin. Systematic analysis of bacterial binding, growth inhibition, lysis kinetics, and therapeutic efficacy revealed that binding affinity, and not inherent catalytic firepower, is the dominant driver of lysostaphin efficacy. This insight enabled electrostatic affinity tuning of lysostaphin to produce a single point mutant that manifested dramatically enhanced processivity, lysis kinetics, and trended toward improved efficacy. More generally these studies provide unprecedented insights into the complex relationships between lysin electrostatics, bacterial targeting, cell lysis efficiency, and efficacy. The lessons learned may enable engineering of other high-performance antibacterial biocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02199-20DOI Listing
January 2021

Interior Sound Field Subjective Evaluation Based on the 3D Distribution of Sound Quality Objective Parameters and Sound Source Localization.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jan 16;14(2). Epub 2021 Jan 16.

College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China.

Controlling low frequency noise in an interior sound field is always a challenge in engineering, because it is hard to accurately localize the sound source. Spherical acoustic holography can reconstruct the 3D distributions of acoustic quantities in the interior sound field, and identify low-frequency sound sources, but the ultimate goal of controlling the interior noise is to improve the sound quality in the interior sound field. It is essential to know the contributions of sound sources to the sound quality objective parameters. This paper presents the mapping methodology from sound pressure to sound quality objective parameters, where sound quality objective parameters are calculated from sound pressure at each specific point. The 3D distributions of the loudness and sharpness are obtained by calculating each point in the entire interior sound field. The reconstruction errors of those quantities varying with reconstruction distance, sound frequency, and intersection angle are analyzed in numerical simulation for one- and two-monopole source sound fields. Verification experiments have been conducted in an anechoic chamber. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the sound source localization results based on 3D distributions of sound quality objective parameters are different from those based on sound pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14020429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830830PMC
January 2021

The characterization and biological activities of synthetic N, O-selenized chitosan derivatives.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 15;173:504-512. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China. Electronic address:

Synthetic selenium polysaccharides with potential bioactivity have drawn great interest due to the SeO bonds existing in the structure. Herein, N, O-selenized N-(2-carboxyethyl) chitosan (sNCCS) was synthesized through carboxyethylation and selenylation. Various characterizations were performed to identify the structure of sNCCS, indicating that SeO bonds were formed both at the C-6 hydroxyl groups and the introduced C-2 carboxyethyl groups. The highest yield and selenium content of all sNCCS reached 84.5% and 1.553 mg/g, respectively. In vitro evaluation exhibited that sNCCS has excellent bile acid binding capacity, which was 1.63, 2.00, and 2.55-fold higher than that of N-(2-carboxyethyl) chitosan (NCCS). Moreover, it was found that higher selenium content could significantly enhance the antioxidant properties of sNCCS. Importantly, no obvious cytotoxic effect had been observed on Caco-2 cells. Taken together, sNCCS with desirable biological activity and non-cytotoxicity might be considered as an effective ingredient in the fields of food or medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.084DOI Listing
March 2021

Robot-assisted therapy for upper extremity motor impairment after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Phys Ther 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Rehabilitation Hospital affiliated to Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the effects of robot-assisted therapy (RT) for improving poststroke upper extremity motor impairment.

Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to April 8, 2020. Randomized controlled trials that were conducted to evaluate the effects of RT on upper extremity motor impairment poststroke and that used Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) scores as an outcome were included. Two authors independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to pool the effect sizes across the studies.

Results: Forty-one randomized controlled trials with 1916 stroke patients were included. Compared with dose-matched conventional rehabilitation, RT significantly improved the FMA-UE scores of the patients with stroke, with a small effect size (Hedges g = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.38; I2 = 45.9%). The subgroup analysis revealed that the effects of unilateral RT, but not that of bilateral RT, was superior to conventional rehabilitation (Hedges g = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.15 to 0.50; I2 = 55.9%). Regarding the type of robot devices, the effects of the end effector device (Hedges g = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.09 to -0.36; I2 = 35.4%), but not the exoskeleton device, were superior to conventional rehabilitation. Regarding the stroke stage, the between-group difference (ie, RT vs convention rehabilitation) was significant only for people with late subacute or chronic stroke (Hedges g = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.16 to 0.50; I2 = 34.2%).

Conclusion: RT might be superior to conventional rehabilitation in improving upper extremity motor impairment in people after stroke with notable upper extremity hemiplegia and limited potential for spontaneous recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzab010DOI Listing
January 2021

PEGylation enables subcutaneously administered nanoparticles to induce antigen-specific immune tolerance.

J Control Release 2021 Jan 12;331:164-175. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

The development of nanomaterials to induce antigen-specific immune tolerance has shown promise for treating autoimmune diseases. While PEGylation has been widely used to reduce host immune responses to nanomaterials, its tolerogenic potential has not been reported. Here, we report for the first time that a subcutaneous injection of PEGylated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing auto-antigen peptide MOG without any tolerogenic drugs is sufficient to dramatically ameliorate symptoms after disease onset in an antigen-specific manner in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Neither free MOG nor particles without PEG exhibit this efficacy. Interestingly, mechanistic studies indicate that PEGylation of nanoparticles does not reduce dendritic cell activation through direct nanoparticle-cell interactions. Instead, PEGylated nanoparticles induce lower complement activation, neutrophil recruitment, and co-stimulatory molecule expression on dendritic cells around the injection sitecompared to non-PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles, creating a more tolerogenic microenvironment in vivo. We further demonstrate that the locally recruited dendritic cells traffic to lymphoid organs to induce T cell tolerance. These results highlight the critical role of surface properties of nanomaterials in inducing immune tolerance via subcutaneous administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.01.013DOI Listing
January 2021

Rheumatoid Arthritis Versus Osteoarthritis in Patients Receiving Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty in the United States: Increased Perioperative Risks? A National Database-Based Propensity Score-Matching Study.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

From the Department of Orthopaedics, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (Pan, Wang, Zhe Shi, Cheng, Lin, Wu, Zhanjun Shi), the First Clinical Medical School, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (Pan), and the Department of Spinal Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (Zhe Shi).

Background: The impacts of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on perioperative risks among patients undergoing revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA) have not been investigated yet. Thus, we hypothesized that patients with RA sustained increased perioperative risks and higher resource consumption burdens as compared to patients with osteoarthritis (OA) during the perioperative period.

Patients And Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was used to compare the demographic characteristics, major in-hospital complications, resource consumptions, and in-hospitalization mortality between patients with RA and OA after rTKA. A 1:1 propensity score-matching, χ2 test, independence-sample T-test, and logistic regression analysis were done in statistical analyses to answer our hypotheses.

Results: 4.3% (6363/132,405) of rTKA patients were diagnosed with RA. They tended to be women and received revision for infection but with similar ages as compared to patients with OA. Except for acute postoperative anemia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.196), blood transfusion (OR = 1.179), prolonged hospitalization (OR = 1.049), and higher total cost (OR = 1.145), patients with RA sustained decreased odds of acute renal failure (OR = 0.804) and urinary complications (OR = 0.467). Besides, the other observed in-hospital complications showed no differences between patients with RA and OA.

Conclusion: Despite consuming greater in-hospital resources, patients with RA did not suffer increased odds of most in-hospital complications and in-hospital mortality for a revision TKA during the perioperative period. Compared with patients with OA, patients with RA sustained equivalent perioperative risks in the United States between 2002 and 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-20-00979DOI Listing
January 2021

The implementation and effectiveness of intergenerational learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from China.

Int Rev Educ 2021 Jan 7:1-23. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Shanghai Municipal Institute for Lifelong Education, Shanghai, China.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many grandparents in China have spent more time with their grandchildren than they used to. When their adult children returned to work after a period of lockdown, many grandparents extended their roles from taking care of household tasks and looking after their grandchildren's basic needs to supervising their online learning and providing academic support. It has been a precious opportunity for both the children and their grandparents to get to know each other better and to learn from each other. During this challenging period of home learning, a Chinese initiative called the "Shaping Students' Vacation Life Project" (SSVLP), which is led by the Shanghai Municipal Institute for Lifelong Education (SMILE) of East China Normal University (ECNU), conducted a two-month project that investigated intergenerational learning between grandparents and grandchildren (IL-GP&GC) across seven primary schools located in six areas of China. They explored topics such as pandemic prevention, health and fitness, traditional culture and information literacy. Following this, the co-authors of this article conducted an interpretive inquiry to explore how the participating primary schools implemented the IL-GP&GC project, and to understand its impact. Based on in-depth interviews with 11 teachers and 7 families (including 7 grandchildren aged 7-13, and their 7 grandparents aged 60-68), four main findings emerged: (1) both generations gained more health knowledge, life skills and values; (2) the older generation changed their learning perspective and behaviours; (3) the younger generation understood their grandparents more and cultivated the concept of lifelong learning; and (4) the relationships between grandparents and grandchildren became closer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11159-020-09877-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787929PMC
January 2021

Topological Abnormalities of Functional Brain Network in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Front Neurosci 2020 21;14:616872. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Ultrasonography, Shaanxi Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Recent studies have demonstrated structural and functional alterations in Parkinson's disease (PD) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the topological patterns of functional brain networks in newly diagnosed PD patients with MCI are unclear so far. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and graph theory approaches to explore the functional brain network in 45 PD patients with MCI (PD-MCI), 22 PD patients without MCI (PD-nMCI), and 18 healthy controls (HC). We found that the PD-MCI, PD-nMCI, and HC groups exhibited a small-world architecture in the functional brain network. However, early-stage PD-MCI patients had decreased clustering coefficient, increased characteristic path length, and changed nodal centrality in the default mode network (DMN), control network (CN), somatomotor network (SMN), and visual network (VN), which might contribute to factors for MCI symptoms in PD patients. Our results demonstrated that PD-MCI patients were associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional network, thus providing a topological network insight into the role of information exchange in the underlying development of MCI symptoms in PD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.616872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793724PMC
December 2020

Explore the difference between the single-chamber and dual-chamber microbial electrosynthesis for biogas production performance.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Apr 6;138:107726. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Bio-resource for Bioenergy, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:

Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is an advanced technology for efficient treatment of organic wastewater and recovery of new energy, with the advantages and disadvantages of single-chamber and dual-chamber MES reactors being less understood. Therefore, we explored the effects of single-chamber and dual-chamber structures on the methane production performance and microbial community structure of MES. Results indicated that methane concentration and current density of single-chamber MES were higher than those of dual-chamber MES, and the system stability was better, while chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate and cumulative methane production were not significantly different. Analysis of microbial community structure showed the abundance of acidogens and H-producing bacteria was higher in single-chamber MES, while fermentation bacteria and methanogens was lower. The abundance of methanogens of dual-chamber MES (21.74-24.70%) was superior to the single-chamber MES (8.23-10.10%). Moreover, in dual-chamber MES, methane was produced primarily through acetoclastic methanogenic pathway, while in single-chamber MES cathode, methane production was mainly by hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway. Information provided will be useful to select suitable reactors and optimize reaction design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2020.107726DOI Listing
April 2021

Invivo zearalenone exposure dose-dependently compromises mouse oocyte competence by impairing chromatin configuration and gene transcription.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2021 Feb;33(3):229-238

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an City 271018, PR China; and Corresponding author. Email:

Although invivo and invitro zearalenone (ZEN) exposure impaired oocyte quality, the mechanisms by which ZEN damages oocytes and the lowest observed effect level remain unclear. Furthermore, although it is known that premature chromatin condensation may occur in oocytes under proapoptotic conditions, whether ZEN exposure compromises oocyte competence by impairing gene transcription by causing premature chromatin condensation remains to be investigated. This study tested the toxic concentrations of invivo ZEN exposure that impair oocyte preimplantation developmental potential (PIDP) and the hypothesis that ZEN exposure compromises oocyte competence by increasing oxidative stress and changing chromatin configuration and the transcription of related genes. We found that invivo treatment of mice (Kunming strain, 8 weeks after birth) with 0.5-1mg kg-1 ZEN daily for 5 days, impaired the PIDP of mouse oocytes, increased oxidative stress, disturbed spindle assembly and chromosome segregation, caused premature chromatin condensation, impaired global gene transcription and disturbed the expression of genes related to oocyte competence, spindle assembly, redox potential and apoptosis. In conclusion, ZEN dose-dependently compromised the competence of mouse oocytes by causing oxidative stress and impairing chromatin configuration and gene transcription.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD20273DOI Listing
February 2021

2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine protects retinal photoreceptors against endoplasmic reticulum stress by modulating ATF4-mediated inhibition of PRP aggregation.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2021 Mar 7;99(3):383-402. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

State Key laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a common threat to photoreceptors during the pathogenesis of chronic retinopathies and often results in irreversible visual impairment. 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), which possesses many beneficial pharmacological activities, is a potential drug that could be used to protect photoreceptors. In the present study, we found that the cellular growth rate of 661 W cells cultured under low glucose conditions was lower than that of control cells, while the G2/M phase of the cell cycle was longer. We further found that the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was lower and that ER stress factor expression was increased in 661 W cells cultured under low glucose conditions. TMP reversed these trends. Visual function and cell counts in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) were low and the TUNEL-positive rate in the ONL was high in a C3H mouse model of spontaneous retinal degeneration. Similarly, visual function was decreased, and the TUNEL-positive rate in the ONL was increased in fasted C57/BL6j mice compared with control mice. On the other hand, ER stress factor expression was found to be increased in the retinas of both mouse models, as shown by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blotting. TMP reversed the physiological and molecular biological variations observed in both mouse models, and ATF4 expression was enhanced again. Further investigation by using western blotting illustrated that the proportion of insoluble prion protein (PRP) versus soluble PRP was reduced both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that TMP increased the functions of photoreceptors by alleviating ER stress in vitro and in vivo, and the intrinsic mechanism was the ATF4-mediated inhibition of PRP aggregation. TMP may potentially be used clinically as a therapeutic agent to attenuate the functional loss of photoreceptors during the pathogenesis of chronic retinopathies. KEY MESSAGES: • Already known: TMP is a beneficial drug mainly used in clinic to enhance organ functions, and the intrinsic mechanism is still worthy of exploring. • New in the study: We discovered that TMP ameliorated retinal photoreceptors function via ER stress alleviation, which was promoted by ATF4-mediated inhibition of PRP aggregation. • Application prospect: In prospective clinical practices, TMP may potentially be used in the clinic as a therapeutic agent to attenuate the photoreceptors functional reduction in chronic retinopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-020-02017-3DOI Listing
March 2021

Cloning and characterization of KoOsmotin from mangrove plant Kandelia obovata under cold stress.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jan 6;21(1):10. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Root Biology Center, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Background: Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that seriously limits mangrove productivity and distribution. Kandelia obovata is the most cold-resistance specie in mangrove plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying its resistance to cold. Osmotin is a key protein associated with abiotic and biotic stress response in plants but no information about this gene in K. obovata was reported.

Results: In this study, a cDNA sequence encoding osmotin, KoOsmotin (GenBank accession no. KP267758), was cloned from mangrove plant K. obovata. The KoOsmotin protein was composed of 221 amino acids and showed a calculated molecular mass of 24.11 kDa with pI 4.92. The KoOsmotin contained sixteen cysteine residues and an N-terminal signal peptide, which were common signatures to most osmotins and pathogenesis-related 5 proteins. The three-dimensional (3D) model of KoOsmotin, contained one α-helix and eleven β-strands, was formed by three characteristic domains. Database comparisons of the KoOsmotin showed the closest identity (55.75%) with the osmotin 34 from Theobroma cacao. The phylogenetic tree also revealed that the KoOsmotin was clustered in the branch of osmotin/OLP (osmotin-like protien). The KoOsmotin protein was proved to be localized to both the plasma membrane and cytoplasm by the subcellular localization analysis. Gene expression showed that the KoOsmotin was induced primarily and highly in the leaves of K. obovata, but less abundantly in stems and roots. The overexpressing of KoOsmotin conferred cold tolerance in Escherichia coli cells.

Conclusion: As we known, this is the first study to explore the osmotin of K. obovata. Our study provided valuable clues for further exploring the function of KoOsmotin response to stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02746-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789355PMC
January 2021

FTY720 Reduces Endothelial Cell Apoptosis and Remodels Neurovascular Unit after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

Int J Med Sci 2021 1;18(2):304-313. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yijishan Hospital, Wannan Medical College, Anhui, China.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. A sequence of pathological processes occurred when there is TBI. Previous studies showed that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) played a critical role in inflammatory response in the brain after TBI. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the S1PR1 modulator FTY720 on neurovascular unit (NVU) after experimental TBI in mice. The weight-drop TBI method was used to induce TBI. Western blot (WB) was performed to determine the levels of SIPR1, claudin-5 and occludin at different time points. FTY720 was intraperitoneally administered to mice after TBI was induced. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used to assess endothelial cell apoptosis. Immunofluorescence and WB were performed to measure the expression of tight junction proteins: claudin-5 and occludin. Evans blue (EB) permeability assay and brain water content were applied to evaluate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and brain edema. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the activation of astrocytes and microglia. The results showed that FTY720 administration reduced endothelial cell apoptosis and improved BBB permeability. FTY720 also attenuated astrocytes and microglia activation. Furthermore, treatment with FTY720 not only improved neurological function, but also increased the survival rate of mice significantly. These findings suggest that FTY720 administration restored the structure of the NVU after experimental TBI by decreasing endothelial cell apoptosis and attenuating the activation of astrocytes. Moreover, FTY720 might reduce inflammation in the brain by reducing the activation of microglia in TBI mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.49066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757143PMC
January 2021

Application of Bifunctional 2-Amino-1,4-naphthoquinones in Visible-Light-Promoted Photocatalyst-Free Alkene Perfluoroalkyl-Alkenylation.

Org Lett 2021 Jan 31;23(2):519-524. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000, China.

A simple and practical photochemical strategy for intermolecular perfluoroalkyl-alkenylation of alkenes with 2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinones and perfluoroalkyl iodides has been demonstrated under visible-light irradiation. Mechanistic studies reveal that easily available 2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone substrates can serve as efficient photosensitizers to activate perfluoroalkyl iodides through a photoredox process. Therefore, the developed radical relay reaction proceeds smoothly without additional transition metals and photocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c04036DOI Listing
January 2021

First report of Geotrichum candidum causing postharvest sour rot on kiwifruits in China.

Plant Dis 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Anhui Agricultural University, 12486, School of Horticulture, Hefei, Anhui, China;

Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) has been extensively cultivated (about 165728 hm2 recorded in 2017) and postharvest rot diseases have caused severe losses to the industry in China. In October 2019, fruit (n=60) of cv. Xuxiang (A. deliciosa) were obtained from a farm (120.62°E, 28.92°N) in Pan'an county, Zhejiang province, China. After the fruit were stored at 24 °C and 70% relative humidity (RH) for 10 days, soft lesions (20 to 45 mm in diameter) with sour odor and white mycelium were observed on ~20% of fruits (Fig. 1a). Irregular lesions were produced on the mesocarp were off-white to pale yellow (Fig. 1b). Small pieces (4×4 mm) from the lesion margins were excised, surface disinfested in 70% ethanol for 1 min and 10% NaOCl for 5 min, washed, dried, plated on PDA and incubated at 25°C for 7 days. A total of seven pure fungal colonies were obtained, and included two isolates of Nigrospora sphaerica (Li et al. 2018) and five unknown isolates. The remaining five isolates produced thin, flat, white to cream and feathery (Fig.1c & d) mycelium. Hyphae were hyaline, septate, dichotomously branched and break into chains of subglobose to cylindrical arthrospores (Fig. 1e, f & g). The dimension of arthrospores varies from 4.11 to 12.55 × 2.54 to 5.84 µm (n=100) (Fig. 1h). To identify these isolates to species, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 26S rDNA, translation elongation factor-1 alpha regions (TEF-1α) were amplified and sequenced (Ma et al. 2018). Sequence analysis indicated no differences in 26S rDNA and TEF-1α, but the ITS that placed the isolates into two phylogenetic groups. Isolates gx2-2 and gx3-1 representing group one (gx2-1, gx2-2, and gx5-1) and group two (gx3-1 and gx4-1) respectively, were employed for further studies. Based on BLASTn analysis, ITS sequences for gx2-2 (MT946912) and gx3-1(MT946913) isolates had 100% and 98.40% identity respectively, with G. candidum accessions KY103452 and KY103455. Nevertheless, 26S rDNA sequences (MT981194; MT981195) showed 99.82% identity with G. candidum accessions JN974268 and KF112070. Consistently, the TEF-1α (MT981184; MT981185) had 100% identity with G. candidum accession MT346370. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the Neighbor-Joining method with a dataset of ITS (Fig. 2a) and 26S rDNA sequences (Fig. 2b), respectively. Based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis, the pathogens gx2-2 and gx3-1 were identified as Geotrichum candidum (De Hoog et al. 1986). To determine pathogenicity, healthy and mature kiwis cv. Xuxiang were surface sterilized. Wounded and unwounded fruits were inoculated with each conidial suspension derived from the two isolates (107 conidia/mL, 30 μL for each fruit) and stored at 24 °C under 90% RH. Control fruit were treated with sterile distilled water. Each treatment consisted of 20 fruit was evaluated daily for 10 days and repeated once. The symptom was mimic the naturally infected fruits (Fig.1i, m & n). The pathogen could develop into inner pericarp after 7 days while cv. Jinyan (A. chinensis) was used as host (Fig. 1k & l). However, control group remained disease-free (Fig. 1j, o & p). The fungus could penetrate into fruit peel and produce spores that were visualized by scanning electron microscope (Fig.1q & r). For both isolates, the incidence of wounded fruit were 100%, and the incidence of unwounded fruit was 80%. The fungi were re-isolated from diseased tissues and re-identified as G. candidum based on morphology and sequences analyses. G. candidum causes sour rot on many hosts and similar symptom have been previously reported in other regions(Pennycook et al.1989; Horita et al. 2016; Ma, et al. 2018; Zhang et al. 2018; Khan et al. 2019; Halfeld-Vieira et al. 2020), but this is the first report of G. candidum on kiwifruit in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-20-1923-PDNDOI Listing
December 2020

Deimmunized Lysostaphin Synergizes with Small-Molecule Chemotherapies and Resensitizes Methicillin-Resistant to β-Lactam Antibiotics.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 02 17;65(3). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA

There is an urgent need for novel agents to treat drug-resistant bacterial infections, such as multidrug-resistant (MRSA). Desirable properties for new antibiotics include high potency, narrow species selectivity, low propensity to elicit new resistance phenotypes, and synergy with standard-of-care (SOC) chemotherapies. Here, we describe analysis of the antibacterial potential exhibited by F12, an innovative anti-MRSA lysin that has been genetically engineered to evade detrimental antidrug immune responses in human patients. F12 possesses high potency and rapid onset of action, it has narrow selectivity against pathogenic staphylococci, and it manifests synergy with numerous SOC antibiotics. Additionally, resistance to F12 and β-lactam antibiotics appears mutually exclusive, and, importantly, we provide evidence that F12 resensitizes normally resistant MRSA strains to β-lactams both and These results suggest that combinations of F12 and SOC antibiotics are a promising new approach to treating refractory infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01707-20DOI Listing
February 2021

A Clinical Report of Intracranial Granulocytic Sarcoma and a Literature Review.

Int J Neurosci 2020 Dec 3:1-6. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, China.

Granulocytic sarcoma (GS), is also referred to as myeloid sarcoma. It is a solid mass formed by the primitive or immature myeloid cells extramedullary infiltration, which is commonly caused by acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It mainly involves bones, lymph nodes, skin and soft tissues of the head and neck. In general, the incidence is low and central nervous system (CNS) involvement is relatively rare. The clinical manifestations of the disease are varied and the treatment is intractable. A 53-year-old male with intracranial granulocytic sarcoma who suffered a pressing pain on the left cheek. The patient had a hypophasis with left corneal reflex diminished. He had bilateral anisocoria, lower jaw and tongue tilted to the left upon opening the mouth and the left pharyngeal reflex was declined. The whole blood routine was normal except for eosinophils, head magnetic resonance imaging plain scan revealed a space-occupying lesion. Postoperative pathology suggested GS. Unfortunately, the disease progressed quickly and the patient died. Isolated GS is often difficult to diagnose accurately. The patient's medical history should be carefully reviewed, all relevant tests should be performed, and various differential diagnoses should be familiarized with to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. And on this basis, to develop a personalized treatment plan for different patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2020.1858824DOI Listing
December 2020

Assessing Accuracy of Genomic Predictions for Resistance to Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus With Progeny Testing of Selection Candidates in a Commercial Rainbow Trout Breeding Population.

Front Vet Sci 2020 5;7:590048. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Kearneysville, WV, United States.

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is an economically important disease of salmonid fish caused by the IHN virus (IHNV). Under industrial aquaculture settings, IHNV can cause substantial mortality and losses. Actually, there is no confirmed and cost-effective method for IHNV control. Clear Springs Foods, Inc. has been performing family-based selective breeding to increase genetic resistance to IHNV in their rainbow trout breeding program. In an earlier study, we used siblings cross-validation to estimate the accuracy of genomic prediction (GP) for IHNV resistance in this breeding population. In the present report, we used empirical progeny testing data to evaluate whether genomic selection (GS) can improve the accuracy of breeding value predictions over traditional pedigree-based best linear unbiased predictions (PBLUP). We found that the GP accuracy with single-step GBLUP (ssGBLUP) outperformed PBLUP by 15% (from 0.33 to 0.38). Furthermore, we found that ssGBLUP had higher GP accuracy than weighted ssGBLUP (wssGBLUP) and single-step Bayesian multiple regression (ssBMR) models with BayesB and BayesC priors which supports our previous findings that the underlying liability of genetic resistance against IHNV in this breeding population might be polygenic. Our results show that GS can be more effective than either the traditional pedigree-based PBLUP model or the marker-assisted selection approach for improving genetic resistance against IHNV in this commercial rainbow trout population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.590048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674624PMC
November 2020