Publications by authors named "Hao Wei Chen"

46 Publications

The Role of Ethylene in Plants Under Salinity Stress.

Front Plant Sci 2015 27;6:1059. Epub 2015 Nov 27.

State Key Lab of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing, China.

Although the roles of ethylene in plant response to salinity and other stresses have been extensively studied, there are still some obscure points left to be clarified. Generally, in Arabidopsis and many other terrestrial plants, ethylene signaling is indispensable for plant rapid response and tolerance to salinity stress. However, a few studies showed that functional knock-out of some ACSs increased plant salinity-tolerance, while overexpression of them caused more sensitivity. This seems to be contradictory to the known opinion that ethylene plays positive roles in salinity response. Differently, ethylene in rice may play negative roles in regulating seedling tolerance to salinity. The main positive ethylene signaling components MHZ7/OsEIN2, MHZ6/OsEIL1, and OsEIL2 all negatively regulate the salinity-tolerance of rice seedlings. Recently, several different research groups all proposed a negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and ethylene response, in which several ethylene-inducible proteins (including NtTCTP, NEIP2 in tobacco, AtSAUR76/77/78, and AtARGOS) act as inhibitors of ethylene response but activators of plant growth. Therefore, in addition to a summary of the general roles of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, this review mainly focused on discussing (i) the discrepancies between ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, (ii) the divergence between rice and Arabidopsis in regulation of salinity response by ethylene, and (iii) the possible negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and salinity response by ethylene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.01059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4661241PMC
December 2015

Three SAUR proteins SAUR76, SAUR77 and SAUR78 promote plant growth in Arabidopsis.

Sci Rep 2015 Jul 24;5:12477. Epub 2015 Jul 24.

State Key Lab of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Ethylene perceived by a family of five receptors regulates many developmental processes in Arabidopsis. Here we conducted the yeast two-hybrid assay to screen for additional unidentified proteins that interact with subfamily II ethylene receptor ETR2. Three SAUR proteins, named SAUR76, 77 and 78, were identified to associate with both ETR2 and EIN4 in different assays. Interaction of SAUR76 and SAUR78 with ETR2 was further verified by co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. Expressions of SAUR76-78 are induced by auxin and ethylene treatments. Compared with wild type, SAUR-overexpressing plants exhibit reduced ethylene sensitivity, while SAUR-RNAi lines exhibit enhanced ethylene sensitivity. Overexpressing the three SAURs partially complements the phenotype of subfamily II ethylene receptor loss-of-function double mutant etr2-3ein4-4, which has increased ethylene response and small cotyledon and rosette. saur76 mutation partially suppresses the reduced ethylene sensitivity of etr2-2. SAUR76/78 proteins are regulated by 26S proteasome system and larger tag increases their protein stability. These findings suggest that SAUR76-78 may affect ethylene receptor signaling and promote plant growth in Arabidopsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep12477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513569PMC
July 2015

GmWRKY27 interacts with GmMYB174 to reduce expression of GmNAC29 for stress tolerance in soybean plants.

Plant J 2015 Jul 2;83(2):224-36. Epub 2015 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Soybean (Glycine max) is an important crop for oil and protein resources worldwide. The molecular mechanism of the abiotic stress response in soybean is largely unclear. We previously identified multiple stress-responsive WRKY genes from soybean. Here, we further characterized the roles of one of these genes, GmWRKY27, in abiotic stress tolerance using a transgenic hairy root assay. GmWRKY27 expression was increased by various abiotic stresses. Over-expression and RNAi analysis demonstrated that GmWRKY27 improves salt and drought tolerance in transgenic soybean hairy roots. Measurement of physiological parameters, including reactive oxygen species and proline contents, supported this conclusion. GmWRKY27 inhibits expression of a downstream gene GmNAC29 by binding to the W-boxes in its promoter region. The GmNAC29 is a negative factor of stress tolerance as indicated by the performance of transgenic hairy roots under stress. GmWRKY27 interacts with GmMYB174, which also suppresses GmNAC29 expression and enhances drought stress tolerance. The GmWRKY27 and GmMYB174 may have evolved to bind to neighbouring cis elements in the GmNAC29 promoter to co-reduce promoter activity and gene expression. Our study discloses a valuable mechanism in soybean for regulation of the stress response by two associated transcription factors. Manipulation of these genes should facilitate improvements in stress tolerance in soybean and other crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12879DOI Listing
July 2015

Tobacco Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Interacts with Ethylene Receptor Tobacco Histidine Kinase1 and Enhances Plant Growth through Promotion of Cell Proliferation.

Plant Physiol 2015 Sep 4;169(1):96-114. Epub 2015 May 4.

State Key Lab of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

Ethylene is an important phytohormone in the regulation of plant growth, development, and stress response throughout the lifecycle. Previously, we discovered that a subfamily II ethylene receptor tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Histidine Kinase1 (NTHK1) promotes seedling growth. Here, we identified an NTHK1-interacting protein translationally controlled tumor protein (NtTCTP) by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid assay and further characterized its roles in plant growth. The interaction was further confirmed by in vitro glutathione S-transferase pull down and in vivo coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, and the kinase domain of NTHK1 mediates the interaction with NtTCTP. The NtTCTP protein is induced by ethylene treatment and colocalizes with NTHK1 at the endoplasmic reticulum. Overexpression of NtTCTP or NTHK1 reduces plant response to ethylene and promotes seedling growth, mainly through acceleration of cell proliferation. Genetic analysis suggests that NtTCTP is required for the function of NTHK1. Furthermore, association of NtTCTP prevents NTHK1 from proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Our data suggest that plant growth inhibition triggered by ethylene is regulated by a unique feedback mechanism, in which ethylene-induced NtTCTP associates with and stabilizes ethylene receptor NTHK1 to reduce plant response to ethylene and promote plant growth through acceleration of cell proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.15.00355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4577386PMC
September 2015

Tobacco ankyrin protein NEIP2 interacts with ethylene receptor NTHK1 and regulates plant growth and stress responses.

Plant Cell Physiol 2015 Apr 28;56(4):803-18. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

State Key Lab of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

Ethylene is a gaseous hormone that regulates many processes involved in plant growth, development and stress responses. Previously, we found that the tobacco ethylene receptor NTHK1 (Nicotiana tabacum histidine kinase 1) promotes seedling growth and affects plant salt stress responses. In this study, NTHK1 ethylene receptor-interacting protein 2 (NEIP2) was identified and further characterized in relation to these processes. NEIP2 contains three ankyrin repeats that mediate an interaction with NTHK1 as demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. NTHK1 phosphorylates NEIP2 in vitro. Salt stress and ethylene treatment induce NEIP2 accumulation in the first few hours and then the NEIP2 can be phosphorylated in planta. The overexpression of NTHK1 enhances NEIP2 accumulation in the presence of ethylene and salt stress. NEIP2 overexpression promotes plant growth but reduces ethylene responses, which is consistent with the functions of NTHK1. Additionally, NEIP2 improves plant performance under salt and oxidative stress. These results suggest that ethylene-induced NEIP2 probably acts as a brake to reduce ethylene response but resumes growth through interaction with NTHK1. Manipulation of NEIP2 may be beneficial for crop improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcv009DOI Listing
April 2015

The Alfin-like homeodomain finger protein AL5 suppresses multiple negative factors to confer abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

Plant J 2015 Mar 21;81(6):871-83. Epub 2015 Feb 21.

State Key Lab of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, China.

Plant homeodomain (PHD) finger proteins affect processes of growth and development by changing transcription and reading epigenetic histone modifications, but their functions in abiotic stress responses remain largely unclear. Here we characterized seven Arabidopsis thaliana Alfin1-like PHD finger proteins (ALs) in terms of the responses to abiotic stresses. ALs localized to the nucleus and repressed transcription. Except AL6, all the ALs bound to G-rich elements. Mutations of the amino acids at positions 34 and 35 in AL6 caused loss of ability to bind to G-rich elements. Expression of the AL genes responded differentially to osmotic stress, salt, cold and abscisic acid treatments. AL5-over-expressing plants showed higher tolerance to salt, drought and freezing stress than Col-0. Consistently, al5 mutants showed reduced stress tolerance. We used ChIP-Seq assays to identify eight direct targets of AL5, and found that AL5 binds to the promoter regions of these genes. Knockout mutants of five of these target genes exhibited varying tolerances to stresses. These results indicate that AL5 inhibits multiple signaling pathways to confer stress tolerance. Our study sheds light on mechanisms of AL5-mediated signaling in abiotic stress responses, and provides tools for improvement of stress tolerance in crop plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12773DOI Listing
March 2015

Trihelix transcription factor GT-4 mediates salt tolerance via interaction with TEM2 in Arabidopsis.

BMC Plant Biol 2014 Dec 3;14:339. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Background: Trihelix transcription factor family is plant-specific and plays important roles in developmental processes. However, their function in abiotic stress response is largely unclear.

Results: We studied one member GT-4 from Arabidopsis in relation to salt stress response. GT-4 expression is induced by salt stress and GT-4 protein is localized in nucleus and cytoplasm. GT-4 acts as a transcriptional activator and its C-terminal end is the activation domain. The protein can bind to the cis-elements GT-3 box, GT-3b box and MRE4. GT-4 confers enhanced salt tolerance in Arabidopsis likely through direct binding to the promoter and activation of Cor15A, in addition to possible regulation of other relevant genes. The gt-4 mutant shows salt sensitivity. TEM2, a member of AP2/ERF family was identified to interact with GT-4 in yeast two-hybrid, BiFC and Co-IP assays. Loss-of-function of TEM2 exerts no significant difference on salt tolerance or Cor15A expression in Arabidopsis. However, double mutant gt-4/tem2 shows greater sensitivity to salt stress and lower transcript level of Cor15A than gt-4 single mutant. GT-4 plus TEM2 can synergistically increase the promoter activity of Cor15A.

Conclusions: GT-4 interacts with TEM2 and then co-regulates the salt responsive gene Cor15A to improve salt stress tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-014-0339-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4267404PMC
December 2014

An S-domain receptor-like kinase, OsSIK2, confers abiotic stress tolerance and delays dark-induced leaf senescence in rice.

Plant Physiol 2013 Dec 18;163(4):1752-65. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Receptor-like kinases play important roles in plant development and defense responses; however, their functions in other processes remain unclear. Here, we report that OsSIK2, an S-domain receptor-like kinase from rice (Oryza sativa), is involved in abiotic stress and the senescence process. OsSIK2 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with kinase activity in the presence of Mn(2+). OsSIK2 is expressed mainly in rice leaf and sheath and can be induced by NaCl, drought, cold, dark, and abscisic acid treatment. Transgenic plants overexpressing OsSIK2 and mutant sik2 exhibit enhanced and reduced tolerance to salt and drought stress, respectively, compared with the controls. Interestingly, a truncated version of OsSIK2 without most of the extracellular region confers higher salt tolerance than the full-length OsSIK2, likely through the activation of different sets of downstream genes. Moreover, seedlings of OsSIK2-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibit early leaf development and a delayed dark-induced senescence phenotype, while mutant sik2 shows the opposite phenotype. The downstream PR-related genes specifically up-regulated by full-length OsSIK2 or the DREB-like genes solely enhanced by truncated OsSIK2 are all induced by salt, drought, and dark treatments. These results indicate that OsSIK2 may integrate stress signals into a developmental program for better adaptive growth under unfavorable conditions. Manipulation of OsSIK2 should facilitate the improvement of production in rice and other crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.113.224881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850199PMC
December 2013

Identification of rice ethylene-response mutants and characterization of MHZ7/OsEIN2 in distinct ethylene response and yield trait regulation.

Mol Plant 2013 Nov 29;6(6):1830-48. Epub 2013 May 29.

State Key Lab of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Ethylene plays essential roles in adaptive growth of rice plants in water-saturating environment; however, ethylene signaling pathway in rice is largely unclear. In this study, we report identification and characterization of ethylene-response mutants based on the specific ethylene-response phenotypes of etiolated rice seedlings, including ethylene-inhibited root growth and ethylene-promoted coleoptile elongation, which is different from the ethylene triple-response phenotype in Arabidopsis. We establish an efficient system for screening and a set of rice mutants have been identified. Genetic analysis reveals that these mutants form eight complementation groups. All the mutants show insensitivity or reduced sensitivity to ethylene in root growth but exhibit differential responses in coleoptile growth. One mutant group mhz7 has insensitivity to ethylene in both root and coleoptile growth. We identified the corresponding gene by a map-based cloning method. MHZ7 encodes a membrane protein homologous to EIN2, a central component of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Upon ethylene treatment, etiolated MHZ7-overexpressing seedlings exhibit enhanced coleoptile elongation, increased mesocotyl growth and extremely twisted short roots, featuring enhanced ethylene-response phenotypes in rice. Grain length was promoted in MHZ7-transgenic plants and 1000-grain weight was reduced in mhz7 mutants. Leaf senescent process was also affected by MHZ7 expression. Manipulation of ethylene signaling may improve adaptive growth and yield-related traits in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mp/sst087DOI Listing
November 2013

The transcription factor AtDOF4.2 regulates shoot branching and seed coat formation in Arabidopsis.

Biochem J 2013 Jan;449(2):373-88

State Key Lab of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Plant-specific DOF (DNA-binding with one finger)-type transcription factors regulate various biological processes. In the present study we characterized a silique-abundant gene AtDOF (Arabidopsis thaliana DOF) 4.2 for its functions in Arabidopsis. AtDOF4.2 is localized in the nuclear region and has transcriptional activation activity in both yeast and plant protoplast assays. The T-M-D motif in AtDOF4.2 is essential for its activation. AtDOF4.2-overexpressing plants exhibit an increased branching phenotype and mutation of the T-M-D motif in AtDOF4.2 significantly reduces branching in transgenic plants. AtDOF4.2 may achieve this function through the up-regulation of three branching-related genes, AtSTM (A. thaliana SHOOT MERISTEMLESS), AtTFL1 (A. thaliana TERMINAL FLOWER1) and AtCYP83B1 (A. thaliana CYTOCHROME P450 83B1). The seeds of an AtDOF4.2-overexpressing plant show a collapse-like morphology in the epidermal cells of the seed coat. The mucilage contents and the concentration and composition of mucilage monosaccharides are significantly changed in the seed coat of transgenic plants. AtDOF4.2 may exert its effects on the seed epidermis through the direct binding and activation of the cell wall loosening-related gene AtEXPA9 (A. thaliana EXPANSIN-A9). The dof4.2 mutant did not exhibit changes in branching or its seed coat; however, the silique length and seed yield were increased. AtDOF4.4, which is a close homologue of AtDOF4.2, also promotes shoot branching and affects silique size and seed yield. Manipulation of these genes should have a practical use in the improvement of agronomic traits in important crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20110060DOI Listing
January 2013

[Characteristics of rubidium forward degenerate four-wave mixing (FDFWM) influenced by the matrix effect of chloride brine in graphite furnace].

Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2012 Jun;32(6):1466-70

National Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials, National Photoelectric Technology, and Functional Materials and Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Center, Department of Physics, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China.

Rb is mainly extracted from brine. The authors studied the matrix effect of chloride brine (NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2) on FDFWM (Forward phase-matching degenerate four-wave mixing) of Rb in the graphite furnace. The Rb and other chloride brine concentrations dependences of FDFWM were investigated respectively. The results indicate that with the increase in Rb concentration, FDFWM increases and reaches the highest at 80 ng x mL(-1). With the concentration of Rb sample further increasing, the FDFWM intensity drops. It was also found that when the Rb concentration is low, FDFWM signal is suppressed by the chloride brine, and the suppressing effect gets stronger with the increase in the chloride brine concentration. However, when the Rb concentration is high, FDFWM signal is first enhanced and then suppressed with the increase in the chloride brine concentration. The Cl- interference and Rb ionization in the graphite furnace were employed to explain the experimental results. This work is of important meaning in extracting and analyzing Rb in brine.
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June 2012

NIMA-related kinase NEK6 affects plant growth and stress response in Arabidopsis.

Plant J 2011 Dec 14;68(5):830-43. Epub 2011 Sep 14.

State Key Lab of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

The NIMA-related kinases (NEKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases involved largely in cell cycle control in fungi, mammals and other eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, NEK6 is involved in the regulation of epidermal cell morphogenesis. However, other roles of NEK6 in plants are less well understood. Here we report functions of NEK6 in plant growth, development and stress responses in Arabidopsis. NEK6 transcripts and proteins are induced by ethylene precursor ACC and salt stress. Expression of other NEK genes except NEK5 is also responsive to the two treatments. Overexpression and mutant analysis disclose that the NEK6 gene increases rosette growth, seed yield and lateral root formation. However, NEK6 appears to play a negative role in the control of seed size. The gene also promotes plant tolerance to salt stress and osmotic stress in its overexpressing plants. The NEK6 gene may achieve its function through suppression of ethylene biosynthesis and activation of CYCB1;1 and CYCA3;1 expression. Our present study reveals new functions of the NEK6 gene in plant growth and stress tolerance, and manipulation of NEK6 may improve important agronomic traits in crop plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04733.xDOI Listing
December 2011

Soybean NAC transcription factors promote abiotic stress tolerance and lateral root formation in transgenic plants.

Plant J 2011 Oct 26;68(2):302-13. Epub 2011 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

NAC transcription factors play important roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. Previously, we identified multiple NAC genes in soybean (Glycine max). Here, we identify the roles of two genes, GmNAC11 and GmNAC20, in stress responses and other processes. The two genes were differentially induced by multiple abiotic stresses and plant hormones, and their transcripts were abundant in roots and cotyledons. Both genes encoded proteins that localized to the nucleus and bound to the core DNA sequence CGT[G/A]. In the protoplast assay system, GmNAC11 acts as a transcriptional activator, whereas GmNAC20 functions as a mild repressor; however, the C-terminal end of GmANC20 has transcriptional activation activity. Over-expression of GmNAC20 enhances salt and freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants; however, GmNAC11 over-expression only improves salt tolerance. Over-expression of GmNAC20 also promotes lateral root formation. GmNAC20 may regulate stress tolerance through activation of the DREB/CBF-COR pathway, and may control lateral root development by altering auxin signaling-related genes. GmNAC11 probably regulates DREB1A and other stress-related genes. The roles of the two GmNAC genes in stress tolerance were further analyzed in soybean transgenic hairy roots. These results provide a basis for genetic manipulation to improve the agronomic traits of important crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04687.xDOI Listing
October 2011

Plant NAC-type transcription factor proteins contain a NARD domain for repression of transcriptional activation.

Planta 2010 Oct 4;232(5):1033-43. Epub 2010 Aug 4.

Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Plant-specific transcription factor NAC proteins play essential roles in many biological processes such as development, senescence, morphogenesis, and stress signal transduction pathways. In the NAC family, some members function as transcription activators while others act as repressors. In the present study we found that though the full-length GmNAC20 from soybean did not have transcriptional activation activity, the carboxy-terminal activation domain of GmNAC20 had high transcriptional activation activity in the yeast assay system. Deletion experiments revealed an active repression domain with 35 amino acids, named NARD (NAC Repression Domain), in the d subdomain of NAC DNA-binding domain. NARD can reduce the transcriptional activation ability of diverse transcription factors when fused to either the amino-terminal or the carboxy-terminal of the transcription factors. NARD-like sequences are also present in other NAC family members and they are functional repression domain when fused to VP16 in plant protoplast assay system. Mutation analysis of conserved amino acid residues in NARD showed that the hydrophobic LVFY motif may partially contribute to the repression function. It is hypothesized that the interactions between the repression domain NARD and the carboxy-terminal activation domain may finally determine the ability of NAC family proteins to regulate downstream gene expressions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-010-1238-2DOI Listing
October 2010

The ethylene receptor ETR2 delays floral transition and affects starch accumulation in rice.

Plant Cell 2009 May 5;21(5):1473-94. Epub 2009 May 5.

Plant Gene Research Center, National Key Lab of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Ethylene regulates multiple aspects of plant growth and development in dicotyledonous plants; however, its roles in monocotyledonous plants are poorly known. Here, we characterized a subfamily II ethylene receptor, ETHYLENE RESPONSE2 (ETR2), in rice (Oryza sativa). The ETR2 receptor with a diverged His kinase domain is a Ser/Thr kinase, but not a His kinase, and can phosphorylate its receiver domain. Mutation of the N box of the kinase domain abolished the kinase activity of ETR2. Overexpression of ETR2 in transgenic rice plants reduced ethylene sensitivity and delayed floral transition. Conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) plants exhibited early flowering and the ETR2 T-DNA insertion mutant etr2 showed enhanced ethylene sensitivity and early flowering. The effective panicles and seed-setting rate were reduced in the ETR2-overexpressing plants, while thousand-seed weight was substantially enhanced in both the ETR2-RNAi plants and the etr2 mutant compared with controls. Starch granules accumulated in the internodes of the ETR2-overexpressing plants, but not in the etr2 mutant. The GIGANTEA and TERMINAL FLOWER1/CENTRORADIALIS homolog (RCN1) that cause delayed flowering were upregulated in ETR2-overexpressing plants but downregulated in the etr2 mutant. Conversely, the alpha-amylase gene RAmy3D was suppressed in ETR2-overexpressing plants but enhanced in the etr2 mutant. Thus, ETR2 may delay flowering and cause starch accumulation in stems by regulating downstream genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.108.065391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2700534PMC
May 2009

Ex vivo expansion of dendritic-cell-activated antigen-specific CD4+ T cells with anti-CD3/CD28, interleukin-7, and interleukin-15: potential for adoptive T cell immunotherapy.

Clin Immunol 2006 Apr 9;119(1):21-31. Epub 2006 Jan 9.

Department of Microbiology, Soochow University, Wai Shuang Hsi, Shih Lin, Taipei 11102, Taiwan, Republic of China.

There is an increasing realization that the failure of adoptive therapy with cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the autologous setting, at least in part, results from the lack of help from antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. To incorporate these cells into this treatment strategy, it is not known whether currently used ex vivo culture conditions are adequate for expanding and charting these T cells with the desired qualities for optimal in vivo activity. In this study, we show that stimulation with agonistic antibodies to CD3 plus CD28 (anti-CD3/CD28), a commonly used method for CD4+ T cell expansion, is unable to expand dendritic-cell-activated hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific CD4+ T cells to clinical relevant numbers. Whereas, in combination with interleukin(IL)-7 and IL-15, it leads to a 4000-fold expansion of HBV-specific CD4+ T cells in 2 weeks. This outcome is correlated with the anti-apoptosis effect of IL-7 and IL-15. Importantly, antigen specificity is preserved during expansion. Although a late addition of IL-2 to the anti-CD3/CD28-expanding cultures also results in robust expansion, this expansion condition renders HBV-specific CD4+ T cells more sensitive to cytokine withdrawal-, activation-, and transforming growth factor-beta-induced cell death compared to those expanded in IL-7 and IL-15. Moreover, NKG2D rather than 4-1BB, whose ligands are constitutively expressed on tumor cells, is significantly up-regulated on IL-7/IL-15-expanded HBV-specific CD4+ T cells, and its engagement promotes expansion and interferon-gamma production by these cells and thus may serve to provide co-stimulation to T cells once they reach tumor tissues. Collectively, these results may have important therapeutic implications for adoptive T cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2005.11.003DOI Listing
April 2006
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