Publications by authors named "Hany H Arab"

37 Publications

Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Using Green Machinery: Characterization and In Vitro Toxicity.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt.

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with plant extracts has gained considerable interest in the field of biomedicine. Recently, the bioreduction nature of herbal extracts has helped to synthesize spherical GNPs of different potential from gold salt. In this study, a fast ecofriendly method was adopted for the synthesis of GNPs using fresh peel (aqueous) extracts of , which acted as reducing and stabilizing agents. The biosynthesized GNPs were characterized by UV-VIS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering. In addition, the in vitro antibacterial and anticancer activities of synthesized GNPs were investigated. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by the existence of a sharp absorption peak at 520 nm, corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of the GNPs. TEM analysis revealed that the prepared GNPs were spherical in shape and had an average particle size of 22.18 ± 2 nm. Most importantly, the synthesized GNPs exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, the biosynthesized GNPs exerted remarkable in vitro cytotoxicity against human cervical cancer cell line, while sparing normal human primary osteoblast cells. Such cytotoxic effect was attributed to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that contributed to the damage of HeLa cells. Collectively, peel extracts of can be efficiently used for the synthesis of GNPs, which can be adopted as a natural source of antimicrobial and anticancer agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11030808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004202PMC
March 2021

Galangin attenuates diabetic cardiomyopathy through modulating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Mar 19:111410. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514, Egypt; Biotechnology Department, Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514, Egypt. Electronic address:

Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of morbidity in diabetes. Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the development and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). This study explored the cardioprotective effect of galangin (Gal), a natural flavonoid with radical-scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities, in diabetic rats. An experimental diabetic rat model was achieved by a single injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin. Gal (15 mg/kg) was administered daily for six weeks and the samples were then collected. Diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia, increased glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels and reduced serum insulin. Serum troponin I, CK-MB and LDH were increased in diabetic rats. Furthermore, hearts of diabetic rats were characterized by elevated malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, IL-6, Bax, caspase-3 and 8-Oxo-dG, and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced GSH, and Bcl-2. Gal ameliorated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and heart function markers, and prevented histopathological alterations in diabetic rats. In addition, Gal attenuated cardiac oxidative injury, inflammation and apoptosis, and boosted antioxidant defenses. In conclusion, Gal has a protective effect on cardiomyopathy by attenuating hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111410DOI Listing
March 2021

Linagliptin mitigates experimental inflammatory bowel disease in rats by targeting inflammatory and redox signaling.

Life Sci 2021 May 2;273:119295. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

Aims: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) has been involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), yet the underlying mechanisms remain inconclusive. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of linagliptin, a potent/selective DPP-4 inhibitor with marked anti-inflammatory actions, to attenuate trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-evoked colitis in rats; an experimental model of IBD, and the implicated molecular mechanisms. This may add to the clinical utility of linagliptin for the management of patients with coexisting IBD and diabetes mellitus. Notably, no former studies have linked JAK2/STAT3, HMGB1/NF-κB, and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in TNBS-evoked colitis.

Materials And Methods: Western blotting and ELISA were used to determine the levels of target signals.

Key Findings: Administration of linagliptin (1.5 mg/kg; p.o.) mitigated the colitis severity via diminishing the disease activity index, colon weight/length ratio, and macroscopic scores. Linagliptin also lowered the colonic histologic scores and leukocyte invasion. Notably, linagliptin inhibited the colonic DPP-4 activity and upregulated the expression of intestinotrophic GLP-2 without incurring hypoglycemia in animals. Linagliptin curbed inflammation through the suppression of colonic IL-6, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase and upregulation of IL-10. It also inhibited the IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 pathway via downregulating p-JAK2/JAK2 and p-STAT3/STAT3 protein expression and HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB cascade through lowering HMGB1, RAGE, and p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 protein expression. In the context of mucosal oxidative stress, linagliptin diminished lipid peroxides and augmented GSH, GPx, and total antioxidant capacity. It also activated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway via upregulating Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression.

Significance: Linagliptin shows a promise for the management of IBD via targeting IL-6/JAK2/STAT3, HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB, and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119295DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of dapagliflozin and/or L-arginine on solid tumor model in mice: The interaction between nitric oxide, transforming growth factor-beta 1, autophagy, and apoptosis.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Background: Nitric oxide was reported to play an essential role in various physiological and pathological processes in the body. Recent reports suggested that nitric oxide may affect the pathogenesis of cancer. Dapagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor which is commonly used for type-2 diabetes mellitus management.

Purpose: The current work aimed to detect the potential impact of dapagliflozin and/or L-arginine on solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) in mice.

Methods: Six equal groups of male BALB/c mice were divided as follows: Control; SEC; SEC + Dapagliflozin; SEC + L-arginine; SEC + carboxymethyl cellulose; and SEC + Dapagliflozin + L-arginine group. Tumor volume, survival rate, tissue total nitrate/nitrite, paraoxonase-1, interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α), and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) were determined. Also, caspase 3, beclin-1, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activities were estimated in the tumor tissues. Sections of the tumor tissues were examined by histopathology and immunohistochemistry.

Results: Dapagliflozin and/or L-arginine induced a significant increment of the survival rate, tissue total nitrate/nitrite, paraoxonase-1, caspase 3, beclin-1, and JNK activities, significant lowering of the tumor volume, tissue TGF-β1, and IL-1α expression alongside an improvement of the histopathologic findings, versus the SEC group. Notably, the combination of dapagliflozin/L-arginine exerted more pronounced effects versus each agent alone.

Conclusion: Dapagliflozin/L-arginine combination may confer a novel therapeutic line for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12661DOI Listing
February 2021

Targeting ROS-Dependent AKT/GSK-3β/NF-κB and DJ-1/Nrf2 Pathways by Dapagliflozin Attenuates Neuronal Injury and Motor Dysfunction in Rotenone-Induced Parkinson's Disease Rat Model.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 02 5;12(4):689-703. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

Dapagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has emerged as a promising neuroprotective agent in murine models of epilepsy and obesity-induced cognitive impairment through its marked antioxidant/antiapoptotic features. However, the impact of dapagliflozin on the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is lacking. Hence, the present study aimed at exploring the potential neuroprotective effects of dapagliflozin against PD-associated neurodegenerative aberrations/motor dysfunction in rotenone-induced PD rat model. Rotenone (1.5 mg/kg) was subcutaneously administered every other day for 3 weeks. The expression of target signals was investigated using qPCR, Western blotting, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. Dapagliflozin (1 (mg/kg)/day, by gavage for 3 weeks) attenuated PD motor dysfunction and improved motor coordination in the open-field and rotarod tests without triggering hypoglycemia. It also diminished the histopathologic alterations and α-synuclein expression and augmented tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine levels. Dapagliflozin markedly alleviated neuronal oxidative stress via lowering lipid peroxides with consequent restoration of the disturbed DJ-1/Nrf2 pathway. Moreover, dapagliflozin counteracted ROS-dependent neuronal apoptosis and upregulated GDNF and its downstream PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β (Ser9) pathway. Meanwhile, it suppressed neuroinflammation via curbing the activation of NF-κB pathway and TNF-α levels. Together, these pleiotropic neuroprotective effects highlight the promising role of dapagliflozin in the management of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00722DOI Listing
February 2021

Activation of autophagy by sitagliptin attenuates cadmium-induced testicular impairment in rats: Targeting AMPK/mTOR and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways.

Life Sci 2021 Mar 13;269:119031. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Egyptian Drug Authority (EDA), formerly NODCAR, Giza, Egypt.

Aims: Cadmium (Cd) is a prevalent environmental contaminant that incurs deleterious health effects, including testicular impairment. Sitagliptin, a selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, has demonstrated marked cardio-, hepato-, and reno-protective actions, however, its impact on Cd-triggered testicular dysfunction has not been formerly investigated. Hence, the present study aimed to explore the probable beneficial impact of sitagliptin against Cd-evoked testicular impairment which may add to its potential clinical utility. The underlying mechanisms pertaining to the balance between testicular autophagy and apoptosis were explored, including the AMPK/mTOR and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways.

Materials And Methods: The testicular tissues were examined using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and ELISA. Sitagliptin (10 mg/kg/day, by gavage) was administered for 4 consecutive weeks.

Key Findings: Sitagliptin attenuated the testicular impairment via improvement of the relative testicular weight, sperm count/motility, sperm abnormalities, and serum testosterone. Additionally, sitagliptin counteracted Cd-induced histologic aberrations/disrupted spermatogenesis. Interestingly, sitagliptin augmented the defective autophagy as demonstrated by upregulating Beclin 1 protein expression and lowering p62 SQSTM1 protein accumulation. These effects were mediated via the activation of testicular AMPK/mTOR pathway as proven by increasing p-AMPK (Ser485, Ser491)/total AMPK and diminishing p-mTOR (Ser2448)/total mTOR protein expression. Additionally, sitagliptin suppressed the testicular apoptotic events via downregulating Bax and upregulating Bcl-2 protein expression. In tandem, sitagliptin suppressed the oxidative stress through lowering lipid peroxides and activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway via upregulating the protein expression of Nrf2, and the downstream effectors HO-1 and GPx.

Significance: Sitagliptin attenuated Cd-induced testicular injury via boosting the autophagy/apoptosis ratio through activation of AMPK/mTOR and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119031DOI Listing
March 2021

Activation of autophagy and suppression of apoptosis by dapagliflozin attenuates experimental inflammatory bowel disease in rats: Targeting AMPK/mTOR, HMGB1/RAGE and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Feb 4;335:109368. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, NewGiza University, Giza, Egypt.

Dapagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has featured marked anti-inflammatory effects in murine models of myocardial infarction, renal injury, and neuroinflammation. Yet, its potential impact on the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has not been previously investigated. The presented study aimed to explore the prospect of dapagliflozin to mitigate 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis model which recapitulates several features of the human IBD. The molecular mechanisms pertaining to the dynamic balance between autophagy/apoptosis and colon injury were delineated, particularly, AMPK/mTOR, HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways. The colon tissues were examined using immunoblotting, ELISA, and histopathology. Dapagliflozin (0.1, 1 and 5 mg/kg; p.o.) dose-dependently mitigated colitis severity as manifested by suppression of the disease activity scores, macroscopic damage scores, colon weight/length ratio, histopathologic perturbations, and inflammatory markers. More important, dapagliflozin enhanced colonic autophagy via upregulating Beclin 1 and downregulating p62 SQSTM1 protein expression. In this context, dapagliflozin activated the AMPK/mTOR pathway by increasing the p-AMPK/AMPK and lowering the p-mTOR/mTOR ratios, thereby, favoring autophagy. Moreover, dapagliflozin dampened the colonic apoptosis via lowering the caspase-3 activity, cleaved caspase-3 expression, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, dapagliflozin attenuated the HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB pathway via lowering HMGB1, RAGE, and p-NF-κBp65 protein expression. Regarding oxidative stress, dapagliflozin lowered the oxidative stress markers and augmented the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Together, the present study reveals, for the first time, the ameliorative effect of dapagliflozin against experimental colitis via augmenting colonic autophagy and curbing apoptosis through activation of AMPK/mTOR and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways and suppression of HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB cascade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109368DOI Listing
February 2021

Mechanistic perspective of morin protection against ketoprofen-induced gastric mucosal injury: Targeting HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB, DJ-1/Nrf2/HO-1 and PI3K/mTOR pathways.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2020 10 26;693:108552. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, NewGiza University, Giza, Egypt.

Ketoprofen is a widely used NSAID which incurs gastric mucosal damage. The high mobility group Box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a DNA-binding protein which exerts robust inflammatory actions, however, its role in ketoprofen-induced gastric damage has not been explored. Additionally, no previous studies have linked HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB, DJ-1/Nrf2/HO-1 and PI3K/mTOR pathways in ketoprofen-induced gastropathy. The current work aimed to explore the potential of morin, a flavonoid with marked antioxidant/anti-inflammatory actions, to protect against ketoprofen-evoked gastric damage. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms, including the impact of morin on HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB, DJ-1/Nrf2/HO-1 and PI3K/mTOR pathways were addressed. Immunoblotting and ELISA were used to examine the expression of target signals. Morin (50 mg/kg, p. o.) attenuated the severity of gastric injury via lowering of ulceration/hemorrhage and macroscopic damage scores. Meanwhile, it attenuated the histopathologic aberrations/damage scores. In the context of inflammation, morin suppressed TNF-α and myeloperoxidase levels and enhanced IL-10. Furthermore, it inhibited HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB pathway through downregulating HMGB1, RAGE and phospho-NF-κBp65 protein expression. Morin successfully inhibited gastric mucosal oxidative stress through lowering of lipid peroxides and boosting of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant capacity. It also boosted DJ-1/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway via upregulating DJ-1, Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression. Additionally, morin counteracted the apoptotic events by downregulating the proapoptotic Bax and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and augmenting the PI3K/mTOR pathway through upregulating PI3Kp110α and phospho-mTOR protein expression. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates, for the first time, that morin shows a promise for the management of ketoprofen-induced mucosal insult through targeting of HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB, DJ-1/Nrf2/HO-1 and PI3K/mTOR pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2020.108552DOI Listing
October 2020

Ellagic acid attenuates testicular disruption in rheumatoid arthritis via targeting inflammatory signals, oxidative perturbations and apoptosis.

Life Sci 2019 Dec 31;239:117012. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Pharmacology, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, NODCAR, Giza, Egypt.

Background And Purpose: Reduced male fertility has been regarded as a serious complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Phytochemicals have been described as protective agents against rheumatoid arthritis-linked testicular impairment. The current study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of ellagic acid on rheumatoid arthritis-evoked testicular dysfunction vis-à-vis the reference anti-inflammatory celecoxib.

Experimental Approach: Ellagic acid (50 mg/kg/day) and celecoxib (5 mg/kg/day) were administered orally for 20 days in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.

Key Findings: Current data revealed that ellagic acid counteracted rheumatoid arthritis-evoked testicular histopathologic changes, disrupted sperm characteristics and low gonadosomatic index with comparable efficacy to celecoxib. Ellagic acid also enhanced the testicular steroidogenesis via upregulating the gene expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein with consequent boosting of serum testosterone. Notably, ellagic acid attenuated the testicular inflammatory responses through suppression of myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclo-oxygenase-2 protein expression together with enhancing the anti-inflammatory signal interleukin 10. Ellagic acid also curbed the redox alterations via lowering the production of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide and elevation of the anti-oxidant reduced glutathione. In support of cell survival, ellagic acid combated testicular apoptosis through downregulating caspase-3 protein expression.

Significance: The present work accentuates the beneficial actions of ellagic acid in rheumatoid arthritis-incurred testicular impairment and disrupted spermatogenesis via combating the inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic aberrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.117012DOI Listing
December 2019

Immunomodulatory MicroRNAs in cancer: targeting immune checkpoints and the tumor microenvironment.

FEBS J 2019 09 27;286(18):3540-3557. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Cancer immunotherapy represents a promising new era in cancer management due to the relatively high safety margins and selectivity, compared to the classical cancer chemotherapeutic agents. However, there is an imperative need to overcome tumor resistance in order to improve clinical outcomes and maximize the benefits of cancer immunotherapy. The interaction between the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligand PD-L1 is a vital immune checkpoint that is often adopted by cancer cells to undergo immune evasion. PD-1/PD-L1 signaling is regulated at multiple levels through the crosstalk with other immune targets or relevant signaling partners involved in the cancer progression. Among the significant epigenetic players that are implicated in modulating the immune system are microRNAs (miRNAs). A complex system of these noncoding RNAs regulates the gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and plays a significant role in the modulation of both innate and the adaptive immune systems. The expression profile of immune-modulatory miRNAs might be useful as a predictive biomarker for the response and clinical outcomes in cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, in the current review, we highlighted the role of miRNAs in cancer immune evasion through a critical discussion of their impact on key immune checkpoints as well as the role of miRNAs in cancer progression and resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15000DOI Listing
September 2019

Targeting MAPKs, NF-κB, and PI3K/AKT pathways by methyl palmitate ameliorates ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

J Cell Physiol 2019 12 21;234(12):22424-22438. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Excessive drinking of alcohol has been frequently associated with gastric injury; however, its underlying molecular mechanisms have been inadequately investigated. Methyl palmitate (MP) has demonstrated marked hepato-, cardio- and pulmonary protective features; however, its effects on ethanol-induced gastric injury have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential gastroprotective activity of MP against ethanol-evoked gastric mucosal damage in rats and associated molecular mechanisms, for example, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathways. The rat stomachs were examined in terms of the inflammatory, oxidative, and apoptotic perturbations. Current data demonstrated that pretreatment with MP attenuated the gross gastric damage, scores of ulcer index, area of mucosal lesions and histopathology outcomes; actions which were similar to the reference antiulcer omeprazole. MP inhibited NF-κB expression, its nuclear translocation, and the expression of its downstream signals, for example, tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase besides restoration of interleukin-10 levels. Western blot analysis revealed that MP counteracted the disruption of MAPKs signaling via lowering p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (p-JNK1/2) expression and restoring the phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) levels without affecting p-p38MAPK levels. Additionally, MP improved the antioxidant milieu via diminishing lipid peroxides and enhancing glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant capacity and mucosal nitric oxide. In the context of apoptosis, MP inhibited the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) and Bax protein expression with upregulating B cell lymphoma-2 expression (Bcl-2), thus, promoting gastric cellular survival. This was confirmed by MP activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway manifested by enhanced expression of PI3K p110α and p-AKT. Together, the present findings report the gastroprotective actions of MP mediated via its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic actions. The underlying molecular mechanisms involve, at least partly, the modulation of MAPKs, NF-κB and PI3K/AKT transduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28807DOI Listing
December 2019

Cadmium-induced hepatocellular injury: Modulatory effects of γ-glutamyl cysteine on the biomarkers of inflammation, DNA damage, and apoptotic cell death.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2019 Mar 7;52:74-82. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia.

Cadmium is an extremely toxic pollutant that reaches human body through intake of the industrially polluted food and water as well as through cigarette smoking and exposure to polluted air. Cadmium accumulates in different body organs especially the liver. It induces tissue injury largely through inflammation and oxidative stress-based mechanisms. The aim of the current study was to investigate the ability of γ glutamyl cysteine (γGC) to protect against cadmium-induced hepatocellular injury employing Wistar rats as a mammalian model. The results of the current work indicated that γGC upregulated the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and downregulated the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) in the cadmium-exposed rats. In addition, γGC reduced the liver tissues cadmium content in the cadmium-treated rats, suppressed the cadmium-induced hepatocellular apoptosis and oxidative modifications of cellular DNA, lipids, and proteins. Additionally, γGC enhanced the antioxidant potential of the liver tissues in the cadmium-treated rats as evidenced by a remarkable increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and significant increase in the levels of the total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione as well as a significant reduction in oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) ratio. Moreover, it effectively improved liver cell integrity in the cadmium-treated rats as demonstrated by a significant reduction in the serum activity of the liver enzymes (ALT and AST) and amelioration of the cadmium-evoked histopathological alterations. Together, these findings underscore, for the first time, the alleviating effects of γGC against cadmium-induced hepatocellular injury that is potentially mediated through reduction of liver tissue cadmium content along with modulation of both hepatocellular redox status and inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.12.003DOI Listing
March 2019

Nicorandil abates arthritic perturbations induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in rats via conquering TLR4-MyD88-TRAF6 signaling pathway.

Life Sci 2019 Feb 3;218:284-291. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El Aini st., 11562 Cairo, Egypt; School of Pharmacy, Newgiza University, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease which poses a need to explore effective yet safe pharmacotherapeutic options. The current work aimed to study the therapeutic role of nicorandil in controlling RA.

Experimental Approach: Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis model was applied by injecting 400 μL of CFA in the right hind paw at day 0 and day 7. Four groups of rats were used as follows: normal-control (CTRL), CFA-induced arthritis (ART), CFA-induced arthritis treated with diclofenac (DIC) and CFA-induced arthritis treated with nicorandil (NIC). Both NIC and DIC were administered at day 14 for two weeks. Paw volume, knee joint diameter, pain behavior assessment as well as body weight were all periodically recorded throughout the experimental period. Following the sacrifice of animals at day 28, gene expressions of TLR-4, MyD88 and TRAF6 as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), nuclear factor Kappa B (NF-κB) were quantified in hind paws tissue. Finally, the serum levels of the inflammatory biomarkers (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) together with the histopathological examination of sections in the rat hind paw were recorded.

Results: Both NIC and DIC proved promising anti-arthritic potential mediated, at least in part through switching off TLR4-MyD88-TRAF6 axis as well as downstream TRAF6 dependent activated MAP kinases and NF-κB.

Conclusion And Implications: Nicorandil, via interfering with TLR4 signaling, sheds light on a potential clinical role of the drug in pursuit for safe and effective regimens for RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.01.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Venlafaxine and carvedilol ameliorate testicular impairment and disrupted spermatogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis by targeting AMPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2019 02 19;364:83-96. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; Biochemistry Division and GTMR Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Testicular impairment has been commonly described in long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Since depression and cardiovascular disorders are the most disturbing co-morbidities of RA, investigating the efficacy of the anti-depressant venlafaxine or the beta-blocker carvedilol in RA-associated testicular dysfunction may add to their clinical utility for RA patients. Previously, both agents have demonstrated significant in vivo anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. In the current study, venlafaxine (50 mg/kg/day) and carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day) were orally administered to adjuvant arthritic rats for 20 days. Interestingly, venlafaxine and carvedilol effectively suppressed paw edema and mitigated the testicular histopathological aberrations and the disrupted spermatogenesis. Both drugs enhanced testicular steroidogenesis through upregulation of 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD and StAR gene expression with concomitant augmentation of serum testosterone. They also blunted the inflammatory burden via attenuation of myeloperoxidase, TNF-α and the protein expression of NF-κBp65 along with elevation of IL-10. They attenuated testicular oxidative perturbations via lowering lipid peroxides and nitric oxide and boosting glutathione levels. With regard to apoptosis, the two agents lowered the protein expression of caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bax and p53, promoting germ cell survival. They also modulated the AMPK/ERK signaling via lowering of p-AMPK and upregulation of p-ERK1/2 along with PI3K/AKT/mTOR transduction by enhancing the PI3Kp110α, p-AKT and p-mTOR protein expression. Together, the present work demonstrates the beneficial effects of venlafaxine and carvedilol in RA testicular dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis via modulation of AMPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and intervention with the testicular oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2018.12.014DOI Listing
February 2019

Caffeic acid and ellagic acid ameliorate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats via targeting inflammatory signals, chitinase-3-like protein-1 and angiogenesis.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Feb 15;110:878-886. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; Biochemistry Division and GTMR Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory arthropathy that principally attacks the joints. The present study aimed to explore the potential anti-arthritic effects of caffeic acid and ellagic acid in adjuvant-induced arthritis, compared to celecoxib. The current study also explored the underlying molecular mechanisms e.g., pro-inflammatory signals including chitinase-3-like protein-1 (CHI3L1); a glycoprotein that correlates with RA joint destruction besides angiogenesis, oxidative stres and apoptosis. Interestingly, caffeic and ellagic acids attenuated the severity of arthritis with comparable efficacy to celecoxib. Both agents effectively mitigated paw edema and inflammatory cell infiltration and protected the joint tissues against pannus formation along with cartilage and bone destruction. Notably, they also lowered the paw expression of NF-κB and the downstream effector CHI3L1 and its synthesis inducer IL-1β. They also lowered the levels of the tissue remodeling factor MMP-9 and the angiogenic signal VEGF in rat paws. Both agents also suppressed serum oxidative stress via diminishing lipid peroxides and nitric oxide together with augmentation of reduced glutathione in arthritic animals. Regarding apoptosis, they attenuated paw caspase-3 levels, favoring cell survival. Together, these favorable findings may advocate the use of caffeic and ellagic acids as adjunct modalities for the management of RA to mitigate joint damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.12.041DOI Listing
February 2019

Troxerutin down-regulates KIM-1, modulates p38 MAPK signaling, and enhances renal regenerative capacity in a rat model of gentamycin-induced acute kidney injury.

Food Funct 2018 Dec;9(12):6632-6642

Division of Biochemistry, Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia.

Gentamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is widely employed for controlling Gram negative bacterial infections including that caused by the antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas species. The clinical use of gentamycin is substantially limited by its side effects particularly acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of the plant flavonoid troxerutin (150 mg kg-1 day-1 for 15 days) against gentamycin-induced AKI using Wistar rats as an experimental mammalian model. The results of the present work revealed that troxerutin significantly improved renal function as demonstrated by the increase in the glomerular filtration rate and the decrease in the levels of urinary albumin, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (p < 0.001). In addition, troxerutin significantly attenuated gentamycin-induced renal tissue injury as indicated by the decreased protein expression of the renal tubular injury marker KIM-1, the attenuation of the renal histopathological changes, and the modulation of the oxidative stress markers as reflected by the decrease in the levels of lipid and protein oxidative modifications and the increase in the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.001). Furthermore, troxerutin down-regulated the levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-6), attenuated apoptotic cell death, and enhanced the renal tissue regenerative capacity as demonstrated by the increase in the protein expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA (p < 0.001). Collectively, the results of the current study highlight, for the first time, the ameliorating effects of troxerutin against gentamycin-induced AKI in rats that is potentially mediated via the modulation of p38 MAPK signaling as well as via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8fo01086bDOI Listing
December 2018

Targeting the proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, apoptosis and TGF-β1/STAT-3 signaling by irbesartan to ameliorate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity.

J Infect Chemother 2018 Aug 9;24(8):623-631. Epub 2018 May 9.

Biochemistry Division and GTMR Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antibiotic that is used frequently for treatment of various types of malignancies. Hepatotoxicity is one of the serious complications of DOX. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of different doses of irbesartan on doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Sixty male BALB/c mice were divided into six equal groups as follows: Control group; DOX group; Irbesartan (Small dose) group; Irbesartan (Large dose) group; DOX + Irbesartan (Small dose) group and DOX + Irbesartan (Large dose) group. Liver weight/body weight ratio, food intake, serum albumin, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin were measured. Also, tissue antioxidant enzymes, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) content, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) were assessed. Parts of the hepatic tissues were subjected to histopathological examination. Irbesartan administration to DOX-treated mice induced significant decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, tissue TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-6 and liver weight/body weight ratio associated with significant increase in food intake, serum albumin, tissue Nrf2/HO-1 content, STAT-3 and antioxidant enzymes and significant improvement in the histopathological picture compared to DOX group. This improvement was significant with DOX + Irbesartan large dose compared to DOX + Irbesartan small dose. In conclusion, irbesartan - in a dose-dependent manner - might represent a promising hope for cancer patients to ameliorate DOX-induced hepatotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2018.03.010DOI Listing
August 2018

Camel Milk Ameliorates 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Renal Injury in Rats: Targeting MAPKs, NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/eNOS Pathways.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 20;46(4):1628-1642. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Background/aims: The clinical utility of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Camel milk (CM) has previously displayed beneficial effects in toxicant-induced nephropathies. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of CM to attenuate 5-FU-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Methods: Renal tissues were studied in terms of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The levels of renal injury markers, inflammatory cytokines along with NOX-1, Nrf-2 and HO-1 were assessed by ELISA. The expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, NF-κBp65, p53, Bax and PCNA were detected by Immunohistochemistry. To gain an insight into the molecular signaling mechanisms, we determined the effect of CM on MAPKs, NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathways by Western blotting.

Results: CM lowered 5-FU-triggered increase of creatinine, BUN, Kim-1 and NGAL renal injury biomarkers and attenuated the histopathological aberrations. It suppressed oxidative stress and augmented renal antioxidant armory (GSH, SOD, GPx, TAC) with restoration of NOX-1, Nrf-2 and HO-1 levels. CM also suppressed renal inflammation as indicated by inhibition of MPO, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18 and MCP-1 proinflammatory mediators and downregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression with boosting of IL-10. Regarding MAPKs signaling, CM suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 and inhibited NF-κB activation. For apoptosis, CM downregulated p53, Bax, CytC and caspase-3 proapoptotic signals with enhancement of Bcl-2 and PCNA. It also enhanced PI3K p110α, phospho-Akt and phospho-eNOS levels with augmentation of renal NO, favoring cell survival. Equally important, CM preconditioning enhanced 5-FU cytotoxicity in MCF-7, HepG-2, HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, thus, justifying their concomitant use.

Conclusion: The current findings pinpoint, for the first time, the marked renoprotective effects of CM that were mediated via ROS scavenging, suppression of MAPKs and NF-κB along with activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000489210DOI Listing
July 2018

Camel milk attenuates methotrexate-induced kidney injury via activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling and intervention with oxidative aberrations.

Food Funct 2018 May;9(5):2661-2672

Biochemistry Division and GTMR Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Methotrexate (MTX) is a classical chemotherapeutic agent with nephrotoxicity as the most disturbing adverse effect. So far, its underlying molecular mechanisms, particularly PI3K/Akt/eNOS transduction, are inadequately explored. Several antioxidant modalities have been characterized to ameliorate MTX-induced renal injury. In this regard, Camel milk (CM) is a natural product with recognized antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the potential ameliorating effects of CM in MTX-induced kidney injury in rats. Renal tissues were studied in terms of renal injury markers, histopathology, oxidative stress, apoptosis and PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling. CM was orally administered (10 ml kg-1) and the renal injury was induced by a single i.p. injection of MTX (20 mg kg-1). Interestingly, CM dose-dependently attenuated MTX-triggered increase of BUN and serum creatinine and renal Kim-1 expression and mitigated the renal histopathological changes. CM counteracted renal oxidative stress as manifested by lowering of lipid peroxides, restoration of NOX-1 levels and augmentation of the antioxidant defenses e.g., GSH, SOD, GPx and total antioxidant capacity. With respect to apoptosis, CM curbed the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3, downregulated p53, Bax and Cyt C proapoptotic signals and enhanced Bcl-2 and PCNA levels. In the same context, CM activated the prosurvival PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway via enhancing PI3K p110, phospho-Akt and phospho-eNOS levels. Equally important, CM preconditioning did not interfere with MTX cytotoxicity in TK-10 or PC-3 cancer cells. Together, the current findings demonstrate, for the first time, the renoprotective effects of CM in MTX-induced kidney injury via activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling and combating oxidative stress and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8fo00131fDOI Listing
May 2018

L-carnitine mitigates UVA-induced skin tissue injury in rats through downregulation of oxidative stress, p38/c-Fos signaling, and the proinflammatory cytokines.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Apr 27;285:40-47. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, 21974, Saudi Arabia.

UVA comprises more than 90% of the solar UV radiation reaching the Earth. Artificial lightening lamps have also been reported to emit significant amounts of UVA. Exposure to UVA has been associated with dermatological disorders including skin cancer. At the molecular level, UVA damages different cellular biomolecules and triggers inflammatory responses. The current study was devoted to investigate the potential protective effect of L-carnitine against UVA-induced skin tissue injury using rats as a mammalian model. Rats were distributed into normal control group (NC), L-carnitine control group (LC), UVA-Exposed group (UVA), and UVA-Exposed and L-carnitine-treated group (UVA-LC). L-carnitine significantly attenuated UVA-induced elevation of the DNA damage markers 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) as well as decreased DNA fragmentation and the activity of the apoptotic marker caspase-3. In addition, L-carnitine substantially reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation marker (TBARS) and protein oxidation marker (PCC) and significantly elevated the levels of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) in the skin tissues. Interestingly, L-carnitine upregulated the level of the DNA repair protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Besides it mitigated the UVA-induced activation of the oxidative stress-sensitive signaling protein p38 and its downstream target c-Fos. Moreover, L-carnitine significantly downregulated the levels of the early response proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. Collectively, our results highlight, for the first time, the potential attenuating effects of L-carnitine on UVA-induced skin tissue injury in rats that is potentially mediated through suppression of UVA-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2018.02.034DOI Listing
April 2018

Camel Milk Attenuates Rheumatoid Arthritis Via Inhibition of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Pathway.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2017 20;43(2):540-552. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Background/aims: Camel milk (CM) has shown beneficial anti-inflammatory actions in several experimental and clinical settings. So far, its effect on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been previously explored. Thus, the current work aimed to evaluate the effects of CM in Adjuvant-induced arthritis and air pouch edema models in rats, which mimic human RA.

Methods: CM was administered at 10 ml/kg orally for 3 weeks starting on the day of Freund's adjuvant paw inoculation. The levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were measured by ELISA while the protein expression of NF-κBp65, COX-2 and iNOS was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of MAPK target proteins was assessed by Western blotting.

Results: CM attenuated paw edema, arthritic index and gait score along with dorsal pouch inflammatory cell migration. CM lowered the TNF-α and augmented the anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. It also attenuated the expression of activated NF-κBp65, COX-2 and iNOS in the lining of the dorsal pouch. Notably, CM inhibited the MAPK pathway signal transduction via lowering the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 in rat hind paws. Additionally, CM administration lowered the lipid peroxide and nitric oxide levels and boosted glutathione and total anti-oxidant capacity in sera and exudates of animals.

Conclusion: The observed CM downregulation of the arthritic process may support the interest of CM consumption as an adjunct approach for the management of RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000480527DOI Listing
October 2017

Tangeretin attenuates cisplatin-induced renal injury in rats: Impact on the inflammatory cascade and oxidative perturbations.

Chem Biol Interact 2016 Oct 9;258:205-13. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514, Egypt; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Ajman University of Science and Technology, Ajman, United Arab Emirates. Electronic address:

Background: Despite the efficacy of cisplatin as a chemotherapeutic agent against various cancers, its clinical utility is limited by serious adverse reactions including nephrotoxicity.

Aim: The current study aims to investigate the protective potential of tangeretin, a citrus flavone with marked antioxidant actions, against cisplatin-induced renal injury in rats.

Methods: Tangeretin was administered at 50 and 100 mg/kg p.o. for 1 week starting one day before cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg i.p.) injection. Likewise, silymarin was administered at 100 mg/kg orally. Renal function tests, histopathology, oxidative stress and inflammatory events were investigated.

Results: Tangeretin mitigated the increased levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and histopathologic alterations evoked by cisplatin. It alleviated renal oxidative stress due to cisplatin by lowering lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and Nrf2 levels with concomitant enhancement of GSH and GPx. Tangeretin also suppressed the upregulated inflammatory response seen with cisplatin treatment by downregulation of activated NF-κB p65 protein expression together with its downstream effectors e.g., iNOS and TNF-α, with restoration of the anti-inflammatory interleukin IL-10. Additionally, it down-regulated the expression of caspase-3, an apoptotic marker, thus favoring renal cell survival. Importantly, tangeretin enhanced the cytotoxic actions of cisplatin in Hep3B and HCT-116 human cancer cell lines.

Conclusion: Together, these findings accentuate the dual benefit of tangeretin: mitigation of renal injury-induced by cisplatin and enhancement of its cytotoxic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2016.09.008DOI Listing
October 2016

Tangeretin Alleviates Cisplatin-Induced Acute Hepatic Injury in Rats: Targeting MAPKs and Apoptosis.

PLoS One 2016 31;11(3):e0151649. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514, Egypt.

Despite its broad applications, cisplatin affords considerable nephro- and hepatotoxicity through triggering inflammatory and oxidative stress cascades. The aim of the current investigation was to study the possible protective effects of tangeretin on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. The impact of tangeretin on cisplatin-evoked hepatic dysfunction and histopathologic changes along with oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic biomarkers were investigated compared to silymarin. Tangeretin pre-treatment significantly improved liver function tests (ALT and AST), inhibited cisplatin-induced lipid profile aberrations (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and diminished histopathologic structural damage in liver tissues. Tangeretin also attenuated cisplatin-induced hepatic inflammatory events as indicated by suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and enhancement of interleukin-10 (IL-10). Meanwhile, it lowered malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF-2) levels with restoration of glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Regarding mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, tangeretin attenuated cisplatin-induced increase in phospho-p38, phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) in liver tissues. In addition, tangeretin downregulated Bax expression with augmentation of Bcl-2 promoting liver cell survival. Our results highlight the protective effects of tangeretin against cisplatin-induced acute hepatic injury via the concerted modulation of inflammation, oxidative stress, MAPKs and apoptotic pathways.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151649PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4816535PMC
August 2016

Hesperidin alleviates cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats without inhibiting its antitumor activity.

Pharmacol Rep 2016 Apr 9;68(2):349-56. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Background: Hesperidin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, exerts many clinically appreciable effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory actions. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of multiple doses of hesperidin against cisplatin-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats.

Methods: Hesperidin (100 or 200mg/kg po) was given to rats one day before cisplatin (7.5mg/kg, ip) injection. All animals were sacrificed 5 days after cisplatin injection and blood samples were collected for determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol levels. Liver samples were used for the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), total nitrate and nitrite contents. Western blot analysis was used for the assessment of NF-κB and p-Akt expression and histopathological examination was also performed.

Results: Results showed that hesperidin significantly reduced cisplatin-induced elevations in serum ALT and AST activities, TG and total cholesterol levels. It also reduced cisplatin-induced oxidative stress by significant reduction in liver MDA and NO content and elevation of GSH content. In addition, hesperidin significantly counteracted cisplatin-induced increased NF-κB expression and decreased p-Akt expression. Histopathological examination revealed that hesperidin greatly protected liver against cisplatin-induced injury. Moreover hesperidin did not inhibit the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on cancer cells as determined by MTT assay.

Conclusion: Hesperidin decreased cisplatin-induced functional and histopathological liver damage in a dose-dependent manner without affecting its potential cytotoxic effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2015.09.007DOI Listing
April 2016

Gamma-Glutamyl Cysteine Attenuates Tissue Damage and Enhances Tissue Regeneration in a rat Model of Lead-Induced Nephrotoxicity.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2016 Sep 15;173(1):96-107. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif, 21974, Saudi Arabia.

Lead is a biohazardous metal that is commonly involved in human illness including renal injury. Although it is a non-redox reactive metal, lead-induced renal injury is largely based on oxidative stress. The current work aimed at exploring the possible protective effect of γ-glutamyl cysteine (γGC) against lead-induced renal injury. Rats were allocated to normal and γGC control groups, lead-treated group, and lead and γGC-treated group. γGC alleviated lead-induced renal injury as evidenced by attenuation of histopathological aberration, amelioration of oxidative injury as demonstrated by significant reduction in lipid and protein oxidation, elevation of total antioxidant capacity, and glutathione level. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was significantly elevated. γGC significantly decreased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β and the activity of the apoptotic marker caspase-3. In addition, γGC reduced kidney lead content, enhanced weight gain, and improved renal function as demonstrated by reduced serum levels of urea and creatinine. Importantly, γGC upregulated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, denoting enhanced renal regenerative capacity. Together, our findings highlight evidence for alleviating effects of γGC against lead-induced renal injury that is potentially mediated through diminution of oxidative tissue injury, reduction of inflammatory response, attenuation of apoptosis, and enhancement of renal regenerative capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-016-0624-4DOI Listing
September 2016

Diosmin protects against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats: novel anti-ulcer actions.

PLoS One 2015 30;10(3):e0122417. Epub 2015 Mar 30.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, 21974, Saudi Arabia.

Alcohol consumption has been commonly associated with gastric mucosal lesions including gastric ulcer. Diosmin (DIO) is a natural citrus flavone with remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features that underlay its protection against cardiac, hepatic and renal injuries. However, its impact on gastric ulcer has not yet been elucidated. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of DIO against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats. Pretreatment with DIO (100 mg/kg p.o.) attenuated the severity of ethanol gastric mucosal damage as evidenced by lowering of ulcer index (UI) scores, area of gastric lesions, histopathologic aberrations and leukocyte invasion. These actions were analogous to those exerted by the reference antiulcer sucralfate. DIO suppressed gastric inflammation by curbing of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels along with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 expression. It also augmented the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Meanwhile, DIO halted gastric oxidative stress via inhibition of lipid peroxides with concomitant enhancement of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). With respect to gastric mucosal apoptosis, DIO suppressed caspase-3 activity and cytochrome C (Cyt C) with enhancement of the anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in favor of cell survival. These favorable actions were associated with upregulation of the gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO). Together, these findings accentuate the gastroprotective actions of DIO in ethanol gastric injury which were mediated via concerted multi-pronged actions, including suppression of gastric inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis besides boosting of the antioxidant and the cytoprotective defenses.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0122417PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4378914PMC
March 2016

Bone Marrow-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells Protect Against Scopolamine-Induced Alzheimer-Like Pathological Aberrations.

Mol Neurobiol 2016 Apr 21;53(3):1403-1418. Epub 2014 Dec 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

Vascular endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD have displayed decreased circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) which repair and maintain the endothelial function. Transplantation of EPCs has emerged as a promising approach for the management of cerebrovascular diseases including ischemic stroke, however, its impact on AD has been poorly described. Thus, the current study aimed at investigating the effects of bone marrow-derived (BM) EPCs transplantation in repeated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, an experimental model that replicates biomarkers of AD. Intravenously transplanted BM-EPCs migrated into the brain of rats and improved the learning and memory deficits. Meanwhile, they mitigated the deposition of amyloid plaques and associated histopathological alterations. At the molecular levels, BM-EPCs blunted the increase of hippocampal amyloid beta protein (Aβ), amyloid precursor protein (APP) and reinstated the Aβ-degrading neprilysin together with downregulation of p-tau and its upstream glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). They also corrected the perturbations of neurotransmitter levels including restoration of acetylcholine and associated esterase along with dopamine, GABA, and the neuroexitatory glutamate. Furthermore, BM-EPCs induced behavioral recovery via boosting of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its upstream cAMP response element binding (CREB), suppression of the proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and upregulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10). BM-EPCs also augmented Nrf2 and seladin-1. Generally, these actions were analogous to those exerted by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) and the reference anti-Alzheimer donepezil. For the first time, these findings highlight the beneficial actions of BM-EPCs against the memory deficits and AD-like pathological dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-014-9051-8DOI Listing
April 2016

Saxagliptin: a novel antiparkinsonian approach.

Neuropharmacology 2015 Feb;89:308-17

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

The emergence of glucagon-like peptide-1 as a crucial contender in modifying neurodegenerative diseases in the preclinical studies has instigated interest in investigating the antiparkinsonian effect of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibition. Notably, saxagliptin (SAX), the DPP-4 inhibitor, recently showed efficacy in ameliorating streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease; however, its effect on Parkinson's disease (PD) has not yet been elucidated. In a rat rotenone (ROT) model, SAX prominently improved motor performance as well as muscle coordination and corrected akinesia. Moreover, SAX preserved substantia nigra pars compacta tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity while halting the reduction in the striatal TH, dopamine (DA) and complex I. Meanwhile, SAX prevented the ROT-induced increment of striatal DPP-4 and the decline in cAMP, ATP/ADP and brain-derived neurotropic factor levels. Improvement in striatal energy level was associated with partial hindrance of ROT-induced body weight reduction. In addition, through its anti-inflammatory potential, SAX decreased the ROT-induced nuclear factor-κΒ, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and myeloperoxidase. The antiapoptotic marker B-cell lymphoma-2 was enhanced by SAX, versus reduction in caspase-3 and its intrinsic apoptotic activator cytochrome C. Furthermore, SAX amended alterations induced by ROT in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the transcriptional factor Nrf-2 level. In conclusion, SAX can be introduced as a novel approach for the management of PD based on the remarkable improvement in motor functions denoting antiparkinsonian efficacy via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neuroprotective and neurorestorative mechanisms. These effects were linked to DPP-4 inhibition, reduced neurodegeneration and enhanced DA synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.10.007DOI Listing
February 2015

Chrysin alleviates testicular dysfunction in adjuvant arthritic rats via suppression of inflammation and apoptosis: comparison with celecoxib.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2014 Sep 14;279(2):129-40. Epub 2014 Jun 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

Long standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with testicular dysfunction and subfertility. Few studies have addressed the pathogenesis of testicular injury in RA and its modulation by effective agents. Thus, the current study aimed at evaluating the effects of two testosterone boosting agents; chrysin, a natural flavone and celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in testicular impairment in rats with adjuvant arthritis, an experimental model of RA. Chrysin (25 and 50mg/kg) and celecoxib (5mg/kg) were orally administered to Wistar rats once daily for 21days starting 1h before arthritis induction. Chrysin suppressed paw edema with comparable efficacy to celecoxib. More important, chrysin, dose-dependently and celecoxib attenuated the testicular injury via reversing lowered gonadosomatic index and histopathologic alterations with preservation of spermatogenesis. Both agents upregulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) mRNA expression and serum testosterone with concomitant restoration of LH and FSH. Furthermore, they suppressed inflammation via abrogation of myeloperoxidase, TNF-α and protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS besides elevation of IL-10. Alleviation of the testicular impairment was accompanied with suppression of oxidative stress via lowering testicular lipid peroxides and nitric oxide. With respect to apoptosis, both agents downregulated FasL mRNA expression and caspase-3 activity in favor of cell survival. For the first time, these findings highlight the protective effects of chrysin and celecoxib against testicular dysfunction in experimental RA which were mediated via boosting testosterone in addition to attenuation of testicular inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Generally, the 50mg/kg dose of chrysin exerted comparable protective actions to celecoxib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2014.05.018DOI Listing
September 2014

Telmisartan attenuates colon inflammation, oxidative perturbations and apoptosis in a rat model of experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

PLoS One 2014 15;9(5):e97193. Epub 2014 May 15.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Accumulating evidence has indicated the implication of angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) via its proinflammatory features. Telmisartan (TLM) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist with marked anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions that mediated its cardio-, reno- and hepatoprotective actions. However, its impact on IBD has not been previously explored. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential alleviating effects of TLM in tri-nitrobenezene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Pretreatment with TLM (10 mg/kg p.o.) attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by decrease of disease activity index (DAI), colon weight/length ratio, macroscopic damage, histopathological findings and leukocyte migration. TLM suppressed the inflammatory response via attenuation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as a marker of neutrophil infiltration besides restoration of interleukin-10 (IL-10). TLM also suppressed mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and mRNA of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proinflammatory genes with concomitant upregulation of PPAR-γ. The alleviation of TLM to colon injury was also associated with inhibition of oxidative stress as evidenced by suppression of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide (NO) besides boosting glutathione (GSH), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). With respect to apoptosis, TLM downregulated the increased mRNA, protein expression and activity of caspase-3. It also suppressed the elevation of cytochrome c and Bax mRNA besides the upregulation of Bcl-2. Together, these findings highlight evidences for the beneficial effects of TLM in IBD which are mediated through modulation of colonic inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0097193PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4022743PMC
January 2015