Publications by authors named "Hansong Wang"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetically predicted circulating concentrations of micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer among individuals of European descent: a Mendelian randomization study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: The literature on associations of circulating concentrations of minerals and vitamins with risk of colorectal cancer is limited and inconsistent. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support the efficacy of dietary modification or nutrient supplementation for colorectal cancer prevention is also limited.

Objectives: To complement observational and RCT findings, we investigated associations of genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micronutrients (β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc) with colorectal cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR).

Methods: Two-sample MR was conducted using 58,221 individuals with colorectal cancer and 67,694 controls from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry. Inverse variance-weighted MR analyses were performed with sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions.

Results: Nominally significant associations were noted for genetically predicted iron concentration and higher risk of colon cancer [ORs per SD (ORSD): 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P value = 0.05] and similarly for proximal colon cancer, and for vitamin B-12 concentration and higher risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P value = 0.01) and similarly for colon cancer. A nominally significant association was also noted for genetically predicted selenium concentration and lower risk of colon cancer (ORSD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00; P value = 0.05) and similarly for distal colon cancer. These associations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Nominally significant inverse associations were observed for zinc and risk of colorectal and distal colon cancers, but sensitivity analyses could not be performed. None of these findings survived correction for multiple testing. Genetically predicted concentrations of β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin B-6 were not associated with disease risk.

Conclusions: These results suggest possible causal associations of circulating iron and vitamin B-12 (positively) and selenium (inversely) with risk of colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab003DOI Listing
March 2021

Artificial intelligence-assisted reduction in patients' waiting time for outpatient process: a retrospective cohort study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Mar 17;21(1):237. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Many studies suggest that patient satisfaction is significantly negatively correlated with the waiting time. A well-designed healthcare system should not keep patients waiting too long for an appointment and consultation. However, in China, patients spend notable time waiting, and the actual time spent on diagnosis and treatment in the consulting room is comparatively less.

Methods: We developed an artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted module and name it XIAO YI. It could help outpatients automatically order imaging examinations or laboratory tests based on their chief complaints. Thus, outpatients could get examined or tested before they went to see the doctor. People who saw the doctor in the traditional way were allocated to the conventional group, and those who used XIAO YI were assigned to the AI-assisted group. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from August 1, 2019 to January 31, 2020. Propensity score matching was used to balance the confounding factor between the two groups. And waiting time was defined as the time from registration to preparation for laboratory tests or imaging examinations. The total cost included the registration fee, test fee, examination fee, and drug fee. We used Wilcoxon rank-sum test to compare the differences in time and cost. The statistical significance level was set at 0.05 for two sides.

Results: Twelve thousand and three hundred forty-two visits were recruited, consisting of 6171 visits in the conventional group and 6171 visits in the AI-assisted group. The median waiting time was 0.38 (interquartile range: 0.20, 1.33) hours for the AI-assisted group compared with 1.97 (0.76, 3.48) hours for the conventional group (p < 0.05). The total cost was 335.97 (interquartile range: 244.80, 437.60) CNY (Chinese Yuan) for the AI-assisted group and 364.58 (249.70, 497.76) CNY for the conventional group (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Using XIAO YI can significantly reduce the waiting time of patients, and thus, improve the outpatient service process of hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06248-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7966905PMC
March 2021

Adiposity, metabolites, and colorectal cancer risk: Mendelian randomization study.

BMC Med 2020 12 17;18(1):396. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood.

Methods: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models.

Results: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01855-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745469PMC
December 2020

Circulating Levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 Associate With Risk of Colorectal Cancer Based on Serologic and Mendelian Randomization Analyses.

Gastroenterology 2020 04 27;158(5):1300-1312.e20. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics and the Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Background & Aims: Human studies examining associations between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and colorectal cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We conducted complementary serologic and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether alterations in circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 are associated with colorectal cancer development.

Methods: Serum levels of IGF1 were measured in blood samples collected from 397,380 participants from the UK Biobank, from 2006 through 2010. Incident cancer cases and cancer cases recorded first in death certificates were identified through linkage to national cancer and death registries. Complete follow-up was available through March 31, 2016. For the MR analyses, we identified genetic variants associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3. The association of these genetic variants with colorectal cancer was examined with 2-sample MR methods using genome-wide association study consortia data (52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 individuals without [controls]) RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 7.1 years, 2665 cases of colorectal cancer were recorded. In a multivariable-adjusted model, circulating level of IGF1 associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation increment of IGF1, 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.17). Similar associations were found by sex, follow-up time, and tumor subsite. In the MR analyses, a 1 standard deviation increment in IGF1 level, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio 1.08; 95% CI 1.03-1.12; P = 3.3 × 10). Level of IGFBP3, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation increment, 1.12; 95% CI 1.06-1.18; P = 4.2 × 10). Colorectal cancer risk was associated with only 1 variant in the IGFBP3 gene region (rs11977526), which also associated with anthropometric traits and circulating level of IGF2.

Conclusions: In an analysis of blood samples from almost 400,000 participants in the UK Biobank, we found an association between circulating level of IGF1 and colorectal cancer. Using genetic data from 52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 controls, a higher level of IGF1, determined by genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to determine how this signaling pathway might contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7152801PMC
April 2020

Physical Extraction and Feature Fusion for Multi-Mode Signals in a Measurement System for Patients in Rehabilitation Exoskeleton.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Aug 7;18(8). Epub 2018 Aug 7.

State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Measurement system of exoskeleton robots can reflect the state of the patient. In this study, we combined an inertial measurement unit and a visual measurement unit to obtain a repeatable fusion measurement system to compensate for the deficiencies of the single data acquisition mode used by exoskeletons. Inertial measurement unit is comprised four distributed angle sensors. Triaxial acceleration and angular velocity information were transmitted to an upper computer by Bluetooth. The data sent to the control center were processed by a Kalman filter to eliminate any noise. Visual measurement unit uses camera to acquire real time images and related data information. The two data acquisition methods were fused and have its weight. Comparisons of the fusion results with individual measurement results demonstrated that the data fusion method could effectively improve the accuracy of system. It provides a set of accurate real-time measurements for patients in rehabilitation exoskeleton and data support for effective control of exoskeleton robot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s18082588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6111316PMC
August 2018

Novel Common Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Colorectal Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2019 02;111(2):146-157

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California, Oakland, CA.

Background: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk.

Methods: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10-8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0.

Conclusions: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djy099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6555904PMC
February 2019

Inclusion of a Genetic Risk Score into a Validated Risk Prediction Model for Colorectal Cancer in Japanese Men Improves Performance.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2017 Sep 20;10(9):535-541. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, Hawaii.

We previously developed and validated a risk prediction model for colorectal cancer in Japanese men using modifiable risk factors. To further improve risk prediction, we evaluated the degree of improvement obtained by adding a genetic risk score (GRS) using genome-wide association study (GWAS)-identified risk variants to our validated model. We examined the association between 36 risk variants identified by GWAS and colorectal cancer risk using a weighted Cox proportional hazards model in a nested case-control study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. GRS was constructed using six variants associated with risk in this study of the 36 tested. We assessed three models: a nongenetic model that included the same variables used in our previously validated model; a genetic model that used GRS; and an inclusive model, which included both. The c-statistic, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and net reclassification improvement (NRI) were calculated by the 5-fold cross-validation method. We estimated 10-year absolute risks for developing colorectal cancer. A statistically significant association was observed between the weighted GRS and colorectal cancer risk. The mean c-statistic for the inclusive model (0.66) was slightly greater than that for the nongenetic model (0.60). Similarly, the mean IDI and NRI showed improvement when comparing the nongenetic and inclusive models. These models for colorectal cancer were well calibrated. The addition of GRS using GWAS-identified risk variants to our validated model for Japanese men improved the prediction of colorectal cancer risk. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-17-0141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365161PMC
September 2017

Novel colon cancer susceptibility variants identified from a genome-wide association study in African Americans.

Int J Cancer 2017 06 28;140(12):2728-2733. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in ethnic/racial minority populations can help to fine-map previously identified risk regions or discover new risk loci because of the genetic diversity in these populations. We conducted a GWAS of colorectal cancer (CRC) in 6,597 African Americans (1,894 cases and 4,703 controls) (Stage 1) and followed up the most promising markers in a replication set of 2,041 participants of African descent (891 cases and 1,150 controls) (Stage 2). We identified a novel variant, rs56848936 in the gene SYMPK at 19q13.3, associated with colon cancer risk (odds ratio 0.61 for the risk allele G, p = 2.4 × 10 ). The frequency of the G allele was 0.06 in African Americans, compared to <0.01 in Europeans, Asians and Amerindians in the 1000 Genomes project. In addition, a variant previously identified through fine-mapping in this GWAS in the region 19q13.1, rs7252505, was confirmed to be more strongly associated with CRC in the African American replication set than the variant originally reported in Europeans (rs10411210). The association between rs7252505 and CRC was of borderline significance (p = 0.05) in a Hispanic population GWAS with 1,611 CRC cases and 4,330 controls. With the three datasets combined, the odds ratio was 0.84 for the risk allele A (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.89, p = 3.7 × 10 ). This study further highlights the importance of conducting GWAS studies in diverse ancestry populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5505639PMC
June 2017

Interaction between Red Meat Intake and NAT2 Genotype in Increasing the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese and African Americans.

PLoS One 2015 18;10(12):e0144955. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America.

Heterocyclic aromatic amines formed in cooked meat may be an underlying mechanism for the red meat-colorectal cancer (CRC) association. These compounds require bioactivaction by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). An interaction effect between red meat consumption and NAT2 in increasing CRC risk has been inconsistently reported in whites. We investigated this interaction in two populations in which the high-activity rapid NAT2 phenotype is 10- and 2-fold more common than in whites. We meta-analyzed four studies of Japanese (2,217 cases, 3,788 controls) and three studies of African Americans (527 cases, 4,527 controls). NAT2 phenotype was inferred from an optimized seven-SNP genotyping panel. Processed and total red meat intakes were associated with an increased CRC risk in Japanese and in both ethnic groups combined (P's ≤ 0.002). We observed an interaction between processed meat intake and NAT2 in Japanese (P = 0.04), African Americans (P = 0.02), and in both groups combined (P = 0.006). The association of processed meat with CRC was strongest among individuals with the rapid NAT2 phenotype (combined analysis, OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.28-2.05; Ptrend = 8.0×10-5), intermediate among those with the intermediate NAT2 phenotype (1.29, 95% CI: 1.05-1.59; Ptrend = 0.05) and null among those with the slow phenotype (Ptrend = 0.45). A similar interaction was found for NAT2 and total red meat (Pinteraction = 0.03). Our findings support a role for NAT2 in modifying the association between red meat consumption and CRC in Japanese and African Americans.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0144955PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4684304PMC
June 2016

Associations Between Genetic Ancestries and Nicotine Metabolism Biomarkers in the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2015 Dec 14;182(11):945-51. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

Differences in internal dose of nicotine and tobacco-derived carcinogens among ethnic/racial groups have been observed. In this study, we explicitly examined the relationships between genetic ancestries (genome-wide average) and 19 tobacco-derived biomarkers in smokers from 3 admixed groups in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (1993-present), namely, African ancestry in African Americans (n = 362), Amerindian ancestry in Latinos (n = 437), and Asian and Native Hawaiian ancestries in Native Hawaiians (n = 300). After multiple comparison adjustment, both African and Asian ancestries were significantly related to a greater level of free cotinine; African ancestry was also significantly related to lower cotinine glucuronidation (P's < 0.00156). The predicted decrease in cotinine glucuronidation was 8.6% (P = 4.5 × 10(-6)) per a 20% increase in African ancestry. Follow-up admixture mapping revealed that African ancestry in a 12-Mb region on chromosome 4q was related to lower cotinine glucuronidation (P's < 2.7 × 10(-7), smallest P = 1.5 × 10(-9)), although this is the same region reported in our previous genome-wide association study. Our results implicate a genetic ancestral component in the observed ethnic/racial variation in nicotine metabolism. Further studies are needed to identify the underlying genetic variation that could potentially be ethnic/racial specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwv138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4805060PMC
December 2015

A genome-wide association study for colorectal cancer identifies a risk locus in 14q23.1.

Hum Genet 2015 Nov 24;134(11-12):1249-1262. Epub 2015 Sep 24.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, Unit of Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Over 50 loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have been uncovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Identifying additional loci has the potential to help elucidate aspects of the underlying biological processes leading to better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. We re-evaluated a GWAS by excluding controls that have family history of CRC or personal history of colorectal polyps, as we hypothesized that their inclusion reduces power to detect associations. This is supported empirically and through simulations. Two-phase GWAS analysis was performed in a total of 16,517 cases and 14,487 controls. We identified rs17094983, a SNP associated with risk of CRC [p = 2.5 × 10(-10); odds ratio estimated by re-including all controls (OR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.91; minor allele frequency (MAF) = 13%]. Results were replicated in samples of African descent (1894 cases and 4703 controls; p = 0.01; OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.77-0.97; MAF = 16 %). Gene expression data in 195 colon adenocarcinomas and 59 normal colon tissues from two different studies revealed that this locus has genotypes that are associated with RTN1 (Reticulon 1) expression (p = 0.001), a protein-coding gene involved in survival and proliferation of cancer cells which is highly expressed in normal colon tissues but has significantly reduced expression in tumor cells (p = 1.3 × 10(-8)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-015-1598-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4687971PMC
November 2015

Genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer identifies six new susceptibility loci.

Nat Commun 2015 Jul 7;6:7138. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

Genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer is caused by rare pathogenic mutations and common genetic variants that contribute to familial risk. Here we report the results of a two-stage association study with 18,299 cases of colorectal cancer and 19,656 controls, with follow-up of the most statistically significant genetic loci in 4,725 cases and 9,969 controls from two Asian consortia. We describe six new susceptibility loci reaching a genome-wide threshold of P<5.0E-08. These findings provide additional insight into the underlying biological mechanisms of colorectal cancer and demonstrate the scientific value of large consortia-based genetic epidemiology studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967357PMC
July 2015

Trans-ethnic genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer identifies a new susceptibility locus in VTI1A.

Nat Commun 2014 Aug 8;5:4613. Epub 2014 Aug 8.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.

The genetic basis of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well explained by known risk polymorphisms. Here we perform a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies in 2,627 cases and 3,797 controls of Japanese ancestry and 1,894 cases and 4,703 controls of African ancestry, to identify genetic variants that contribute to CRC susceptibility. We replicate genome-wide statistically significant associations (P<5 × 10(-8)) in 16,823 cases and 18,211 controls of European ancestry. This study reveals a new pan-ethnic CRC risk locus at 10q25 (rs12241008, intronic to VTI1A; P=1.4 × 10(-9)), providing additional insight into the aetiology of CRC and highlighting the value of association mapping in diverse populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4180879PMC
August 2014

Genetic variation in prostaglandin synthesis and related pathways, NSAID use and colorectal cancer risk in the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

Carcinogenesis 2014 Sep 7;35(9):2121-6. Epub 2014 Jun 7.

Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA, Department of Epidemiology and, Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center and National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg 69120, Germany, German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany

Although use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) generally decreases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, inherited genetic variation in inflammatory pathways may alter their potential as preventive agents. We investigated whether variation in prostaglandin synthesis and related pathways influences CRC risk in the Colon Cancer Family Registry by examining associations between 192 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two variable nucleotide tandem repeats (VNTRs) within 17 candidate genes and CRC risk. We further assessed interactions between these polymorphisms and NSAID use on CRC risk. Using a case-unaffected-sibling-control design, this study included 1621 primary invasive CRC cases and 2592 sibling controls among Caucasian men and women aged 18-90. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, two intronic SNPs were associated with rectal cancer risk: rs11571364 in ALOX12 [OR(het/hzv) = 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-2.95, P = 0.03] and rs45525634 in PTGER2 (OR(het/hzv) = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.29-0.82, P = 0.03). Additionally, there was an interaction between NSAID use and the intronic SNP rs2920421 in ALOX12 on risk of CRC (P = 0.03); among those with heterozygous genotypes, risk was reduced for current NSAID users compared with never or former users (OR(het) = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.80), though not among those with homozygous wild-type or variant genotypes. The results of this study suggest that genetic variation in ALOX12 and PTGER2 may affect the risk of rectal cancer. In addition, this study suggests plausible interactions between NSAID use and variants in ALOX12 on CRC risk. These results may aid in the development of genetically targeted cancer prevention strategies with NSAIDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgu119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4146420PMC
September 2014

MicroRNA and mRNA signatures in ischemia reperfusion injury in heart transplantation.

PLoS One 2013 20;8(11):e79805. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Department of Pathology, Surgery, Medicine, and Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable event occurring during heart transplantation, leading to graft failures and lower long-term survival rate of the recipient. Several studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are vital regulators of signalling pathways involved in I/R injury. The present study aims to quantify the altered expression levels of miRNA and mRNA upon I/R injury in a mouse heart transplantation model, and to investigate whether these miRNA can regulate genes involved in I/R injury. We performed heterotopic heart transplantation on mouse models to generate heart tissue samples with I/R and non-I/R (control). The expression levels of miRNAs as well as genes were measured in heart grafts by microarray and real time RT-PCR. miRNA alteration in cardiomyocytes exposed to hypoxia was also detected by qRT-PCR. We observed significant alterations in miRNA and gene expression profile after I/R injury. There were 39 miRNAs significantly downregulated and 20 upregulated up to 1.5 fold in heart grafts with I/R injury compared with the grafts without I/R. 48 genes were observed with 3 fold change and p<0.05 and 18 signalling pathways were enriched using Keggs pathway library. Additionally, hypoxia/reperfusion induced primary cardiomyocyte apoptosis and altered miRNA expression profiles. In conclusion, this is the first report on miRNA expression profile for heart transplantation associated with I/R injury. These findings provide us with an insight into the role of miRNA in I/R injury in heart transplantation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0079805PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3835872PMC
September 2014

Genetic variation in the inflammation and innate immunity pathways and colorectal cancer risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2013 Nov 17;22(11):2094-101. Epub 2013 Sep 17.

Authors' Affiliations: University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, Hawaii; Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona; Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, California; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; University of Melbourne, Carlton, Victoria, Australia; Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California; and National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: It is widely accepted that chronic inflammation plays a role in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Using a two-stage design, we examined the associations between colorectal cancer and common variation in 37 key genes in the inflammation and innate immunity pathways.

Methods: In the discovery stage, 2,322 discordant sibships (2,535 cases, 3,915 sibling controls) from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry were genotyped for more than 600 tagSNPs and 99 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were selected for further examination based on strength of association. In the second stage, 351 SNPs tagging gene regions covered by the 99 SNPs were tested in 4,783 Multiethnic Cohort subjects (2,153 cases, 2,630 controls).

Results: The association between rs9858822 in the PPARG gene and colorectal cancer was statistically significant at the end of the second stage (OR per allele = 1.36, Bonferroni-adjusted P = 0.045), based on the "effective" number of markers in stage II (n = 306). The risk allele C was common (frequency 0.3) in African Americans but rare (frequency < 0.03) in whites, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. No statistically significant heterogeneity of effects across race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) levels, regular aspirin use, or pack-years of smoking was detected for this SNP. Suggestive associations were also observed for several SNPs in close vicinity to rs9858822.

Conclusions: Our results provide new evidence of association between PPARG variants and colorectal cancer risk.

Impact: Further replication in independent samples is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836607PMC
November 2013

Fine-mapping of genome-wide association study-identified risk loci for colorectal cancer in African Americans.

Hum Mol Genet 2013 Dec 12;22(24):5048-55. Epub 2013 Jul 12.

Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI, USA.

Genome-wide association studies of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Europeans and Asians have identified 21 risk susceptibility regions [29 index single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)]. Characterizing these risk regions in diverse racial groups with different linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure can help localize causal variants. We examined associations between CRC and all 29 index SNPs in 6597 African Americans (1894 cases and 4703 controls). Nine SNPs in eight regions (5q31.1, 6q26-q27, 8q23.3, 8q24.21, 11q13.4, 15q13.3, 18q21.1 and 20p12.3) formally replicated in our data with one-sided P-values <0.05 and the same risk directions as reported previously. We performed fine-mapping of the 21 risk regions (including 250 kb on both sides of the index SNPs) using genotyped and imputed markers at the density of the 1000 Genomes Project to search for additional or more predictive risk markers. Among the SNPs correlated with the index variants, two markers, rs12759486 (or rs7547751, a putative functional variant in perfect LD with it) in 1q41 and rs7252505 in 19q13.1, were more strongly and statistically significantly associated with CRC (P < 0.0006). The average per allele risk was improved using the replicated index variants and the two new markers (odds ratio = 1.14, P = 6.5 × 10(-16)) in African Americans, compared with using all index SNPs (odds ratio = 1.07, P = 3.4 × 10(-10)). The contribution of the two new risk SNPs to CRC heritability was estimated to be 1.5% in African Americans. This study highlights the importance of fine-mapping in diverse populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddt337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836473PMC
December 2013

Population genetic structure and origins of Native Hawaiians in the multiethnic cohort study.

PLoS One 2012 7;7(11):e47881. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Institute for Human Genetics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

The population genetic structure of Native Hawaiians has yet to be comprehensively studied, and the ancestral origins of Polynesians remain in question. In this study, we utilized high-resolution genome-wide SNP data and mitochondrial genomes of 148 and 160 Native Hawaiians, respectively, to characterize their population structure of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, ancestral origins, and population expansion. Native Hawaiians, who self-reported full Native Hawaiian heritage, demonstrated 78% Native Hawaiian, 11.5% European, and 7.8% Asian ancestry with 99% belonging to the B4 mitochondrial haplogroup. The estimated proportions of Native Hawaiian ancestry for those who reported mixed ancestry (i.e. 75% and 50% Native Hawaiian heritage) were found to be consistent with their self-reported heritage. A significant proportion of Melanesian ancestry (mean = 32%) was estimated in 100% self-reported Native Hawaiians in an ADMIXTURE analysis of Asian, Melanesian, and Native Hawaiian populations of K = 2, where K denotes the number of ancestral populations. This notable proportion of Melanesian admixture supports the "Slow-Boat" model of migration of ancestral Polynesian populations from East Asia to the Pacific Islands. In addition, approximately 1,300 years ago a single, strong expansion of the Native Hawaiian population was estimated. By providing important insight into the underlying population structure of Native Hawaiians, this study lays the foundation for future genetic association studies of this U.S. minority population.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0047881PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492381PMC
April 2013

Association of plasma vitamin B6 with risk of colorectal adenoma in a multiethnic case-control study.

Cancer Causes Control 2011 Jun 25;22(6):929-36. Epub 2011 Mar 25.

Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA.

Circulating level of vitamin B6 has been inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk but, unlike for folate, few studies have examined the relationship of vitamin B6 to colorectal adenoma, the precursor lesion to most CRCs. We measured plasma levels of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in 241 patients with pathologically confirmed first occurrence of colorectal adenoma and 280 controls among Caucasians, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy screening in Hawaii. High plasma level of vitamin B6 was independently inversely associated with risk of colorectal adenoma [multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.0, 0.71 (0.45-1.13) and 0.44 (0.26-0.74) from the lowest to the highest tertile, respectively, p (trend) = 0.002]. Plasma folate was not associated with adenoma after adjustment for plasma vitamin B6 (p (trend) > 0.3). No association was observed with plasma vitamin B12. No significant interaction was detected between the three B vitamins and alcohol intake, multivitamin use or MTHFR C677T. The results provide evidence for an inverse association of plasma vitamin B6 levels with risk of colorectal adenoma. This study expands previous findings and suggests that vitamin B6 may be protective against the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-011-9759-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4607471PMC
June 2011

Genetic variation in the bioactivation pathway for polycyclic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines in relation to risk of colorectal neoplasia.

Carcinogenesis 2011 Feb 16;32(2):203-9. Epub 2010 Nov 16.

Epidemiology Program, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA.

Animal work implicates chemical carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) as contributing to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The epidemiologic evidence, however, remains inconsistent possibly due to intra-individual variation in bioactivation of these compounds. We conducted a case-control study of colorectal adenoma (914 cases, 1185 controls) and CRC (496 cases, 607 controls) among Japanese Americans, European Americans and Native Hawaiians to investigate the association of genetic variation in the PAH and HAA bioactivation pathway (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, AHR and ARNT) identified through sequencing with risk of colorectal neoplasia, as well as their interactions with smoking and intakes of red meat and HAAs. The A allele for ARNT rs12410394 was significantly inversely associated with CRC [odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for GG, AG and AA genotypes: 1.00, 0.66 (0.48-0.89), 0.54 (0.37-0.78), P(trend) = 0.0008] after multiple comparison adjustment. CYP1A2 rs11072508 was marginally significantly associated with CRC, where each copy of the T allele was associated with reduced risk (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.88, P(trend) = 0.0017). No heterogeneity of genetic effects across racial/ethnic groups was detected. In addition, no significant interaction was observed after adjusting for multiple testing between genetic variants and pack-years of smoking, intake of red meat or HAAs (PhIP, MeIQx, Di-MeIQx or total HAAs) or NAT2 genotype (Rapid versus Slow or Intermediate). This study suggests that the genomic region around ARNT rs12410394 may harbor variants associated with CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgq237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3026844PMC
February 2011

Associations of plasma C-peptide and IGFBP-1 levels with risk of colorectal adenoma in a multiethnic population.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010 Jun 25;19(6):1471-7. Epub 2010 May 25.

Epidemiology Program, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA.

Background: Circulating levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) hormones have been associated with colorectal cancer risk, but few studies have examined their associations with colorectal adenoma.

Methods: We measured plasma C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion, and IGF hormones in a case-control study of 554 pathologically confirmed, first-time adenoma cases and 786 controls with normal endoscopy among Caucasians, Japanese, and Native Hawaiians in Hawaii.

Results: High plasma levels of C-peptide were statistically significantly associated with risk of colorectal adenoma [multivariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for increasing quartiles: 1.0, 0.91 (0.65-1.27), 1.21 (0.86-1.71), and 1.79 (1.23-2.60); P(trend) = 0.0002]. We also observed a statistically significant inverse association between levels of plasma IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and adenoma risk [1.0, 0.97 (0.70-1.34), 0.82 (0.58-1.15), and 0.47 (0.32-0.70); P(trend) <0.0001]. These associations remain significant after adjusting for each other and were not confounded by known risk factors. IGF-I, IGFBP-3, body mass index, and waist or hip circumference were not independently associated with adenoma risk.

Conclusion: These results provide evidence for an association of insulin and IGFBP-1 levels with colorectal adenoma.

Impact: This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia and IGF hormones may act as etiologic factors in colorectal carcinogenesis, as early as during adenoma formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882992PMC
June 2010

Self-reported ethnicity, genetic structure and the impact of population stratification in a multiethnic study.

Hum Genet 2010 Aug 25;128(2):165-77. Epub 2010 May 25.

Epidemiology Program, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, 1236 Lauhala St, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA.

It is well-known that population substructure may lead to confounding in case-control association studies. Here, we examined genetic structure in a large racially and ethnically diverse sample consisting of five ethnic groups of the Multiethnic Cohort study (African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, European Americans and Native Hawaiians) using 2,509 SNPs distributed across the genome. Principal component analysis on 6,213 study participants, 18 Native Americans and 11 HapMap III populations revealed four important principal components (PCs): the first two separated Asians, Europeans and Africans, and the third and fourth corresponded to Native American and Native Hawaiian (Polynesian) ancestry, respectively. Individual ethnic composition derived from self-reported parental information matched well to genetic ancestry for Japanese and European Americans. STRUCTURE-estimated individual ancestral proportions for African Americans and Latinos are consistent with previous reports. We quantified the East Asian (mean 27%), European (mean 27%) and Polynesian (mean 46%) ancestral proportions for the first time, to our knowledge, for Native Hawaiians. Simulations based on realistic settings of case-control studies nested in the Multiethnic Cohort found that the effect of population stratification was modest and readily corrected by adjusting for race/ethnicity or by adjusting for top PCs derived from all SNPs or from ancestry informative markers; the power of these approaches was similar when averaged across causal variants simulated based on allele frequencies of the 2,509 genotyped markers. The bias may be large in case-only analysis of gene by gene interactions but it can be corrected by top PCs derived from all SNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-010-0841-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3057055PMC
August 2010

Smokers with the CHRNA lung cancer-associated variants are exposed to higher levels of nicotine equivalents and a carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamine.

Cancer Res 2008 Nov;68(22):9137-40

Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813, USA.

A locus at 15q24/15q25.1, which includes the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor A subunits 3 and 5 (CHRNA3 and CHRNA5) genes, has recently been associated with lung cancer risk, self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a nicotine dependence scale. It is not clear whether the association with lung cancer is direct or mediated through differences in smoking behavior. We used urinary biomarkers to test whether two linked lung cancer risk variants in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) and CHRNA5 (rs16969968) are associated with intensity of smoking and exposure to a tobacco-specific carcinogenic nitrosamine per cigarette dose. We studied 819 smokers and found that carriers of these variants extract a greater amount of nicotine (P = 0.003) and are exposed to a higher internal dose of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-I-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (P = 0.03) per cigarette than noncarriers. Thus, smokers who carry the CHRNA3 and CHRNA5 variants are expected to be at increased risk for lung cancer compared with smokers who do not carry these alleles even if they smoked the same number of cigarettes. Number of cigarettes per day, even if it could be accurately assessed, is not an adequate measure of smoking dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2587068PMC
November 2008

Optimal two-stage genotyping designs for genome-wide association scans.

Genet Epidemiol 2006 May;30(4):356-68

Division of Biostatistics and Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

The much-anticipated fixed-array, genome-wide SNP genotyping technologies make large-scale genome-wide association scans now possible for large numbers of subjects. In this paper we reconsider the problem (Satagopan and Elston [2003] Genet Epidemiol 25:149-157) of optimizing a two-stage genotyping design to deal with important new issues that are relevant when studies are expanded from candidate gene size to a genome-wide scale. We investigate how the basic two-stage genotyping approach, in which all markers are genotyped in an initial group of subjects (stage I) and only the promising markers are genotyped in additional subjects (stage II), can be used to reduce genotyping cost in a genome-wide case-control association study even after allowing for much higher per genotype costs using specially designed assays in stage II, compared to the fixed array of SNPs used in stage I. In addition, we consider the problem of using measured SNPs to make (imperfect) prediction of unmeasured SNPs for association tests of all SNPs (measured or unmeasured) genome wide and the utility of expanding genotyping densities in stage II in the regions where significant associations were detected in stage I. Under a set of reasonable but conservative assumptions, we derive optimal two-stage design configurations (sample sizes and the thresholds of significance in both stages) with these optimal designs depending both on the total number of markers tested and upon the ratios of cost in stage II versus stage I. In addition we show how existing software for power and sample size calculations can be used for the purpose of designing two-stage studies, for a wide range of assumptions about the number of markers genotyped and the costs of genotyping in each stage of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.20150DOI Listing
May 2006