Publications by authors named "Hans-Peter Fischer"

90 Publications

Modification of the Indiana Pouch Ileo-Caecal Cutaneous Continent Urinary Diversion: Tubular Ileal Afferent Limb for Ureteral Anastomosis Has Low Stricture Rate and Allows Ileal Ureter Replacement.

Urol Int 2021 Sep 23:1-6. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Urology, Klinikum Kempten, Kempten, Germany.

Objective: The aim of the study was to introduce our new modification of the Indiana pouch with a refluxing ureteral anastomosis in a tubular afferent ileal segment of the ileo-caecal urinary reservoir.

Patients And Methods: Between February 2008 and December 2020, we performed a total of 37 modified continent ileo-caecal pouches for urinary diversion when orthotopic bladder substitution was not possible. Hereby, we modified the Indiana pouch procedure with a new refluxing end-to-end ureteral anastomosis into an 8-cm afferent tubular ileal segment.

Results: We performed the modified Indiana pouch in 27 women (73%) and 10 men (27%). The median age of the patients at time of operation was 64 years (43-80 years). To date, the average follow-up is 69 months (3-156 months). In 32/37 cases, we performed the new pouch procedure after radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and in 1/37 cases after radical cystectomy for locally advanced prostate cancer. In 4 cases, the procedure was performed after total exenteration of the pelvis due to locally advanced bladder, colorectal, or gynaecological cancers. Ureteral anastomotic strictures were seen in 2/37 patients (5.4%) or 2/72 (2.8%) of renal units.

Conclusions: Our modification of the Indiana pouch cutaneous continent urinary diversion with the ureteral anastomosis to a tubular segment of the pouch is easy to perform and effective in reducing the rate of ureteral anastomotic strictures. By lengthening, the afferent tubular ileal segment, it additionally allows easy ureteral replacement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000518561DOI Listing
September 2021

Transpapillary tissue sampling of biliary strictures: balloon dilatation prior to forceps biopsy improves sensitivity and accuracy.

Sci Rep 2020 10 15;10(1):17423. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

The early and definitive diagnosis of malignant bile duct stenoses is essential for a timely and adequate therapy. However, tissue sampling with transpapillary brush cytology (BC) or forceps biopsy (FB) remains challenging. With this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of different tissue sampling modalities (BC, FB without/after previous balloon dilatation). Standardized database research identified all patients, who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with BC and/or FB for indeterminate bile duct stenosis between January 2010 and April 2018 and with a definitive diagnosis. 218 patients were enrolled (149 cases with malignant and 69 with benign disease). FB had a significant higher sensitivity than BC (43% vs. 16%, p < 0.01). Prior balloon dilatation of the stenosis improved the sensitivity of FB from 41 to 71% (p = 0.03), the NPV from 36 to 81% (p < 0.01) and the accuracy from 55 to 87% (p < 0.01). The complication rates did not differ significantly between the modalities. In our center FB turned out to be the diagnostically more effective procedure. Balloon dilatation of the stenosis before FB had a significant diagnostic benefit and was not associated with a higher complication rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74451-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566456PMC
October 2020

[Autoimmune liver diseases].

Pathologe 2020 Sep;41(5):444-456

Pathologie Koblenz, Koblenz, Deutschland.

Autoimmune liver diseases comprise a spectrum of progredient idiopathic inflammatory diseases. Typical histological features of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) include the pattern of chronic hepatitis with predominant plasma cell-rich interface activity, rosetting of hepatocytes, and emperipolesis. Florid bile duct lesions are the key feature of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC); onion-like periductal fibrosis characterizes the primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Variants of AIH, or overlap syndromes, show intersecting histomorphologic findings with PBC or PSC. The diagnosis of the different autoimmune inflammatory liver diseases is based on clinical presentation, a hepatitic or cholestatic pattern of liver enzymes, immuno-serological findings, image analysis in PSC, and liver biopsy as a facultative or obligatory adjunct. Liver biopsy plays a major role in the diagnosis of AIH, small-duct PSC, AMA-negative PBC, IgG4-related diseases, overlap syndrome, and in the recognition of concurrent liver diseases, especially drug-induced liver diseases. Herewith pathologists can help clinicians find adequate therapy for different autoimmune inflammatory liver diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00292-020-00807-7DOI Listing
September 2020

[Liver sinusoids: pathology of endothelial findings].

Pathologe 2020 Sep;41(5):471-477

Institut für Pathologie, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127, Bonn, Deutschland.

This review covers a spectrum of pathologic changes and diseases involving hepatic sinusoids. In the majority of patients, clinical findings are rather uncharacteristic such as hepatomegaly, portal hypertension, or lingering liver failure of unknown origin. In contrast to more common hepatic disorders, characteristic clinical, serological, immunoserological, and radiographical findings are lacking. In these cases, biopsy findings may be crucial to guide treatment decisions. This review covers a variety of hepatic disorders that practicing pathologists may encounter in their clinical routine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00292-020-00802-yDOI Listing
September 2020

Prostate-specific membrane antigen expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: potential use for prognosis and diagnostic imaging.

Oncotarget 2019 Jun 25;10(41):4149-4160. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn 53127, Germany.

Aim: The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is currently being established as a potent diagnostic marker in many tumor types. So far, its evidence in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is sparse. The aim of our study was a comprehensive evaluation of PSMA expression and its prognostic role in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma as well as feasibility test of PSMA as an agent for diagnostic imaging.

Methods: The cohort for immunohistochemistry consisted of 153 patients with HCC. For validation purposes the HCC cohort (n = 359) of The Cancer Genome Atlas was analyzed on transcript level as well.

Results: On immunohistochemistry, non-tumorous liver tissue showed PSMA expression on canalicular membranes in all cases. In tumor tissue two patterns of expression, with a canalicular (41.1% of tumors) and a neovascular (89.9% of tumors) staining were seen. Completely negative for both two patterns were only 4.1% of tumors; conversely, 79.2% of the tumors showed high levels of PSMA protein expression at any location. At mRNA level higher (PSMA) expression rates were statistically significant and independently associated with longer overall survival times.Additionally, a case report of successful diagnostic Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in a patient with HCC progression on multiple therapy lines is provided.

Conclusions: Majority of hepatocellular carcinomas show high levels of PSMA expression on tumor vessels and on canalicular membrane of the tumor cells. Putative diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic value of PSMA in HCC warrants further clinically oriented investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6609242PMC
June 2019

Fibrous dysplasia imitating malignancy.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2018 Aug 12;46(8):1313-1319. Epub 2018 May 12.

Department of Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery, (Head: Prof. Dr. Dr. R. H. Reich), University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

Fibrous dysplasia is a benign bone disease, presenting as monostotic or polyostotic lesions, or as part of a syndrome (McCune-Albright/Mazabraud). Its clinical course shows a variegated picture and the progression of its growth is unpredictable. In the workup of 39 fibrous dysplasia cases in the cranio-facial area, four cases presented fast growth tendencies, of which two patients with McCune-Albright syndrome showed malignant-like rapid growth. This local aggressive form is extremely rare, and the concept of this issue has not been clearly defined. With regard to the speed of growth a volumetric-time analysis in one of our cases demonstrated a 74 days tumor doubling rate with an exponential growth curve. According to the literature the aggressive form presented extra-cranially mainly at an adult age, whereas its appearance in our cranio-facial patient collective was much younger. Distinguishing nonmalignant and malignant aggressive forms is difficult and highly inconsistent in the literature. We therefore implemented a quantitative growth measure analysis to define aggressive forms based on progression and speed of growth and impartial of type of FD, localization or functional incapacity. Due to our study findings and literature review we state a prevalence of an aggressive form might be possibly about 5 %.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2018.05.019DOI Listing
August 2018

CXCL12 expression and PD-L1 expression serve as prognostic biomarkers in HCC and are induced by hypoxia.

Virchows Arch 2017 Feb 2;470(2):185-196. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Institute of Pathology, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Str. 25, 53105, Bonn, Germany.

Anti-PD-1 treatment increases anti-tumour immune responses in animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib, the mainstay of treatment of HCC patients, however, leads to tumour hypoxia and thereby abrogates the efficacy of anti-PD-1 treatment. This served as a rationale to implement CXCR4 inhibition as adjunct to sorafenib and anti-PD-1 treatment in murine HCC models. We studied the relationship between tumour hypoxia, PD-L1 and CXCL12 expression in human HCC, aiming to test the rationale for triple therapy combining sorafenib, PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors and CXCR4 inhibitors. Expression of CXCL12, PD-L1 and of surrogate markers for tumour hypoxia was evaluated at messenger RNA (mRNA) level in a cohort of HCC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas and immunohistochemically in an independent cohort from the University Hospital of Bonn. Retrospective survival analyses were conducted. CXCL12 mRNA level significantly correlated with markers indicating tumour hypoxia in HCC (HIF1-α ρ = 0.104, p = 0.047). PD-L1 expression was significantly increased in tumours with a high number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (ρ = 0.533, p < 0.001). In Cox proportional hazard analyses, high PD-L1 expression and loss of nuclear CXCL12 expression showed significant prognostic value in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.35 [95%CI 1.33-8.46], p = 0.011 for PD-L1; HR = 2.64 [95%CI 1.18-5.88], p = 0.018 for CXCL12, respectively). This study supports the rationale to combine CXCR4 inhibitors and PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with HCC, as sorafenib-induced tumour hypoxia leads to upregulation of PD-L1 and CXCL12.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-016-2051-5DOI Listing
February 2017

Novel Rat Model of Repetitive Portal Venous Embolization Mimicking Human Non-Cirrhotic Idiopathic Portal Hypertension.

PLoS One 2016 2;11(9):e0162144. Epub 2016 Sep 2.

Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Background: Non-cirrhotic idiopathic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is characterized by splenomegaly, anemia and portal hypertension, while liver function is preserved. However, no animal models have been established yet. This study assessed a rat model of NCIPH and characterized the hemodynamics, and compared it to human NCIPH.

Methods: Portal pressure (PP) was measured invasively and coloured microspheres were injected in the ileocecal vein in rats. This procedure was performed weekly for 3 weeks (weekly embolization). Rats without and with single embolization served as controls. After four weeks (one week after last embolization), hemodynamics were investigated, hepatic fibrosis and accumulation of myofibroblasts were analysed. General characteristics, laboratory analyses and liver histology were collected in patients with NCIPH.

Results: Weekly embolization induced a hyperdynamic circulation, with increased PP. The mesenteric flow and hepatic hydroxyproline content was significantly higher in weekly embolized compared to single embolized rats (mesenteric flow +54.1%, hydroxyproline +41.7%). Mesenteric blood flow and shunt volumes increased, whereas splanchnic vascular resistance was decreased in the weekly embolization group. Fibrotic markers αSMA and Desmin were upregulated in weekly embolized rats.

Discussion: This study establishes a model using repetitive embolization via portal veins, comparable with human NCIPH and may serve to test new therapies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0162144PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5010239PMC
August 2017

Current Proceedings in the Molecular Dissection of Hepatocellular Adenomas: Review and Hands-on Guide for Diagnosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2015 Sep 2;16(9):20994-1007. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Institute of Pathology, University Hospital of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany.

Molecular dissection of hepatocellular adenomas has brought forward a diversity of well-defined entities. Their distinction is important for routine practice, since prognosis is tightly related to the individual subgroup. Very recent activity has generated new details on the molecular background of hepatocellular adenoma, which this article aims to integrate into the current concepts of taxonomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms160920994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4613237PMC
September 2015

Comparison between modified Dixon MRI techniques, MR spectroscopic relaxometry, and different histologic quantification methods in the assessment of hepatic steatosis.

Eur Radiol 2015 Oct 23;25(10):2869-79. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53127, Bonn, Germany,

Objectives: To compare systematically quantitative MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), and different histological methods for liver fat quantification in order to identify possible incongruities.

Methods: Fifty-nine consecutive patients with liver disorders were examined on a 3 T MRI system. Quantitative MRI was performed using a dual- and a six-echo variant of the modified Dixon (mDixon) sequence, calculating proton density fat fraction (PDFF) maps, in addition to single-voxel MRS. Histological fat quantification included estimation of the percentage of hepatocytes containing fat vesicles as well as semi-automatic quantification (qHisto) using tissue quantification software.

Results: In 33 of 59 patients, the hepatic fat fraction was >5% as determined by MRS (maximum 45%, mean 17%). Dual-echo mDixon yielded systematically lower PDFF values than six-echo mDixon (mean difference 1.0%; P < 0.001). Six-echo mDixon correlated excellently with MRS, qHisto, and the estimated percentage of hepatocytes containing fat vesicles (R = 0.984, 0.967, 0.941, respectively, all P < 0.001). Mean values obtained by the estimated percentage of hepatocytes containing fat were higher by a factor of 2.5 in comparison to qHisto. Six-echo mDixon and MRS showed the best agreement with values obtained by qHisto.

Conclusions: Six-echo mDixon, MRS, and qHisto provide the most robust and congruent results and are therefore most appropriate for reliable quantification of liver fat.

Key Points: • Six-echo mDixon correlates excellently with MRS, qHisto, and the estimated percentage of fat-containing hepatocytes. • Six-echo mDixon, MRS, and qHisto provide the most robust and congruent results. • Dual-echo mDixon yields systematically lower PDFF values than six-echo mDixon. • The percentage of fat-containing hepatocytes is 2.5-fold higher than fat fraction determined by qHisto. • Performance characteristics and systematic differences of the various methods should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-015-3703-6DOI Listing
October 2015

Left ventricular obstruction with restrictive inter-atrial communication leads to retardation in fetal lung maturation.

Prenat Diagn 2015 May;35(5):463-70

Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Objective: Intact atrial septum or highly restrictive inter-atrial communication (I/HRAS) combined with either severe aortic stenosis (SAS) or hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), respectively, is associated with adverse outcome. This study focusses on changes in alveolo-septal lung parenchyma due to increased left atrial pressure.

Method: In a retrospective cross-sectional autoptic study, we investigated fetal/neonatal lung specimens of 18 patients with SAS/HLHS with I/HRAS, 11 patients with SAS/HLHS and unrestrictive inter-atrial communications and 18 controls. Pulmonary maturation was investigated by means of morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses.

Results: In a comparison of all three groups, alveolo-capillary membrane maturation was significantly disturbed in I/HRAS fetuses from week 23 of pregnancy on. I/HRAS lungs showed angiomatoid hyper-capillarisation and significantly wider inter-airspace mesenchyme. Differences in width ranged between 34.58 µm (95% CI: 11.41-57.75 µm) and 46.74 µm (95% CI: 13.97-79.50 µm) in the second and third trimesters. In I/HRAS infants with HLHS, inter-airspace mesenchymal diameters steadily normalised with age; however, significant fibroelastosis of alveolar septae developed.

Conclusion: Fetal lung maturation with respect to alveolo-capillary membrane formation is severely disordered in patients with SAS/HLHS with I/HRAS. Our findings indicate that, from a morphological point of view, timing of fetal invention in fetuses with I/HRAS should be fixed within the second trimester of pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.4559DOI Listing
May 2015

Detection of activated parietal epithelial cells on the glomerular tuft distinguishes early focal segmental glomerulosclerosis from minimal change disease.

Am J Pathol 2014 Dec 7;184(12):3239-48. Epub 2014 Oct 7.

Division of Nephrology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine II, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

In rodents, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) migrating onto the glomerular tuft participate in the formation of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesions. We investigated whether immunohistologic detection of PEC markers in the initial biopsies of human patients with first manifestation of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome with no immune complexes can improve the sensitivity to detect sclerotic lesions compared with standard methods. Ninety-five renal biopsies were stained for claudin-1 (PEC marker), CD44 (activated PECs), and LKIV69 (PEC matrix); 38 had been diagnosed as early primary FSGS and 57 as minimal change disease. PEC markers were detected on the tuft in 87% of the biopsies of patients diagnosed as primary FSGS. PEC markers were detected in FSGS lesions from the earliest stages of disease. In minimal change disease, no PEC activation was observed by immunohistology. However, in 25% of biopsies originally diagnosed as minimal change disease the presence of small lesions indicative of a sclerosing process were detected, which were undetectable on standard periodic acid-Schiff staining, even though only a single histologic section for each PEC marker was evaluated. Staining for LKIV69 detected lesions with the highest sensitivity. Two novel PEC markers A-kinase anchor protein 12 and annexin A3 exhibited similar sensitivity. In summary, detection of PECs on the glomerular tuft by immunostaining improves the differentiation between minimal change disease and primary FSGS and may serve to guide clinical decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.08.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707202PMC
December 2014

Α₁-antitrypsin PiMZ heterozygosity has an independent aggravating effect on liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease.

Virchows Arch 2014 Nov 29;465(5):539-46. Epub 2014 Jul 29.

Institute of Pathology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105, Bonn, Germany,

Heterozygous α1-antitrypsin deficiency type PiZ (PiMZ) results in chronic liver injury and predisposes to hepatocellular carcinoma. Gene frequency of the PiZ allele ranges from 0.005 to 0.027 in Western and Central Europe; therefore, there is a substantial risk of coincidence with chronic alcohol abuse. This retrospective case-control study evaluates the impact of PiMZ genotype on the development of chronic liver disease in alcohol consuming patients. Six thousand eight hundred eighty-six consecutive liver specimens were immunohistochemically tested for PiZ-deposits. From 254 PiZ-positive patients, the liver biopsies of 30 PiMZ adults without concomitant liver disease other than alcoholic liver disease (ALD) were selected and matched to PiMM (wild type) patients with respect to age, gender and lifetime daily alcohol ingestion (LDAI). Histomorphological changes were assessed using the SAF score and by digital image analysis. Liver cirrhosis was significantly more frequent in PIMZ patients than in matched PiMM patients (PiMM 9/30 vs. PiMZ 14/30, p = 0.04). Comparison of the extent of fibrosis in PiMZ and PiMM livers by two-way ANOVA indicated that the amount of LDAI has a major effect in PiMZ and PiMM patients (30.04 % of total variation, p < 0.0001), whereas PIMZ genotype has a minor but independent effect on liver fibrosis as assessed by digital planimetric evaluation (9.27 % of total variation, p = 0.005). Semiquantitative assessment was in agreement with this finding. Histomorphological findings support that PiMZ heterozygosity has an independent aggravating effect on liver fibrosis, even though the pathogenic effect of alcohol consumption is much stronger.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-014-1633-3DOI Listing
November 2014

A common polymorphism in the NCAN gene is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in alcoholic liver disease.

J Hepatol 2014 Nov 16;61(5):1073-9. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Bonn, Germany; German Center for Infection Research, Germany. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The genetic background of alcoholic liver diseases and their complications are increasingly recognized. A common polymorphism in the neurocan (NCAN) gene, which is known to be expressed in neuronal tissue, has been identified as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated if this polymorphism may also be related to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: We analysed the distribution of the NCAN rs2228603 genotypes in 356 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, 126 patients with alcoholic HCC, 382 persons with alcohol abuse without liver damage, 362 healthy controls and in 171 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated HCC. Furthermore, a validation cohort of 229 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (83 with HCC) was analysed. The genotypes were determined by LightSNiP assays. The expression of NCAN was studied by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy.

Results: The frequency of the NCAN rs2228603 T allele was significantly increased in patients with HCC due to ALD (15.1%) compared to alcoholic cirrhosis without HCC (9.3%), alcoholic controls (7.2%), healthy controls (7.9%), and HCV associated HCC (9.1%). This finding was confirmed in the validation cohort (15.7% vs. 6.8%, OR=2.53; 95%CI: 1.36-4.68; p=0.0025) and by multivariate analysis (OR=1.840; 95%CI: 1.22-2.78; p=0.004 for carriage of the rs2228603 T allele). In addition, we identified and localised NCAN expression in human liver.

Conclusions: NCAN is not only expressed in neuronal tissue, but also in the liver. Its rs2228603 polymorphism is a risk factor for HCC in ALD, but not in HCV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2014.06.006DOI Listing
November 2014

Expression of vasoactive proteins in gastric antral mucosa reflects vascular dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

Liver Int 2015 Apr 5;35(4):1393-402. Epub 2014 Jul 5.

Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Gastrounit, Medical Division, Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background & Aims: Patients with cirrhosis display hypocontractility of splanchnic vessels because of dysregulation of vasoactive proteins, such as decreased effect of RhoA/ROCK and increased activity of β-Arrestin-2 and eNOS. However, it is unknown whether the dysregulation of vasoactive proteins is displayed in other vessels. We investigated whether expression of vasoactive proteins can be evaluated in gastric mucosa vessels.

Methods: Biopsies from the gastric mucosa of 111 patients with cirrhosis were collected at three different centres and from 13 controls. Forty-nine patients had received TIPS. Portal pressure gradient was measured in 49 patients with TIPS and in 16 patients without TIPS. Biopsies from the antrum were conserved in formaldehyde for immunohistochemistry or shock-frozen for PCR and Western blot.

Results: The mucosal transcription of vascular markers (αSMA, CD31) was higher in cirrhotic patients than controls, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. On average, relative mucosal levels of RhoA and ROCK were lower, while β-Arrestin-2 levels were higher in cirrhotic patients compared to controls. Transcriptional levels of eNOS increased with presence of ascites and grade of oesophageal varices. Patients with TIPS showed less pronounced markers of vascular dysfunction in gastric mucosa.

Conclusion: This is the first evidence that the expression of vasoactive proteins in mucosa from the gastric antrum of patients with cirrhosis reflects their vascular dysfunction and possibly changes after therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.12613DOI Listing
April 2015

Prognostic stratification of metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms by 18F-FDG PET: feasibility of a metabolic grading system.

J Nucl Med 2014 Aug 29;55(8):1260-6. Epub 2014 May 29.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

Unlabelled: The tumor proliferation marker, Ki-67 index, is a well-established prognostic marker in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Noninvasive molecular imaging allows whole-body metabolic characterization of metastatic disease. We investigated the prognostic impact of (18)F-FDG PET in inoperable multifocal disease.

Methods: Retrospective, dual-center analysis was performed on 89 patients with histologically confirmed, inoperable metastatic gastroenteropancreatic NENs undergoing (18)F-FDG PET/CT within the staging routine. Metabolic (PET-based) grading was in accordance with the most prominent (18)F-FDG uptake (reference tumor lesion): mG1, tumor-to-liver ratio of maximum standardized uptake value ≤ 1.0; mG2, 1.0-2.3; mG3, >2.3. Other potential variables influencing overall survival, including age, tumor origin, performance status, tumor burden, plasma chromogranin A (≥600 μg/L), neuron-specific enolase (≥25 μg/L), and classic grading (Ki-67-based) underwent univariate (log-rank test) and multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model), with a P value of less than 0.05 considered significant.

Results: The median follow-up period was 38 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 27-49 mo); median overall survival of the 89 patients left for multivariate analysis was 29 mo (95% CI, 21-37 mo). According to metabolic grading, 9 patients (10.2%) had mG1 tumors, 22 (25.0%) mG2, and 57 (64.8%) mG3. On multivariate analysis, markedly elevated plasma neuron-specific enolase (P = 0.016; hazard ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-7.0) and high metabolic grade (P = 0.015; hazard ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.2-7.0) were independent predictors of survival.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of prognostic 3-grade stratification of metastatic gastroenteropancreatic NENs by whole-body molecular imaging using (18)F-FDG PET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.114.137166DOI Listing
August 2014

Genetic predisposition to in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast.

PLoS Genet 2014 04 17;10(4):e1004285. Epub 2014 Apr 17.

David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America; Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-EMN, Erlangen, Germany.

Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10-15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC) carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS) and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS) and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95%CI) for ILC = 1.13 (1.09-1.18), P = 6.0 × 10(-10); P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8 × 10(-4)). Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at P<0.05. Two SNPs showed significantly stronger associations for ILC than LCIS (rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2, P-het = 0.04 and rs889312/5q11/MAP3K1, P-het = 0.03); and two showed stronger associations for LCIS than ILC (rs6678914/1q32/LGR6, P-het = 0.001 and rs1752911/6q14, P-het = 0.04). In addition, seven of the 75 known loci showed significant differences between ER+ tumors with IDC and ILC histology, three of these showing stronger associations for ILC (rs11249433/1p11, rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2 and rs10995190/10q21/ZNF365) and four associated only with IDC (5p12/rs10941679; rs2588809/14q24/RAD51L1, rs6472903/8q21 and rs1550623/2q31/CDCA7). In conclusion, we have identified one novel lobular breast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there is some heterogeneity between ER+ lobular and ER+ IDC tumors. These data provide evidence for overlapping, but distinct etiological pathways within ER+ breast cancer between morphological subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3990493PMC
April 2014

ATZ11 recognizes not only Z-α1-antitrypsin-polymers and complexed forms of non-Z-α1-antitrypsin but also the von Willebrand factor.

PLoS One 2014 19;9(3):e91538. Epub 2014 Mar 19.

Department of Pathology, University Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Aims: The ATZ11 antibody has been well established for the identification of α1-anti-trypsin (AAT) molecule type PiZ (Z-AAT) in blood samples and liver tissue. In this study, we systematically analyzed the antibody for additional binding sites in human tissue.

Methods And Results: Ultrastructural ATZ11 binding was investigated immunoelectron microscopically in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in platelets of a healthy individual. Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were transiently transfected with Von Willebrand factor (VWF) and analyzed immunocytochemically using confocal microscopy and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis followed by western blotting (WB). Platelets and serum samples of VWF-competent and VWF-deficient patients were investigated using native PAGE and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis followed by WB. The specificity of the ATZ11 reaction was tested immunohistochemically by extensive antibody-mediated blocking of AAT- and VWF-antigens. ATZ11-positive epitopes could be detected in Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) of HUVECs and α-granules of platelets. ATZ11 stains pseudo-WBP containing recombinant wild-type VWF (rVWF-WT) in HEK293 cells. In SDS-PAGE electrophoresis followed by WB, anti-VWF and ATZ11 both identified rVWF-WT. However, neither rVWF-WT-multimers, human VWF-multimers, nor serum proteins of VWF-deficient patients were detected using ATZ11 by WB, whereas anti-VWF antibody (anti-VWF) detected rVWF-WT-multimers as well as human VWF-multimers. In human tissue specimens, AAT-antigen blockade using anti-AAT antibody abolished ATZ11 staining of Z-AAT in a heterozygous AAT-deficient patient, whereas VWF-antigen blockade using anti-VWF abolished ATZ11 staining of endothelial cells and megakaryocytes.

Conclusions: ATZ11 reacts with cellular bound and denatured rVWF-WT and human VWF as shown using immunocytochemistry and subsequent confocal imaging, immunoelectron microscopy, SDS-PAGE and WB, and immunohistology. These immunoreactions are independent of the binding of Z-AAT-molecules and non-Z-AAT complexes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0091538PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3960128PMC
December 2014

Systems genetics of liver fibrosis: identification of fibrogenic and expression quantitative trait loci in the BXD murine reference population.

PLoS One 2014 28;9(2):e89279. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

Department of Medicine II, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg, Germany.

The progression of liver fibrosis in response to chronic injury varies considerably among individual patients. The underlying genetics is highly complex due to large numbers of potential genes, environmental factors and cell types involved. Here, we provide the first toxicogenomic analysis of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in the murine 'genetic reference panel' of recombinant inbred BXD lines. Our aim was to define the core of risk genes and gene interaction networks that control fibrosis progression. Liver fibrosis phenotypes and gene expression profiles were determined in 35 BXD lines. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified seven genomic loci influencing fibrosis phenotypes (pQTLs) with genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4, 5, 7, 12, and 17. Stepwise refinement was based on expression QTL mapping with stringent selection criteria, reducing the number of 1,351 candidate genes located in the pQTLs to a final list of 11 cis-regulated genes. Our findings demonstrate that the BXD reference population represents a powerful experimental resource for shortlisting the genes within a regulatory network that determine the liver's vulnerability to chronic injury.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089279PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3938463PMC
November 2014

Consensus on the histopathological evaluation of liver biopsies from patients following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Virchows Arch 2014 Feb 3;464(2):175-90. Epub 2014 Jan 3.

Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

After allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) liver biopsy is performed for enigmatic liver disorders when noninvasive diagnostic steps have failed in establishing a definitive diagnosis. This document provides an updated consensus on the prerequisites for proper evaluation of liver biopsies in alloHCT patients and the histological diagnostic criteria for liver graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The Working Group's recommendations for the histological diagnosis of liver GvHD were derived from the peer-reviewed literature and from the consensus diagnosis of a total of 30 coded liver biopsies. Acceptance of the recommendations was tested by a survey distributed to all HCT centers in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Consensus was achieved for biopsy indications, methods of sample acquisition and processing, reporting and interpretation of biopsy findings. As GvHD is variably treated and the treatment modalities have changed over time, the panel endorses the use of more frequent biopsies in clinical studies in order to improve the present challenging clinical and diagnostic situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-013-1528-8DOI Listing
February 2014

Genome-wide association study identifies 25 known breast cancer susceptibility loci as risk factors for triple-negative breast cancer.

Carcinogenesis 2014 May 9;35(5):1012-9. Epub 2013 Dec 9.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Triple-negative (TN) breast cancer is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer associated with a unique set of epidemiologic and genetic risk factors. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of TN breast cancer (stage 1: 1529 TN cases, 3399 controls; stage 2: 2148 cases, 1309 controls) to identify loci that influence TN breast cancer risk. Variants in the 19p13.1 and PTHLH loci showed genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10(-) (8)) in stage 1 and 2 combined. Results also suggested a substantial enrichment of significantly associated variants among the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analyzed in stage 2. Variants from 25 of 74 known breast cancer susceptibility loci were also associated with risk of TN breast cancer (P < 0.05). Associations with TN breast cancer were confirmed for 10 loci (LGR6, MDM4, CASP8, 2q35, 2p24.1, TERT-rs10069690, ESR1, TOX3, 19p13.1, RALY), and we identified associations with TN breast cancer for 15 additional breast cancer loci (P < 0.05: PEX14, 2q24.1, 2q31.1, ADAM29, EBF1, TCF7L2, 11q13.1, 11q24.3, 12p13.1, PTHLH, NTN4, 12q24, BRCA2, RAD51L1-rs2588809, MKL1). Further, two SNPs independent of previously reported signals in ESR1 [rs12525163 odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, P = 4.9 × 10(-) (4)] and 19p13.1 (rs1864112 OR = 0.84, P = 1.8 × 10(-) (9)) were associated with TN breast cancer. A polygenic risk score (PRS) for TN breast cancer based on known breast cancer risk variants showed a 4-fold difference in risk between the highest and lowest PRS quintiles (OR = 4.03, 95% confidence interval 3.46-4.70, P = 4.8 × 10(-) (69)). This translates to an absolute risk for TN breast cancer ranging from 0.8% to 3.4%, suggesting that genetic variation may be used for TN breast cancer risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgt404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4004200PMC
May 2014

Intrahepatic IL-8 producing Foxp3⁺CD4⁺ regulatory T cells and fibrogenesis in chronic hepatitis C.

J Hepatol 2013 Aug 23;59(2):229-35. Epub 2013 Apr 23.

Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Background & Aims: Regulatory CD4(+) T cells (Tregs) are considered to affect outcomes of HCV infection, because they increase in number during chronic hepatitis C and can suppress T-cell functions.

Methods: Using microarray analysis, in situ immunofluorescence, ELISA, and flowcytometry, we characterised functional differentiation and localisation of adaptive Tregs in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

Results: We found substantial upregulation of IL-8 in Foxp3(+)CD4(+) Tregs from chronic hepatitis C. Activated GARP-positive IL-8(+) Tregs were particularly enriched in livers of patients with chronic hepatitis C in close proximity to areas of fibrosis and their numbers were correlated with the stage of fibrosis. Moreover, Tregs induced upregulation of profibrogenic markers TIMP1, MMP2, TGF-beta1, alpha-SMA, collagen, and CCL2 in primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSC). HSC activation, but not Treg suppressor function, was blocked by adding a neutralizing IL-8 antibody.

Conclusions: Our studies identified Foxp3(+)CD4(+) Tregs as an additional intrahepatic source of IL-8 in chronic hepatitis C acting on HSC. Thus, Foxp3(+)CD4(+) Tregs in chronic hepatitis C have acquired differentiation as regulators of fibrogenesis in addition to suppressing local immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2013.04.011DOI Listing
August 2013

Night work and breast cancer estrogen receptor status--results from the German GENICA study.

Scand J Work Environ Health 2013 Sep 29;39(5):448-55. Epub 2013 Mar 29.

Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789 Bochum, Germany.

Objectives: The potential mechanisms that link night-shift work with breast cancer have been extensively discussed. Exposure to light at night (LAN) depletes melatonin that has oncostatic and anti-estrogenic properties and may lead to a modified expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α. Here, we explored the association between shift work and breast cancer in subgroups of patients with ER-positive and -negative tumors.

Methods: GENICA (Gene-ENvironment Interaction and breast CAncer) is a population-based case-control study on breast cancer with detailed information on shift work from 857 breast cancer cases and 892 controls. ER status was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Associations between night-shift work and ER-positive and -negative breast cancer were analyzed with conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders.

Results: ER status was assessed for 827 cases and was positive in 653 and negative in 174 breast tumors. Overall, 49 cases and 54 controls were "ever employed" in shift work including night shifts for ≥ 1 year. In total, "ever shift work" and "ever night work" were not associated with an elevated risk of ER-positive or -negative breast tumors. Night work for ≥ 20 years was associated with a significantly elevated risk of ER-negative breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) 4.73, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22-18.36].

Conclusions: Our case-control study suggests that long-term night-shift work is associated with an increased risk of ER-negative breast cancers. Further studies on histological subtypes and the analysis of other potentially relevant factors are crucial for discovering putative mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3360DOI Listing
September 2013

Exploring the association between genetic variation in the SUMO isopeptidase gene USPL1 and breast cancer through integration of data from the population-based GENICA study and external genetic databases.

Int J Cancer 2013 Jul 25;133(2):362-72. Epub 2013 Feb 25.

Institute of Medical Biometry and Informatics, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins are covalently attached to target proteins to modify their function. SUMO conjugation participates in processes tightly linked to tumorigenesis. Recently USPL1 (ubiquitin-specific peptidase-like (1) was identified as a SUMO isopeptidase. We report here on the first exploratory study investigating the relationship between genetic variability in USPL1 and breast cancer. Three potentially functional nonsynonymous coding SNPs (rs3742303, rs17609459, rs7984952) were genotyped in 1,021 breast cancer cases and 1,015 controls from the population-based GENICA study. We took advantage of multiple genotype imputation based on HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project data to refine the association screening in the investigated region. Public genetic databases were also used to investigate the relationship with USPL1 expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines and breast tissue. Women homozygous for the minor C allele of rs7984952 showed a lower risk of Grade 3 breast tumors compared to TT homozygotes (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30-0.81). Case-only analyses confirmed the association between rs7984952 and tumor grade (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39-0.93). Imputation results in a 238 kb region around rs7984952 based on HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project data were similar. No imputed variant showed an association signal stronger than rs7984952. USPL1 expression in tumor breast tissue increased with the number of C alleles. The present study illustrates the contribution of multiple imputation of genotypes using public data repositories to standard genotyping laboratory. The provided information may facilitate the design of independent studies to validate the association between USPL1 rs7984952 and risk of Grade 3 breast tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28040DOI Listing
July 2013

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-C neutralization reveals differential roles of PDGF receptors in liver and kidney fibrosis.

Am J Pathol 2013 Jan 7;182(1):107-17. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Division of Nephrology and Clinical Immunology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) are key mediators of organ fibrosis. We investigated whether PDGF-C(-/-) mice or mice treated with neutralizing PDGF-C antibodies are protected from bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis, and we compared the effects with those of PDGF-C deficiency or neutralization on kidney fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to kidney fibrosis, PDGF-C deficiency or antagonism did not protect from liver fibrosis or functional liver impairment. Furthermore, the hepatic infiltration of monocytes/macrophages/dendritic cells and chemokine mRNA expression (CC chemokine ligand [CCL]5, CCL2, and CC chemokine receptor 2 [CCR2]) remained unchanged. Transcript expression of PDGF ligands increased in both liver and kidney fibrosis and was not affected by neutralization of PDGF-C. In kidney fibrosis, PDGF-C deficiency or antagonism led to reduced expression and signaling of PDGF-receptor (R)-α- and PDGFR-β-chains. In contrast, in liver fibrosis there was either no difference (PDGF-C(-/-) mice) or even an upregulation of PDGFR-β and signaling (anti-PDGF-C group). Finally, in vitro studies in portal myofibroblasts pointed to a predominant role of PDGF-B and PDGF-D signaling in liver fibrosis. In conclusion, our study revealed significant differences between kidney and liver fibrosis in that PDGF-C mediates kidney fibrosis, whereas antagonism of PDGF-C in liver fibrosis appears to be counteracted by significant upregulation and increased PDGFR-β signaling. PDGF-C antagonism, therefore, may not be effective to treat liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2012.09.006DOI Listing
January 2013

Human α-defensin (DEFA) gene expression helps to characterise benign and malignant salivary gland tumours.

BMC Cancer 2012 Oct 11;12:465. Epub 2012 Oct 11.

Department of Periodontology, Operative and Preventive Dentistry, University of Bonn, Welschnonnenstr, 1753111, Bonn, Germany.

Background: Because of the infrequence of salivary gland tumours and their complex histopathological diagnosis it is still difficult to exactly predict their clinical course by means of recurrence, malignant progression and metastasis. In order to define new proliferation associated genes, purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of human α-defensins (DEFA) 1/3 and 4 in different tumour entities of the salivary glands with respect to malignancy.

Methods: Tissue of salivary glands (n=10), pleomorphic adenomas (n=10), cystadenolymphomas (n=10), adenocarcinomas (n=10), adenoidcystic carcinomas (n=10), and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=10) was obtained during routine surgical procedures. RNA was extracted according to standard protocols. Transcript levels of DEFA 1/3 and 4 were analyzed by quantitative realtime PCR and compared with healthy salivary gland tissue. Additionally, the proteins encoded by DEFA 1/3 and DEFA 4 were visualized in paraffin-embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemical staining.

Results: Human α-defensins are traceable in healthy as well as in pathological altered salivary gland tissue. In comparison with healthy tissue, the gene expression of DEFA 1/3 and 4 was significantly (p<0.05) increased in all tumours - except for a significant decrease of DEFA 4 gene expression in pleomorphic adenomas and a similar transcript level for DEFA 1/3 compared to healthy salivary glands.

Conclusions: A decreased gene expression of DEFA 1/3 and 4 might protect pleomorphic adenomas from malignant transformation into adenocarcinomas. A similar expression pattern of DEFA-1/3 and -4 in cystadenolymphomas and inflamed salivary glands underlines a potential importance of immunological reactions during the formation of Warthin's tumour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-12-465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518101PMC
October 2012

Pigmented tumour of the eyelid with unexpected findings.

Case Rep Pathol 2012 3;2012:471368. Epub 2012 Jun 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Marienhospital Aachen, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 98, 52066 Aachen, Germany.

A 63-year-old patient presented with a small painless nodular tumour of his left lower eyelid which had increased in size over the last few weeks. The tumour was excised by wedge resection and submitted for ophthalmopathologic examination. Histopathologic examination revealed a cystic lesion of apocrine origin with focal proliferations. The proliferative cells appeared pleomorphic and displayed marked atypia. Staining with Ki67 revealed a significant mitotic activity supporting the diagnosis of an apocrine adenocarcinoma of Moll. As the lesion displayed in most parts characteristics of a benign apocrine hidrocystoma, a thorough and critical histopathological examination is required in such cases to avoid missing an early malignant transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/471368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3420569PMC
September 2012

Hepatocarcinogenesis in non-cirrhotic liver is associated with a reduced number of clonal hepatocellular patches in non-tumorous liver parenchyma.

J Pathol 2012 Nov 3;228(3):333-40. Epub 2012 Jul 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Cologne, Germany.

We investigated circumscribed cell proliferations in healthy livers in comparison to non-cirrhotic livers bearing hepatocellular carcinoma. Using histochemical staining for cytochrome c oxidase, the fourth complex of the respiratory chain, we visualized patch-forming descendents of regeneratively active liver cells. The clonal nature of these patches was verified by laser-capture microdissection and Sanger sequencing of the enzyme's core subunits in patches carrying marker mutations on the mtDNA. We demonstrate a highly significant increase of the patch size and also a highly significant increase in the number of patches carrying marker mutations between hepatocellular carcinoma-free and -bearing livers. Thus, the carcinoma-bearing livers accumulated more genetic damage on mtDNA than the control group. Furthermore, for the first time, we present evidence in hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing non-cirrhotic livers of a significantly reduced pool of regeneratively active liver cells that are genetically and functionally altered. The analogy to ageing-related changes is suggestive of premature ageing of stem cells in non-cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing liver as an early step to hepatocarcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.4060DOI Listing
November 2012

19p13.1 is a triple-negative-specific breast cancer susceptibility locus.

Cancer Res 2012 Apr 13;72(7):1795-803. Epub 2012 Feb 13.

Departments of Health Sciences Research and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

The 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breast cancer cases and 49,787 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breast cancer overall or with ER-positive breast cancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk [rs8170 OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.15; P = 3.49 × 10(-5)] and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, and HER2-negative) breast cancer (rs8170: OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.13-1.31; P = 2.22 × 10(-7)). However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk when triple-negative cases were excluded (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.07; P = 0.62). In addition, a combined analysis of triple-negative cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC; N = 3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and triple-negative breast cancer risk (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18-1.33; P = 3.31 × 10(-13)]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple-negative-specific breast cancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histologic subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple-negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-3364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3319792PMC
April 2012
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