Publications by authors named "Hans J Schmidt"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Two cases of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis after bariatric surgery associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor use.

Obes Surg 2021 08 24;31(8):3848-3850. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Center for Bariatric Medicine and Surgery, Hackensack University Medical Center, 20 Prospect Avenue, Suite 703, Hackensack, NJ, 07601, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-021-05391-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Large series examining laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding as a salvage solution for failed gastric bypass.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2018 Dec 13;14(12):1869-1875. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Center for Bariatric Medicine and Surgery, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, New Jersey.

Background: The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has long been considered the gold standard of weight loss procedures. However, there is limited evidence on revisional options with both minimal risk and long-term weight loss results.

Objective: To examine percent excess weight loss, change in body mass index (BMI), and complications in patients who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) over prior RYGB.

Setting: Academic hospital.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of a single-center prospectively maintained database. Three thousand ninety-four LAGB placements were reviewed; 139 were placed in patients with prior RYGB.

Results: At the time of LAGB, the median BMI was 41.3. After LAGB, we observed weight loss or stabilization in 135 patients (97%). The median maximal weight loss after LAGB was 37.7% excess weight loss and -7.1 change in BMI (P < .0001). At last follow-up visit, the median weight loss was 27.5% excess weight loss and -5.3 change in BMI (P < .0001). Median follow-up was 2.48 years (.01-11.48): 68 of 132 eligible (52%) with 3-year follow-up, 12 of 26 eligible (44%) with 6-year eligible follow-up, and 3 of 3 eligible (100%) with >10-year follow-up. Eleven bands required removal, 4 for erosion, 4 for dysphagia, and 3 for nonband-related issues.

Conclusions: LAGB over prior RYGB is a safe operation, which reduces the surgical risks and nutritional deficiencies often seen in other accepted revisional operations. Complication rates were consistent with primary LAGB. Weight loss is both reliable and lasting, and it can be considered as the initial salvage procedure in patients with failed gastric bypass surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2018.09.003DOI Listing
December 2018

One-year readmission rates at a high volume bariatric surgery center: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, laparoscopic gastric bypass, and vertical banded gastroplasty-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

Obes Surg 2008 Oct 2;18(10):1233-40. Epub 2008 May 2.

Surgery, New York University, Manhattan VA, 423 East 23rd St., New York City, NY, 10010, USA.

Background: An increasing importance has been placed on a bariatric program's readmission rates. Despite the importance of such data, there have been few studies that document 1-year readmission rates. There have been even fewer studies that delineate the causes of readmission. The objective of this study is to delineate the rates and causes of readmissions within 1 year of bariatric operations performed in a high-volume center.

Methods: Records for all patients undergoing bariatric operations during a 31-month period were harvested from the hospital electronic medical database. Readmissions for these patients were then identified within the hospital database for the year following the index operation. The electronic medical records of all readmitted patients were reviewed.

Results: The overall 1-year readmission rate for 1,939 consecutive bariatric operations was 18.8%. The laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) had the lowest readmission rate of 12.69%. Next was the vertical banded gastroplasty-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (VBG-RYGB) with a rate of 15.4%. The laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) had the highest readmission rate of 24.2%. Leading causes of readmission were abdominal pain with normal radiographic studies and elective operations. Independent factors predicting readmission were found to be LOS > 3 days (odds ratio 1.69 p = 0.004) and having a LRYGB (odds ratio of 1.49 p = 0.003). The previously reported reoperation rate for bowel obstruction of 9.7% had decreased to 3.7% due to changes in operative technique.

Conclusion: Rates of readmissions for patients undergoing bariatric surgery center at our high-volume center decreased over time and are comparable to other major abdominal operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-008-9517-8DOI Listing
October 2008

Bariatric surgery: low mortality at a high-volume center.

Obes Surg 2008 Jun 3;18(6):660-7. Epub 2008 Apr 3.

Bariatric Surgery Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ, USA.

Background: The American Society of Bariatric Surgery has initiated a Bariatric Surgery Center of Excellence Program and the American College of Surgeons has followed with their Bariatric Surgery Center Network Accreditation Program. These programs postulate that concentration of weight loss operations in high-volume centers will decrease surgical mortality and improve outcomes.

Methods: The purpose of this study was to calculate the in-hospital mortality for bariatric operations accomplished at the highest volume bariatric surgery center in the state of New Jersey. After receiving Institutional Revew Board approval, the revised surgical schedule was used to identify all patients undergoing weight loss surgery (WLS) at Hackensack University Medical Center from 1998 through June, 2006. Data for these patients were then harvested from the hospital's electronic medical record. Step-wise and univariate logistic regression analysis tested the impact of various factors on hospital length of stay and in-hospital mortality.

Results: Between 1998 and June, 2006, 5,365 patients underwent WLS surgery: 2,099 open vertical banded gastroplasty-Roux en Y gastric bypass (VBG-RYGB); 2,177 laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric bypass (LRYGB); and 1,089 laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). 75.5% of patients were women. Median age was 41 years old (13-79), median weight 128 kg (81.2-290.3), and median body mass index 46.1 kg/m2 (35.0-92.6). Median total operating room time for VBG-RYGB was 115 min (33-328); LRYGB 155 min (53-493), and LAGB 92 min (33-274). Median length of stay for VBG-RYGB was 3 days (1-39 days), LRYGB 2 days (1-46 days), and LAGB 1 day (1-20). Seven patients died in hospital after the 5,365 WLS operations (0.13%): four after VBG-RYGB (0.19%); three after LRYGB (0.14%); and none after LAGB (0%). The characteristics of the patients who died did not significantly differ from the group as a whole.

Conclusion: Surgeons at Hackensack University Medical Center, a high volume, accredited 1A American College of Surgeons Bariatric Surgery Center, achieved a 0.13% mortality among 5,365 patients undergoing weight loss operations between 1998 and June, 2006. This study supports the concept that high-volume centers perform bariatric operations with low mortalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-007-9357-yDOI Listing
June 2008

Short-term outcomes for super-super obese (BMI > or =60 kg/m2) patients undergoing weight loss surgery at a high-volume bariatric surgery center: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, laparoscopic gastric bypass, and open tubular gastric bypass.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2008 May-Jun;4(3):408-15. Epub 2008 Feb 1.

Bariatric Surgery Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, 20 Prospect Avenue, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA.

Background: We previously reported significantly longer operating room times and a trend toward increased complications and mortality in the super-super obese (body mass index [BMI] > or =60 kg/m(2)) early in our experience with laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The goal of this study was to re-examine the short-term outcomes for super-super obese patients undergoing weight loss surgery at our high-volume bariatric surgery center well beyond our learning curve.

Methods: The records for all patients who had undergone weight loss surgery at Hackensack University Medical Center from 2002 to June 2006 were harvested from the hospital's electronic medical database. This population was analyzed as 2 groups (those with a BMI <60 kg/m(2) and those with a BMI > or =60 kg/m(2)), as well as by type of operation. Step-wise and univariate logistic regression analyses assessed the effect of BMI on the outcome variables, including mortality, length of surgery, length of hospital stay, and disposition at discharge.

Results: A total of 3692 patients were studied. Of these patients, 3401 had a BMI <60 kg/m(2) and 291 had a BMI > or =60 kg/m(2). Of the 291 super-super obese patients, 130 underwent vertical banded gastroplasty-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 116 laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and 45 laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. The proportion of male patients, black patients, and patients with sleep apnea was increased in the BMI > or =60 kg/m(2) group. The number of co-morbid diseases per patient correlated with age but not BMI. The BMI > or =60 kg/m(2) group required a significantly longer total operating room time (136 versus 120 min). Hospital length of stay was significantly longer only in the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients (3 d for the BMI > or =60 kg/m(2) group versus 2 d for the BMI <60 kg/m(2) group). A significantly greater percentage of patients in the super-super obese group were discharged to chronic care facilities. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 0.15% (5 of 3692) but did not significantly differ between the 2 groups: BMI <60 kg/m(2), rate of 0.12% (4 of 3401 patients), and BMI > or =60 kg/m(2), rate of 0.34% (1 of 291 patients). The type of operation did not significantly affect the disposition at discharge or in-hospital mortality.

Conclusion: Super-super obese patients required longer total operating room times, a longer hospital length of stay, and were more likely to be discharged to chronic care facilities than were patients with a BMI <60 kg/m(2); however, the in-hospital mortality was similar for both groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2007.10.013DOI Listing
October 2008

30-day readmission rates at a high volume bariatric surgery center: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, laparoscopic gastric bypass, and vertical banded gastroplasty-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

Obes Surg 2007 Sep;17(9):1171-7

Bariatric Surgery Center, Hacekensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA.

Background: Recent studies suggest that weight loss operations may actually increase the costs to society due to increased hospital readmission rates. The purpose of this study was to determine the 30-day readmission rates following bariatric operations at a high volume bariatric surgery program.

Methods: Records for all patients undergoing bariatric operations during a 3-year period were harvested from the hospital electronic medical database. All hospital readmissions within 30 days of surgery were reviewed to determine the cause, demographics, and patient characteristics. Logistic regression analysis assessed the impact of various factors on the risk of readmission.

Results: 2,823 consecutive patients were identified using the corrected operative log. Of these patients, 165 (5.8%) patients required 184 (6.5%) readmissions within 30 days of their index bariatric operation. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) had the lowest patient readmission rate of 3.1%; vertical banded gastroplasty-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (VBG-RYGBP) 6.8% and Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) 7.3%. Technical considerations were the most common cause for readmission (41% of readmissions). White race and undergoing LAGB decreased the odds for readmission, while total operating-room time >120 minutes, initial hospital stay of >3 days and deep venous thrombosis increased the odds for readmission.

Conclusion: This study found an overall 30-day readmission rate of 6.5% following bariatric operations at a high volume bariatric surgery program. This study supports the concept of bariatric surgery Centers of Excellence and accreditation of Bariatric Surgery Programs based on hospital volume of bariatric operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-007-9210-3DOI Listing
September 2007

Patient characteristics impacting excess weight loss following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.

Obes Surg 2005 Mar;15(3):346-50

Bariatric Surgery Center, Hackensack University Medical Center (HUMC), Hackensack, NJ, USA.

Background: Weight loss is more variable after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) than after gastric bypass. Subgroup analysis of patients may offer insight into this variability. The aim of our study was to identify preoperative factors that predict outcome.

Methods: Demographics, co-morbid conditions and follow-up weight were collected for our 1st 200 LapBand patients. Linear regression determined average %EWL. Logistic regression analysis identified factors that impacted %EWL.

Result: 200 patients returned for 778 follow-up visits. Median age was 44 years (21-72) and median BMI 45 kg/m2 (31-76). 140 (80%) were women. Average %EWL was y % = 0.007 %/day (days since surgery) + 0.12% (correlation coef. 0.4823; P<0.001). %EWL at 1 year was 37%. The best-fit logistic regression model found 7 factors that significantly changed the odds of achieving average %EWL. Older patients, diabetic patients and patients with COPD had greater odds of above average %EWL. Female patients, patients with larger BMIs, asthmatic patients and patients with hypertension had increased odds of below average %EWL.

Conclusion: Specific patient characteristics and comorbid conditions significantly altered the odds of achieving satisfactory %EWL following gastric banding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1381/0960892053576811DOI Listing
March 2005

The learning curve measured by operating times for laparoscopic and open gastric bypass: roles of surgeon's experience, institutional experience, body mass index and fellowship training.

Obes Surg 2005 Feb;15(2):172-82

Bariatric Surgery Center, Hacekensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA.

Background: Surgeons must overcome a substantial learning curve before mastering laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). This learning curve can be defined in terms of mortality, morbidity or length of surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the learning curves in terms of surgical time for the first 3 surgeons performing LRYGBP in our hospital with the length of surgery for open gastric bypass (CONTROLS).

Methods: We compared 494 primary LRYGBPs performed by 3 surgeons (393 by 1st SURGEON, 57 by 2nd SURGEON and 44 by 3rd SURGEON) to 159 open vertical banded gastroplasty-Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses (CONTROLS). Data for LRYGBP patients were prospectively obtained. Factors that significantly affected the length of surgery were identified by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis.

Results: LRYGBP and CONTROL patients were similar in age, height, weight and BMI, although more CONTROLS were male. Median time for the 1st SURGEON performing LRYGBP dropped for each subsequent 100 operations: 1st 100 - 190 min, 2nd 100 - 135 min, 3rd 100 - 110 min and 4th 100 - 100 min. Median time for 2nd SURGEON performing LRYGBP was 120 min, 3rd SURGEON 173 min and CONTROLS 64 min. Length of surgery significantly correlated with surgical experience in terms of numbers of operations and BMI of patient. Times for 2nd SURGEON, a fellowship trained laparoscopic surgeon, started significantly faster than 1st SURGEON's, but did not significantly improve with experience. 3rd SURGEON's initial times were similar to 1st SURGEON's, but his times improved more rapidly with experience. Times for CONTROLS were significantly faster than all laparoscopic groups and did not correlate with operation number or patient BMI.

Conclusions: The length of surgery for LRYGBPs continued to shorten beyond 400 operations for the first surgeon performing LRYGBP in our hospital. Previous fellowship training in LRYGBP shortened surgical times during initial clinical experience as an attending for the second surgeon. The learning curve was truncated because of the already established LRYGBP program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1381/0960892053268507DOI Listing
February 2005

Predictors of prolonged hospital stay following open and laparoscopic gastric bypass for morbid obesity: body mass index, length of surgery, sleep apnea, asthma, and the metabolic syndrome.

Obes Surg 2004 Sep;14(8):1042-50

Bariatric Surgery Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, NJ 07601, USA.

Background: The number of weight reduction operations performed for type II and type III obesity is rapidly escalating. Risk of surgery has been infrequently stratified for patient subgroups. The purpose of this study was to identify patient characteristics that increased the odds of a prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS) following open or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP).

Methods: The hospital records of 311 patients who underwent RYGBP in a 6-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Patient characteristics including the presence of significant obesity-related medical conditions were recorded. Analysis was based on intent to treat. Univariate and step-wise logistic regression analysis was used to identify the odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for predictors of an increased hospital LOS.

Results: Datasets for 311 patients were complete.159 patients underwent open vertical banded gastro-plasty-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (VBG-RYGBP) and152 laparoscopic RYGBP (LRYGBP). 78% of patients were female. Median age was 40 years (range 18-68). Median BMI was 49 kg/m2 (range 35-82). 17% of patients had sleep apnea, 18% asthma, 19% type 2 diabetes, 13% hypercholesterolemia and 44% hypertension. Median length of surgery for open VBG-RYGBP (64 minutes) was significantly faster than forLRYGBP (105 minutes). Median length of stay was significantly shorter for LRYGBP (2 days) than openVBG-RYGBP (3 days). Univariate logistic regression analysis identified 6 predictors of increased LOS:open surgery (0.4 OR); increasing BMI (60 kg/m2 0.38 OR; BMI 70 kg/m2 0.53 OR); increasing length of surgery (120 min 0.33 OR; 180 min 0.48 OR); sleep apnea (2.25 OR); asthma (3.73 OR); and hypercholesterolemia (3.73 OR). Subset analysis identified patients with the greatest odds for a prolonged hospital stay: women with asthma (2.47 AOR) or coronary artery disease (8.65 AOR); men with sleep apnea (5.54 OR) or the metabolic syndrome (6.67-10.20 OR); and patients undergoing a laparoscopic operation with sleep apnea (11.53 AOR) or coronary artery disease(12.15 AOR).

Conclusions: Open surgery, BMI, length of surgery,sleep apnea, asthma and hypercholesterolemia all increased the odds of a prolonged LOS. Patients with the greatest odds of long LOS were women with asthma or coronary disease, men with sleep apnea or the metabolic syndrome, and patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery with sleep apnea or coronary artery disease. Patients at high-risk for prolonged hospital stay can be identified before undergoingRYGBP. Surgeons may wish to avoid high-risk patients early in their bariatric surgery experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1381/0960892041975460DOI Listing
September 2004

Impact of fellowship training on the learning curve for laparoscopic gastric bypass.

Obes Surg 2004 Feb;14(2):197-200

Private Practice, Orange, CA, USA

Background: We have previously shown that the learning curve for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) is approximately 75 cases. Patients have worse outcomes during the learning curve. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of fellowship training on outcomes during a surgeon's early experience with LRYGBP.

Methods: The study population consisted of the first 75 consecutive LRYGBP operations attempted by two laparoscopic surgeons, one with laparoscopic gastric bypass fellowship training (Group A) and one without laparoscopic bypass fellowship training (Group B). OUtcome parameters included mortality, major perioperative complications, operative time, and conversion to an open operation.

Results: Age, BMI, and gender distribution were similar in both groups. Operative time was significantly longer in Group B (189 min. vs 122 min., P<0.05). Conversion to an open procedure occurred uncommonly in both groups (3%). Major complications occurred more frequently in Group B (13% vs 8%, P=NS). In addition, the complications in Group B were more severe, resulting in 2 deaths. No deaths occurred in Group A.

Conclusion: Laparoscopic bypass fellowship training improves perioperative outcomes during a surgeon's early experience with LRYGBP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1381/096089204322857555DOI Listing
February 2004

Short-term results of laparoscopic gastric bypass in patients with BMI > or = 60.

Obes Surg 2002 Oct;12(5):643-7

Department of Surgery, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ, USA.

Background: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) has been shown to be safe and effective. Little information is available about the subgroup of patients with BMI > or = 60. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of LRYGBP for patients with BMI > or = 60.

Methods: The study consisted of the first 300 attempted LRYGBPs performed by one surgeon (HJS). This population was analyzed as 2 groups of patients: those with BMI < 60 and those with BMI > or = 60. Outcome variables included mortality, complications, conversion, and operative time.

Results: Of the first 300 LRYGBP patients, 261 had BMI < 60 and 39 had BMI > or = 60. Age, comorbidity rate, and gender distribution were similar in both BMI groups. Conversion rates were < 3% in both groups. Mean operative time for the BMI > or = 60 group was 156 minutes vs 139 minutes in the lighter group (P = 0.04). Major complications occurred more commonly in the BMI > or = 60 group (10% vs 6%) but this difference was not significant. The types of complications differed between the 2 groups, with infectious complications and gastrointestinal leak occurring more frequently in the heavier group. The mortality rate was higher in the heavier group (5% vs 0.4%, P = 0.055).

Conclusion: LRYGBP is feasible for patients with BMI > or = 60. Our data suggest that these patients are at a higher risk for GI leak, postoperative infection, and death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1381/096089202321019611DOI Listing
October 2002
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