Publications by authors named "Hans Christian Erichsen"

16 Publications

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Primary antibody deficiency: The impact on the quality of life and mental health of affected children and their parents.

Acta Paediatr 2021 05 25;110(5):1645-1652. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Division of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Aim: To evaluate health-related quality of life, mental health and treatment-related stress responses in children with primary antibody deficiency and both their parents.

Methods: Children and their parents completed the standardised questionnaires Pediatric Quality of life Inventory, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and Impact of Event Scale. Parents also completed standardised questionnaires regarding their own mental health and quality of life. The results were compared to those of healthy children, kidney transplanted children and children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Results: Children with primary antibody deficiency reported a poorer health-related quality of life compared to healthy children and children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. They reported poorer mental health compared with healthy children. Mothers of children with primary antibody deficiency reported poorer mental health compared to mothers of healthy children but comparable to mothers of chronically ill children. Parents reported a similar quality of life as the general Norwegian population. Treatment with subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusions at home is generally well tolerated, but some report severe treatment-related stress.

Conclusion: Primary antibody deficiency has a significant impact on quality of life and mental health of affected children. Patients and parents with severe treatment-related stress should be identified and helped.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15752DOI Listing
May 2021

Second-Tier Next Generation Sequencing Integrated in Nationwide Newborn Screening Provides Rapid Molecular Diagnostics of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency.

Front Immunol 2020 9;11:1417. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Norwegian National Unit for Newborn Screening, Division of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and other T cell lymphopenias can be detected during newborn screening (NBS) by measuring T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in dried blood spot (DBS) DNA. Second tier next generation sequencing (NGS) with an amplicon based targeted gene panel using the same DBS DNA was introduced as part of our prospective pilot research project in 2015. With parental consent, 21 000 newborns were TREC-tested in the pilot. Three newborns were identified with SCID, and disease-causing variants in , and were confirmed by NGS on the initial DBS DNA. The molecular findings directed follow-up and therapy: the -SCID underwent early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) without any complications; the leaky SCID received prophylactic antibiotics, antifungals, and immunoglobulin infusions, and underwent HSCT at 1 year of age. The child with -SCID had complete Hirschsprung disease and died at 1 month of age. Since January 2018, all newborns in Norway have been offered NBS for SCID using 1st tier TRECs and 2nd tier gene panel NGS on DBS DNA. During the first 20 months of nationwide SCID screening an additional 88 000 newborns were TREC tested, and four new SCID cases were identified. Disease-causing variants in , and were molecularly confirmed on day 8, 15, 8 and 6, respectively after birth, using the initial NBS blood spot. Targeted gene panel NGS integrated into the NBS algorithm rapidly delineated the specific molecular diagnoses and provided information useful for management, targeted therapy and follow-up i.e., X rays and CT scans were avoided in the radiosensitive SCID. Second tier targeted NGS on the same DBS DNA as the TREC test provided instant confirmation or exclusion of SCID, and made it possible to use a less stringent TREC cut-off value. This allowed for the detection of leaky SCIDs, and simultaneously reduced the number of control samples, recalls and false positives. Mothers were instructed to stop breastfeeding until maternal (CMV) status was determined. Our limited data suggest that shorter time-interval from birth to intervention, may prevent breast milk transmitted CMV infection in classical SCID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7381310PMC
April 2021

A novel disorder involving dyshematopoiesis, inflammation, and HLH due to aberrant CDC42 function.

J Exp Med 2019 12 10;216(12):2778-2799. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics, Houston, TX.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by immune dysregulation due to inadequate restraint of overactivated immune cells and is associated with a variable clinical spectrum having overlap with more common pathophysiologies. HLH is difficult to diagnose and can be part of inflammatory syndromes. Here, we identify a novel hematological/autoinflammatory condition (NOCARH syndrome) in four unrelated patients with superimposable features, including neonatal-onset cytopenia with dyshematopoiesis, autoinflammation, rash, and HLH. Patients shared the same de novo mutation (Chr1:22417990C>T, p.R186C) and altered hematopoietic compartment, immune dysregulation, and inflammation. mutations had been associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders. In vitro and in vivo assays documented unique effects of p.R186C on CDC42 localization and function, correlating with the distinctiveness of the trait. Emapalumab was critical to the survival of one patient, who underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. Early recognition of the disorder and establishment of treatment followed by bone marrow transplant are important to survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20190147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6888978PMC
December 2019

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant outcomes for patients with dominant negative IKZF1/IKAROS mutations.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 07 6;144(1):339-342. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Division of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Immune Deficiency, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.03.025DOI Listing
July 2019

Thymus transplantation for complete DiGeorge syndrome: European experience.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 Dec 8;140(6):1660-1670.e16. Epub 2017 Apr 8.

The Children's Clinic, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia.

Background: Thymus transplantation is a promising strategy for the treatment of athymic complete DiGeorge syndrome (cDGS).

Methods: Twelve patients with cDGS underwent transplantation with allogeneic cultured thymus.

Objective: We sought to confirm and extend the results previously obtained in a single center.

Results: Two patients died of pre-existing viral infections without having thymopoiesis, and 1 late death occurred from autoimmune thrombocytopenia. One infant had septic shock shortly after transplantation, resulting in graft loss and the need for a second transplant. Evidence of thymopoiesis developed from 5 to 6 months after transplantation in 10 patients. Median circulating naive CD4 counts were 44 × 10/L (range, 11-440 × 10/L) and 200 × 10/L (range, 5-310 × 10/L) at 12 and 24 months after transplantation and T-cell receptor excision circles were 2,238/10 T cells (range, 320-8,807/10 T cells) and 4,184/10 T cells (range, 1,582-24,596/10 T cells). Counts did not usually reach normal levels for age, but patients were able to clear pre-existing infections and those acquired later. At a median of 49 months (range, 22-80 months), 8 have ceased prophylactic antimicrobials, and 5 have ceased immunoglobulin replacement. Histologic confirmation of thymopoiesis was seen in 7 of 11 patients undergoing biopsy of transplanted tissue, including 5 showing full maturation through to the terminal stage of Hassall body formation. Autoimmune regulator expression was also demonstrated. Autoimmune complications were seen in 7 of 12 patients. In 2 patients early transient autoimmune hemolysis settled after treatment and did not recur. The other 5 experienced ongoing autoimmune problems, including thyroiditis (3), hemolysis (1), thrombocytopenia (4), and neutropenia (1).

Conclusions: This study confirms the previous reports that thymus transplantation can reconstitute T cells in patients with cDGS but with frequent autoimmune complications in survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2017.03.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5716670PMC
December 2017

Primary immunodeficiency diseases: Genomic approaches delineate heterogeneous Mendelian disorders.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 01 16;139(1):232-245. Epub 2016 Jul 16.

Department of Hematology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders thus far associated with mutations in more than 300 genes. The clinical phenotypes derived from distinct genotypes can overlap. Genetic etiology can be a prognostic indicator of disease severity and can influence treatment decisions.

Objective: We sought to investigate the ability of whole-exome screening methods to detect disease-causing variants in patients with PIDDs.

Methods: Patients with PIDDs from 278 families from 22 countries were investigated by using whole-exome sequencing. Computational copy number variant (CNV) prediction pipelines and an exome-tiling chromosomal microarray were also applied to identify intragenic CNVs. Analytic approaches initially focused on 475 known or candidate PIDD genes but were nonexclusive and further tailored based on clinical data, family history, and immunophenotyping.

Results: A likely molecular diagnosis was achieved in 110 (40%) unrelated probands. Clinical diagnosis was revised in about half (60/110) and management was directly altered in nearly a quarter (26/110) of families based on molecular findings. Twelve PIDD-causing CNVs were detected, including 7 smaller than 30 Kb that would not have been detected with conventional diagnostic CNV arrays.

Conclusion: This high-throughput genomic approach enabled detection of disease-related variants in unexpected genes; permitted detection of low-grade constitutional, somatic, and revertant mosaicism; and provided evidence of a mutational burden in mixed PIDD immunophenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.05.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5222743PMC
January 2017

Targeted high-throughput sequencing for genetic diagnostics of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

Genome Med 2015 Dec 18;7:130. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Centre for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, SE-14186, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rapid-onset, potentially fatal hyperinflammatory syndrome. A prompt molecular diagnosis is crucial for appropriate clinical management. Here, we validated and prospectively evaluated a targeted high-throughput sequencing approach for HLH diagnostics.

Methods: A high-throughput sequencing strategy of 12 genes linked to HLH was validated in 13 patients with previously identified HLH-associated mutations and prospectively evaluated in 58 HLH patients. Moreover, 2504 healthy individuals from the 1000 Genomes project were analyzed in silico for variants in the same genes.

Results: Analyses revealed a mutation detection sensitivity of 97.3%, an average coverage per gene of 98.0%, and adequate coverage over 98.6% of sites previously reported as mutated in these genes. In the prospective cohort, we achieved a diagnosis in 22 out of 58 patients (38%). Genetically undiagnosed HLH patients had a later age at onset and manifested higher frequencies of known secondary HLH triggers. Rare, putatively pathogenic monoallelic variants were identified in nine patients. However, such monoallelic variants were not enriched compared with healthy individuals.

Conclusions: We have established a comprehensive high-throughput platform for genetic screening of patients with HLH. Almost all cases with reduced natural killer cell function received a diagnosis, but the majority of the prospective cases remain genetically unexplained, highlighting genetic heterogeneity and environmental impact within HLH. Moreover, in silico analyses of the genetic variation affecting HLH-related genes in the general population suggest caution with respect to interpreting causality between monoallelic mutations and HLH. A complete understanding of the genetic susceptibility to HLH thus requires further in-depth investigations, including genome sequencing and detailed immunological characterization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-015-0244-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4684627PMC
December 2015

PGM3 mutations cause a congenital disorder of glycosylation with severe immunodeficiency and skeletal dysplasia.

Am J Hum Genet 2014 Jul 12;95(1):96-107. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway.

Human phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3) catalyzes the conversion of N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc)-6-phosphate into GlcNAc-1-phosphate during the synthesis of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-GlcNAc, a sugar nucleotide critical to multiple glycosylation pathways. We identified three unrelated children with recurrent infections, congenital leukopenia including neutropenia, B and T cell lymphopenia, and progression to bone marrow failure. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated deleterious mutations in PGM3 in all three subjects, delineating their disease to be due to an unsuspected congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). Functional studies of the disease-associated PGM3 variants in E. coli cells demonstrated reduced PGM3 activity for all mutants tested. Two of the three children had skeletal anomalies resembling Desbuquois dysplasia: short stature, brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual disability. However, these additional features were absent in the third child, showing the clinical variability of the disease. Two children received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of cord blood and bone marrow from matched related donors; both had successful engraftment and correction of neutropenia and lymphopenia. We define PGM3-CDG as a treatable immunodeficiency, document the power of whole-exome sequencing in gene discoveries for rare disorders, and illustrate the utility of genomic analyses in studying combined and variable phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4085583PMC
July 2014

Genomic and functional analysis of the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter SLC23A1-SVCT1.

Genes Nutr 2007 Oct;2(1):143-5

Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12263-007-0040-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2474910PMC
October 2007

Genetic variation in sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 and risk of advanced colorectal adenoma.

Nutr Cancer 2008 ;60(5):652-9

Section on Genomic Variation, Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4605, USA.

Previous observational studies suggest that vitamin C may reduce risk of colorectal cancer. Vitamin C transport is facilitated by membrane bound sodium-dependent transporters, SVCT1 (encoded by SLC23A1) and SVCT2 (encoded by SLC23A2). To investigate if common genetic variants in these two genes are associated with risk of colorectal tumor development, we conducted a case-control study of 656 Caucasian advanced distal colorectal adenoma cases and 665 Caucasian sigmoidoscopy-negative controls nested within the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. The analysis of common single nucleotide polymorphisms in SLC23A1 revealed no association. For SLC23A2, overall, there was no association with haplotypes, but two SNPs located in intron 8 and exon 11 could be associated (odds ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval = 0.25-0.95 for haplotype G-C vs. haplotype C-C). The findings should be confirmed in follow-up studies, and further investigation is required to probe the functional basis of this finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635580802033110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3490215PMC
February 2009

Genetic variation in the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters, SLC23A1, and SLC23A2 and risk for preterm delivery.

Am J Epidemiol 2006 Feb 15;163(3):245-54. Epub 2005 Dec 15.

Section on Genomic Variation, Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Vitamin C has been the focus of epidemiologic investigation in preterm delivery (<37 weeks' gestation), which is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and birth-related morbidity. There are two sodium-dependent membrane transporters encoded by SLC23A1 and SLC23A2, which have key roles in human vitamin C metabolism and which control dietary uptake, reabsorption, and tissue distribution of vitamin C. Using maternal DNA, the authors evaluated common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 in a nested case-control analysis of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (1995-2000) cohort. Of the associations observed for both haplotypes in SLC23A1 and individual SNPs in SLC23A2, the most robust finding is with an intron 2 variant in SLC23A2. Heterozygotes and homozygotes for this variant had a 1.7-fold (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 3.3) and a 2.7-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 6.3) elevation in the risk of spontaneous preterm birth, respectively. Semi-Bayesian hierarchical regression analysis, which simultaneously adjusted for multiple SNPs within the same gene, gave comparable results. The authors' findings link genetic variants in the vitamin C transporters to spontaneous preterm birth, which may explain previous dietary associations. If the findings from this study are confirmed, they may serve as the foundation for genetic risk assessment of nutritional pathways in preterm birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwj035DOI Listing
February 2006

Risk of small-for-gestational age is associated with common anti-inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms.

Epidemiology 2005 Jul;16(4):478-86

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Anti-inflammatory cytokines play a key role in pregnancy maintenance. Genetic variation in anti-inflammatory cytokines could influence a woman's risk of adverse reproductive outcomes.

Methods: We investigated the relationship of polymorphisms in interleukin 4 (IL4), IL5, IL10, IL13, and transforming growth factor (TGFbeta1) with spontaneous preterm birth and small-for-gestational age (SGA) in a nested case-control study of a prospective pregnancy cohort. Women were recruited between 24 and 29 weeks' gestation at the Wake County and University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill obstetric clinics between February 1996 and June 2000. We inferred haplotypes using the EM algorithm and the Bayesian method, PHASE. Semi-Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each polymorphism.

Results: African-American mothers who carried the IL4 GCC haplotype had greater risk of spontaneous preterm birth (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.2-7.4). In white mothers, carriers of the "low-producing" IL4 CC and IL10 ATA haplotypes had markedly reduced risk of SGA (for the CC haplotype, 0.2 [0.0-1.2]; for the ATA haplotype, 0.5 [0.3-0.8]), whereas carriers of the "high-producing" IL4(-589)T variant had increased risk of SGA in both African-American and white mothers.

Conclusions: Variants related to decreased anti-inflammatory cytokine production may lower risk of SGA. Furthermore, the same mechanism that protects against SGA might increase risk of spontaneous preterm birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ede.0000164535.36412.6bDOI Listing
July 2005

Risk of spontaneous preterm birth is associated with common proinflammatory cytokine polymorphisms.

Epidemiology 2005 Jul;16(4):469-77

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Preliminary data suggest that common genetic variation in immune response genes can contribute to the risk for spontaneous preterm birth and possibly small-for-gestational age (SGA).

Methods: We investigated the relationship of polymorphisms in 6 cytokine genes associated with inflammation-interleukin (IL)1alpha, IL1beta, IL2, IL6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and lymphotoxin alpha (LTA)-with spontaneous preterm and SGA birth in a nested case-control study drawn from a prospective pregnancy cohort. Women were recruited between 24 and 29 weeks' gestation at the Wake County and University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill obstetric clinics between February 1996 and June 2000. We inferred haplotypes using the EM algorithm and the Bayesian method, PHASE. We then compared haplotype frequency distributions and implemented semi-Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression analyses to obtain odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each polymorphism.

Results: Two haplotypes spanning the TNF/LTA genes were associated with increased risk for spontaneous preterm birth in white subjects (for the AGG haplotype, OR = 1.5 [95% CI=0.8-2.6]; for the GAC haplotype, 1.6 [0.9-2.9]). Additionally, carriers of the GAG haplotype were found to have decreased risk of spontaneous preterm birth (0.6; 0.3-1.0). The TNF(-488)A and LTA(IVS1-82)C variants, constituents of the AGG and GAC haplotypes respectively, were also strongly associated with increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that common genetic variants in proinflammatory cytokine genes could influence the risk for spontaneous preterm birth. Selected TNF/LTA haplotypes were associated with spontaneous preterm birth in both African-American and white subjects. Our data do not support an inflammatory etiology for SGA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ede.0000164539.09250.31DOI Listing
July 2005

Comparison of the genomic structure and variation in the two human sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters, SLC23A1 and SLC23A2.

Hum Genet 2004 Sep;115(4):285-94

Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is an essential co-factor for eight mammalian enzymes and quenches reactive oxygen species. Sodium-dependent vitamin C transport is mediated by two transporters, SVCT 1 and SVCT 2, encoded by SLC23A1 and SLC23A2. We characterized the genomic structures of SLC23A1 and SLC23A2, determined the extent of genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium across each gene, analyzed nucleotide diversity to estimate the effect of selective pressure, and compared sequence variation across species. In SLC23A1, the majority of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are population-specific in either African Americans or Caucasians, including three of four non-synonymous SNPs. In contrast, most SNPs in SLC23A2 are shared between African Americans and Caucasians, and there are no non-synonymous SNPs in SLC23A2. Our analysis, combined with previous in vitro and in vivo studies, suggests that non-synonymous variation appears to be tolerated in SLC23A1 but not SLC23A2, and that this may be a consequence of different selective pressures following past gene duplication of the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters. Genetic association studies of these two genes will need to account for the differences in haplotype structure and the population-specific variants. Our data represent a fundamental step toward the application of genetics to refining nutrient recommendations, specifically for vitamin C, and may serve as a paradigm for other vitamins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-004-1167-xDOI Listing
September 2004

Association between chronic disseminated candidiasis in adult acute leukemia and common IL4 promoter haplotypes.

J Infect Dis 2003 Apr 19;187(7):1153-6. Epub 2003 Mar 19.

Section of Genomic Variation, Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute/NIH, Advanced Technology Center, Gaithersburg, MD 20892-4605, USA.

Chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC) is a form of Candida species infection observed primarily in patients with acute leukemia. To investigate possible genetic factors associated with CDC, we conducted a pilot study of 40 patients with both leukemia and CDC and 50 control patients with leukemia only. A common haplotype of the IL4 promoter (-1098T/-589C/-33C) was overrepresented in patients with CDC (P= .01; odds ratio [OR], 2.16), whereas another common haplotype (-1098T/-589T/-33T) appeared to be protective against CDC (P= .018; OR, 0.47). Genetic variants of IL4 could contribute to the development of CDC in patients with acute leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/368345DOI Listing
April 2003