Publications by authors named "Hannah Rosenblum"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Declines in Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine-Type Infection Among Females after Introduction of Vaccine - United States, 2003-2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Mar 26;70(12):415-420. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States (1). Although most infections resolve without clinical sequalae, persistent HPV infection can cause cervical, other anogenital, and oropharyngeal cancers and anogenital warts. HPV vaccination has been recommended in the United States at age 11-12 years since 2006 for females and since 2011 for males. Catch-up vaccination is recommended through age 26 years.* A quadrivalent vaccine (4vHPV) targeting types 6, 11, 16, and 18 was mainly used until 2015, when a 9-valent vaccine (9vHPV), targeting the same four types as 4vHPV and five additional types (31, 33, 45, 52, and 58), was introduced; 9vHPV has been the only vaccine available in the United States since the end of 2016 (2). HPV vaccination coverage has increased but remains lower than that of other vaccinations recommended for adolescents (3). A decrease in prevalence of 4vHPV types detected in cervicovaginal swabs among young females from the prevaccine era (2003-2006) to 2007-2010 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was an early indicator of vaccine impact (2) and was also observed in later periods (4,5). NHANES data from 2017-2018 were included in this analysis to update HPV prevalence estimates among females aged 14-34 years. From the prevaccine era to 2015-2018, significant decreases in 4vHPV-type prevalence occurred among females aged 14-19 years (88%) and 20-24 years (81%). In sexually experienced females, 4vHPV-type prevalence decreased in those who reported receiving ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (97% among those aged 14-19 years, 86% among those aged 20-24 years) and in those who reported no vaccination (87% among those aged 14-19 years, 65% among those aged 20-24 years). Significant declines among unvaccinated females suggest herd effects. These data show increasing impact of HPV vaccination in the United States. HPV vaccination is a critical prevention tool against HPV infection, anogenital warts, and HPV-attributable precancers and cancers. HPV vaccination is highly effective and is recommended routinely at age 11-12 years and through 26 years for persons not already vaccinated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7012a2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993559PMC
March 2021

Increased Aortic Stiffness Is Associated With Higher Rates of Stroke, Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Pump Thrombosis in Patients With a Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device.

J Card Fail 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York; Cardiff School of Sport & Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK. Electronic address:

Background: In the general population, increased aortic stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Previous studies have demonstrated an increase in aortic stiffness in patients with a continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD). However, the association between aortic stiffness and common adverse events is unknown.

Methods And Results: Forty patients with a HeartMate II (HMII) (51 $ 11 years; 20% female; 25% ischemic) implanted between January 2011 and September 2017 were included. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiograms of the ascending aorta, obtained before HMII placement and early after heart transplant, were analyzed to calculate the aortic stiffness index (AO-SI). The study cohort was divided into patients who had an increased vs decreased AO-SI after LVAD support. A composite outcome of gastrointestinal bleeding, stroke, and pump thrombosis was defined as the primary end point and compared between the groups. While median AO-SI increased significantly after HMII support (AO-SI 4.4-6.5, P = .012), 16 patients had a lower AO-SI. Patients with increased (n = 24) AO-SI had a significantly higher rate of the composite end point (58% vs 12%, odds ratio 9.8, P < .01). Similarly, those with increased AO-SI tended to be on LVAD support for a longer duration, had higher LVAD speed and reduced use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers.

Conclusions: Increased aortic stiffness in patients with a HMII is associated with a significantly higher rates of adverse events. Further studies are warranted to determine the causality between aortic stiffness and adverse events, as well as the effect of neurohormonal modulation on the conduit vasculature in patients with a CF-LVAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.02.009DOI Listing
February 2021

Admission Cardiac Diagnostic Testing with Electrocardiography and Troponin Measurement Prognosticates Increased 30-Day Mortality in COVID-19.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 01 10;10(1):e018476. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Seymour, Paul, and Gloria Milstein Division of Cardiology Department of Medicine Columbia University Irving Medical Center New York NY.

Background Cardiovascular involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common and leads to worsened mortality. Diagnostic cardiovascular studies may be helpful for resource appropriation and identifying patients at increased risk for death. Methods and Results We analyzed 887 patients (aged 64±17 years) admitted with COVID-19 from March 1 to April 3, 2020 in New York City with 12 lead electrocardiography within 2 days of diagnosis. Demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory testing, including high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), were abstracted. At 30 days follow-up, 556 patients (63%) were living without requiring mechanical ventilation, 123 (14%) were living and required mechanical ventilation, and 203 (23%) had expired. Electrocardiography findings included atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (AF/AFL) in 46 (5%) and ST-T wave changes in 306 (38%). 27 (59%) patients with AF/AFL expired as compared to 181 (21%) of 841 with other non-life-threatening rhythms (<0.001). Multivariable analysis incorporating age, comorbidities, AF/AFL, QRS abnormalities, and ST-T wave changes, and initial hs-cTnT ≥20 ng/L showed that increased age (HR 1.04/year), elevated hs-cTnT (HR 4.57), AF/AFL (HR 2.07), and a history of coronary artery disease (HR 1.56) and active cancer (HR 1.87) were associated with increased mortality. Conclusions Myocardial injury with hs-cTnT ≥20 ng/L, in addition to cardiac conduction perturbations, especially AF/AFL, upon hospital admission for COVID-19 infection is associated with markedly increased risk for mortality than either diagnostic abnormality alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955502PMC
January 2021

Comparing outcomes for infiltrative and restrictive cardiomyopathies under the new heart transplant allocation system.

Clin Transplant 2020 12 28;34(12):e14109. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Milstein Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

The new heart transplantation (HT) allocation policy was introduced on 10/18/2018. Using the UNOS registry, we examined early outcomes following HT for restrictive cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac sarcoidosis, or cardiac amyloidosis compared to the old system. Those listed who had an event (transplant, death, or waitlist removal) prior to 10/17/2018 were in Era 1, and those listed on or after 10/18/2018 were in Era 2. The primary endpoint was death on the waitlist or delisting due to clinical deterioration. A total of 1232 HT candidates were included, 855 (69.4%) in Era 1 and 377 (30.6%) in Era 2. In Era 2, there was a significant increase in the use of temporary mechanical circulatory support and a reduction in the primary endpoint, (20.9 events per 100 PY (Era 1) vs. 18.6 events per 100 PY (Era 2), OR 1.98, p = .005). Median waitlist time decreased (91 vs. 58 days, p < .001), and transplantation rate increased (119.0 to 204.7 transplants/100 PY for Era 1 vs Era 2). Under the new policy, there has been a decrease in waitlist time and waitlist mortality/delisting due to clinical deterioration, and an increase in transplantation rates for patients with infiltrative, hypertrophic, and restrictive cardiomyopathies without any effect on post-transplant 6-month survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.14109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755228PMC
December 2020

The Prognostic Value of Electrocardiogram at Presentation to Emergency Department in Patients With COVID-19.

Mayo Clin Proc 2020 10 15;95(10):2099-2109. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Seymour, Paul, and Gloria Milstein Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell University Medical Center, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Objective: To study whether combining vital signs and electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis can improve early prognostication.

Methods: This study analyzed 1258 adults with coronavirus disease 2019 who were seen at three hospitals in New York in March and April 2020. Electrocardiograms at presentation to the emergency department were systematically read by electrophysiologists. The primary outcome was a composite of mechanical ventilation or death 48 hours from diagnosis. The prognostic value of ECG abnormalities was assessed in a model adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and vital signs.

Results: At 48 hours, 73 of 1258 patients (5.8%) had died and 174 of 1258 (13.8%) were alive but receiving mechanical ventilation with 277 of 1258 (22.0%) patients dying by 30 days. Early development of respiratory failure was common, with 53% of all intubations occurring within 48 hours of presentation. In a multivariable logistic regression, atrial fibrillation/flutter (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.2), right ventricular strain (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.1), and ST segment abnormalities (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.8) were associated with death or mechanical ventilation at 48 hours. In 108 patients without these ECG abnormalities and with normal respiratory vitals (rate <20 breaths/min and saturation >95%), only 5 (4.6%) died or required mechanical ventilation by 48 hours versus 68 of 216 patients (31.5%) having both ECG and respiratory vital sign abnormalities.

Conclusion: The combination of abnormal respiratory vital signs and ECG findings of atrial fibrillation/flutter, right ventricular strain, or ST segment abnormalities accurately prognosticates early deterioration in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and may assist with patient triage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.07.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428764PMC
October 2020

Sex Differences in the Phenotype of Transthyretin Cardiac Amyloidosis Due to Val122Ile Mutation: Insights from Noninvasive Pressure-Volume Analysis.

J Card Fail 2021 Jan 20;27(1):67-74. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 W 168th St, New York, NY 10032. Electronic address:

Background: Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA) is an under-recognized cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. In the United States, the valine-to-isoleucine substitution (Val122Ile) is the most common inherited variant. Data on sex differences in presentation and outcomes of Val122Ile associated ATTR-CA are lacking.

Methods And Results: In a retrospective, single-center study of 73 patients diagnosed with Val122Ile associated ATTR-CA between 2001 and 2018, sex differences in clinical and echocardiographic data at the time of diagnosis were evaluated. Pressure-volume analysis using noninvasive single beat techniques was used to compare chamber performance. Compared with men (n = 46), women (n = 27) were significantly older at diagnosis, 76 years vs 69 years; P < .001. The end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, 5.1 mm Hg*m/mL vs 4.3 mm Hg*m/mL; P = .27, arterial elastance, 5.5 mm Hg*m/mL vs 5.7 mm Hg*m/mL; P = .62, and left ventricular capacitance were similar between sexes as was pressure-volume areas indexed to a left ventricular end-diastolic pressure of 30 mm Hg, a measure of overall pump function. The 3-year mortality rates were also similar, 34% vs 43%; P = .64.

Conclusions: Despite being significantly older at time of diagnosis with Val122Ile associated ATTR-CA, women have similar overall cardiac chamber function and rates of mortality to men, suggesting a less aggressive disease trajectory. These findings should be confirmed with longitudinal studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2020.08.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869136PMC
January 2021

Indications for and Findings on Transthoracic Echocardiography in COVID-19.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2020 10 17;33(10):1278-1284. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Background: Despite growing evidence of cardiovascular complications associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are few data regarding the performance of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and the spectrum of echocardiographic findings in this disease.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed among adult patients admitted to a quaternary care center in New York City between March 1 and April 3, 2020. Patients were included if they underwent TTE during the hospitalization after a known positive diagnosis for COVID-19. Demographic and clinical data were obtained using chart abstraction from the electronic medical record.

Results: Of 749 patients, 72 (9.6%) underwent TTE following positive results on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 polymerase chain reaction testing. The most common clinical indications for TTE were concern for a major acute cardiovascular event (45.8%) and hemodynamic instability (29.2%). Although most patients had preserved biventricular function, 34.7% were found to have left ventricular ejection fractions ≤ 50%, and 13.9% had at least moderately reduced right ventricular function. Four patients had wall motion abnormalities suggestive of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Using Spearman rank correlation, there was an inverse relationship between high-sensitivity troponin T and left ventricular ejection fraction (ρ = -0.34, P = .006). Among 20 patients with prior echocardiograms, only two (10%) had new reductions in LVEF of >10%. Clinical management was changed in eight individuals (24.2%) in whom TTE was ordered for concern for acute major cardiovascular events and three (14.3%) in whom TTE was ordered for hemodynamic evaluation.

Conclusions: This study describes the clinical indications for use and diagnostic performance of TTE, as well as findings seen on TTE, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. In appropriately selected patients, TTE can be an invaluable tool for guiding COVID-19 clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2020.06.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298489PMC
October 2020

Unveiling outcomes in coexisting severe aortic stenosis and transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Feb 8;23(2):250-258. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Center for Cardiac Amyloidosis, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

Aims: Advances in diagnostic imaging have increased the recognition of coexisting transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA) and severe aortic stenosis (AS), with a reported prevalence between 8-16%. In this prospective study, we aimed to evaluate the implications of ATTR-CA on outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Methods And Results: At two academic centres, we screened patients with severe AS undergoing TAVR for ATTR-CA. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we compared survival free from death and a combined endpoint of death and first heart failure hospitalization between patients with and without ATTR-CA. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to determine the association of ATTR-CA with these endpoints. The rate of heart failure hospitalization was compared amongst those with and without ATTR-CA. Overall, 204 patients (83 years, 65% male, Society of Thoracic Surgeons score 6.6%, 72% New York Heart Association class III/IV) were included, 27 (13%) with ATTR-CA. Over a median follow-up of 2.04 years, there was no difference in mortality (log rank, P = 0.99) or the combined endpoint (log rank, P = 0.79) between patients with and without ATTR-CA. In Cox proportional-hazards models, the presence of ATTR-CA was not associated with death. However, patients with ATTR-CA had increased rates of heart failure hospitalization at 1 year (0.372 vs. 0.114 events/person-year, P < 0.004) and 3 years (0.199 vs. 0.111 events/person-year, P = 0.087) following TAVR.

Conclusion: In moderate-risk patients with severe AS undergoing TAVR, there was a 13% prevalence of ATTR-CA, which did not affect mortality. The observed increase in heart failure hospitalization following TAVR in those with ATTR-CA suggests the consequences of the underlying infiltrative myopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1974DOI Listing
February 2021

Insufficient Calorie Intake Worsens Post-Discharge Quality of Life and Increases Readmission Burden in Heart Failure.

JACC Heart Fail 2020 09 8;8(9):756-764. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Columbia University, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between calorie intake and post-discharge outcomes in hospitalized patients with heart failure (HF).

Background: Malnutrition increases adverse outcomes in HF, and dietary sodium restriction may inadvertently worsen nutritional intake.

Methods: In a dietary intervention trial, baseline nutritional intake in HF inpatients was estimated using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and the Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) was calculated. Insufficient calorie intake was defined as <90% of metabolic needs, and a 15-point micronutrient deficiency score was created. Adjusted linear, logistic, and negative binomial regression were used to evaluate associations between insufficient calorie intake and quality of life (using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Clinical Summary [KCCQ-CS]), readmission risk, and days rehospitalized over 12 weeks.

Results: Among 57 participants (70 ± 8 years of age; 31% female; mean body mass index 32 ± 8 kg/m); median sodium and calorie intake amounts were 2,987 mg/day (interquartile range [IQR]: 2,160 to 3,540 mg/day) and 1,602 kcal/day (IQR: 1,201 to 2,142 kcal/day), respectively; 11% of these patients were screened as malnourished by the NRI. All patients consuming <2,000 mg/day sodium had insufficient calorie intake; this group also more frequently had dietary micronutrient and protein deficiencies. At 12 weeks, patients with insufficient calorie intake had less improvement in the KCCQ-CS score (β = -14.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -27.3 to -1.9), higher odds of readmission (odds ratio: 14.5; 95% CI: 2.2 to 94.4), and more days rehospitalized (incident rate ratio: 31.3; 95% CI: 4.3 to 229.3).

Conclusions: Despite a high prevalence for obesity and rare overt malnutrition, insufficient calorie intake was associated with poorer post-discharge quality of life and increased burden of readmission in patients with HF. Inpatient dietary assessment could improve readmission risk stratification and identify patients for nutritional intervention. (Geriatric Out of Hospital Randomized Meal Trial in Heart Failure [GOURMET-HF] NCT02148679).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2020.04.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Zinc Deficiency as a Reversible Cause of Heart Failure.

Tex Heart Inst J 2020 04;47(2):152-154

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.

Zinc, an essential micronutrient, affects the heart by modulating cardiomyocyte oxidative stress and maintaining myocardial structure, among other mechanisms. In cross-sectional studies, patients with heart failure have often had zinc deficiencies, suggesting effects on the ongoing pathogenesis of heart failure. Low plasma and myocardial zinc levels may cause reversible cardiomyopathy in patients who have nutritional deficiencies. We present the case of a 24-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa and new-onset heart failure whose depressed left ventricular systolic function improved after zinc supplementation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of low plasma zinc levels as the chief cause of cardiomyopathy that resolved after zinc supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14503/THIJ-17-6586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328074PMC
April 2020

Conceptual Considerations for Device-Based Therapy in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: DRIPS.

Circ Heart Fail 2020 04 16;13(4):e006731. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY (D.B.).

Acute decompensated heart failure remains the most common cause of hospitalization in older adults, and studies of pharmacological therapies have yielded limited progress in improving outcomes for these patients. This has prompted the development of novel device-based interventions, classified mechanistically based on the way in which they intend to improve central hemodynamics, increase renal perfusion, remove salt and water from the body, and result in clinically meaningful degrees of decongestion. In this review, we provide an overview of the pathophysiology of acute decompensated heart failure, current management strategies, and failed pharmacological therapies. We provide an in depth description of seven investigational device classes designed to target one or more of the pathophysiologic derangements in acute decompensated heart failure, denoted by the acronym DRIPS. Dilators decrease central pressures by increasing venous capacitance through splanchnic nerve modulation. Removers remove excess fluid through peritoneal dialysis, aquaphoresis, or hemodialysis. Inotropes directly modulate the cardiac nerve plexus to enhance ventricular contractility. Interstitial devices enhance volume removal through lymphatic duct decompression. Pushers are novel descending aorta rotary pumps that directly increase renal artery pressure. Pullers reduce central venous pressures or renal venous pressures to increase renal perfusion. Selective intrarenal artery catheters facilitate direct delivery of short acting vasodilator therapy. We also discuss challenges posed in clinical trial design for these novel device-based strategies including optimal patient selection and appropriate end points to establish efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006731DOI Listing
April 2020

Pathophysiology and Advanced Hemodynamic Assessment of Cardiogenic Shock.

Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 2020 Jan-Mar;16(1):7-15

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER, NEW YORK, NEW YORK.

Cardiogenic shock (CGS) is common and highly morbid. According to the National Inpatient Sample, there are more than 100,000 cases per year, and 30-day mortality approaches 50% despite improvements in critical care practices and novel mechanical therapies targeted at restoring normal hemodynamics. This issue aims to enhance clinicians' understanding of CGS, and this review specifically focuses on the underlying pathophysiology. We examine the definition and etiologies of CGS, approaches to risk assessment, and the pressure-volume loop framework that is the foundation for conceptualizing ventricular mechanics, ventricular-vascular interactions, and the derangements observed in CGS. This overview will also contextualize subsequent chapters that discuss nuances of CGS encountered in particular scenarios (ie, post-myocardial infraction, acutely decompensated chronic heart failure, post-cardiac surgery), address pharmacological and mechanical treatments for CGS, and review CGS in a case-based format.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14797/mdcj-16-1-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7137617PMC
July 2020

Untangling the physiology of transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis by leveraging echocardiographically derived pressure-volume indices.

Eur Heart J 2020 04;41(14):1448-1450

Center for Cardiac Amyloidosis, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa131DOI Listing
April 2020

Bionic women and men - Part 2: Arterial stiffness in heart failure patients implanted with left ventricular assist devices.

Exp Physiol 2020 05 22;105(5):755-758. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

School of Sport & Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? This review discusses how implantation of continuous flow left ventricular assist devices impact arterial stiffness and outcome. What advances does it highlight? Not all patients implanted with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices show an increase in arterial stiffness. However, in those patients where arterial stiffness increases, levels of composite outcome (stroke, gastrointestinal bleeding, pump thrombosis and death) is significantly higher than those who's arterial stiffness does not increase.

Abstract: In parallel with the major advances in clinical care, technological advancements and implantation of mechanical circulatory support in patients with severe heart failure have resulted in these patients living longer. However, these patients are still at increased risk of stroke and gastrointestinal bleeding. The unique continuous flow produced by various left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has been suggested as one potential reason for this increased risk of stroke and gastrointestinal bleeding. Furthermore, these continuous-flow (CF) devices challenge our understanding of circulatory blood pressure and flow regulation in relationship to organ health. In healthy pulsatile and dynamic systems, arterial stiffness is a major independent risk factor for stroke. However, to date, there are limited data regarding the impact of CF-LVAD therapy on arterial stiffness. The purpose of this report is to discuss the variable impact of CF-LVAD therapy on arterial stiffness and attempt to highlight some potential mechanisms linking these associations in this unique population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP088326DOI Listing
May 2020

Bionic women and men - Part 3: Right ventricular dysfunction in patients implanted with left ventricular assist devices.

Exp Physiol 2020 05 18;105(5):759-762. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Medicine - Cardiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? Right heart dysfunction remains a major adverse event in patients with end stage heart failure undergoing left ventricular assist device placement. This article reviews the pathophysiology and clinical considerations of right heart failure in this patient population. What advances does it highlight? This review highlights the anatomic and physiological peculiarities of the interplay between left and right heart function in patients undergoing LVAD therapy. These would allow us to further advance our understanding of right ventricular function.

Abstract: The adaptation of the right ventricular (RV) output to a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) often determines the fate of patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to left heart failure. Pre-existing right heart dysfunction in patients with advanced left heart failure is the consequence of increased (arterial) afterload and not simply the consequence of myocardial disease. If unaccounted for, it has the potential of accelerating into clinical right heart failure after LVAD, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. After LVAD implantation, the RV has to face increased flow generated by the LVAD, cardiac arrhythmias and exaggerated functional interactions between both ventricles. Understanding the key physiological mechanisms of RV dysfunction in patients with end-stage heart failure will allow us to predict and therefore prevent RV failure after LVAD implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP088324DOI Listing
May 2020

Zinc Deficiency and Heart Failure: A Systematic Review of the Current Literature.

J Card Fail 2020 Feb 11;26(2):180-189. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Columbia University Medical Center/ New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York; Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut; Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Zinc is an essential micronutrient that impacts the cardiovascular system through modulation of oxidative stress. It is unknown whether zinc levels are affected in heart failure (HF), and whether the association, if present, is causal. A systematic search for publications that report coexisting zinc deficiency in patients with HF was performed to provide an overview of the pathophysiological and epidemiological aspects of this association (last search April 2019). Review of the literature suggests multiple potential pathophysiologic causes for zinc deficiency in HF as a result of impaired micronutrient consumption, hyper-inflammatory state, upregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, diminished absorption, and hyperzincuria from HF medications. In a longitudinal study of patients with HF in the setting of intestinal malabsorption, there was partial cardiomyocyte and left ventricular ejection fraction recovery with intravenous selenium and zinc supplementation. Two randomized double-blind control trials evaluating micronutrient and macronutrient supplementation including zinc in patients with HF found improvement in echocardiographic findings compared with placebo. Two recently completed studies evaluated the role for zinc supplementation in 2 different HF populations: a trial of zinc supplementation in patients with non-ischemic HF, and a trial of micronutrient supplementation (including B vitamins, vitamin D, and zinc) in veterans with systolic dysfunction; the results of which are still pending. Several pathobiological pathways to link zinc deficiency with the development and deterioration of HF are presented. Preliminary clinical data are supportive of such an association and future studies should further investigate the effects of zinc supplementation on outcomes in patients with HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2020.01.005DOI Listing
February 2020

A resident-led project to improve documentation of overweight and obesity in a primary care clinic.

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2019 1;9(5):377-383. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Departments of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

: Although the prevalence of overweight and obesity (OW/OB) has increased in the last three decades, studies show that these conditions are sub-optimally documented by physicians. Health information technology tools have varying effects on improving documentation of OW/OB but often have to be complemented with other interventions to be effective. : Upon identifying low rates of documentation of diagnoses of overweight and obesity by resident and attending physicians, despite the use of an electronic health record (EHR) with automated BMI calculations, we performed a quality improvement (QI) project to improve documentation of these diagnoses for patients in our community hospital primary care clinic. : The EHR was reviewed to determine documentation rates by resident and attending physicians between 1 March 2018 and 31 September 2018. We collected pre-intervention data, developed interventions, and implemented tests of change using Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles to improve documentation of OW/OB. : Documentation of overweight and obesity diagnoses increased from a baseline of 46% to 79% over a 20-week period after initiation of our project. : We demonstrate the successful implementation of resident-led, multi-faceted interventions in a team-based QI project to optimize documentation of OW/OB in the EHR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20009666.2019.1681056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6830187PMC
November 2019

TTR (Transthyretin) Stabilizers Are Associated With Improved Survival in Patients With TTR Cardiac Amyloidosis.

Circ Heart Fail 2018 04;11(4):e004769

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center/New York-Presbyterian Hospital.

Background: TTR (transthyretin) cardiac amyloidosis is caused by dissociation of TTR into monomers, which misassemble into amyloid fibrils. TTR stabilizers act at the dimer-dimer interface to prevent dissociation. We investigated differences in survival among patients with TTR cardiac amyloidosis on stabilizer medications compared with those not on stabilizers.

Methods And Results: A retrospective study of patients with TTR cardiac amyloidosis presenting to a single center was conducted. Baseline characteristics were compared between those treated with stabilizers and those not treated with stabilizers. Cox proportional hazards modeling assessed for univariate predictors of the composite outcome of death or orthotopic heart transplant (OHT). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards assessed whether stabilizer treatment was independently associated with improved death or OHT after controlling for significant univariate predictors. One hundred twenty patients (mean age, 75±8, 88% male) were included: 29 patients who received stabilizers and 91 patients who did not. Stabilizer use was associated with a lower risk of the combined end point of death or OHT (hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.58; <0.0001). Subjects treated with stabilizers were more likely to be of White race (93% versus 55%; <0.001), classified as New York Heart Association classes I and II (79% versus 38%; =0.002), less likely to have a mutation (10% versus 36%; =0.010), have lower troponin I (median 0.06 versus 0.12 ng/mL; =0.002), and higher left ventricular ejection fraction (49% versus 40%; =0.011), suggesting earlier stage of disease. In multivariable Cox analysis, the association between stabilizer and death or OHT persisted when adjusted for all noncollinear univariate predictors with <0.05 (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.75; =0.003).

Conclusions: TTR stabilizers are associated with decreased death and OHT in TTR cardiac amyloidosis. These results need to be confirmed by ongoing randomized clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.117.004769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5886729PMC
April 2018

Case-based approach to managing angle closure glaucoma with anterior segment imaging.

Can J Ophthalmol 2014 Dec;49(6):512-8

NYU School of Medicine, New York, N.Y.. Electronic address:

This is a case-based approach to the diagnosis and management of angle closure glaucoma of a variety of causative factors, with a special emphasis on the use of advanced anterior segment imaging including ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Although all angle closure is caused by iridotrabecular contact, the cause of angle closure glaucoma is classified based on the site of primary blockage of aqueous movement from anterior to posterior: pupillary block, plateau iris, lens-related, and posterior causative factors. Although gonioscopy is traditionally used to visualize the angle structures and estimate the angle width, objective and reproducible measurement of the anterior chamber angle can best be obtained with advanced anterior segment imaging. In this review article, we demonstrate the utility of anterior advanced imaging to identify underlying mechanisms in cases of angle closure glaucoma in guiding directed management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2014.10.004DOI Listing
December 2014

Low-sodium dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet reduces blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and oxidative stress in hypertensive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Hypertension 2012 Nov 1;60(5):1200-6. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Dr, CVC Room 2383, SPC 5853, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction contribute to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). In salt-sensitive HFPEF animal models, diets low in sodium and high in potassium, calcium, magnesium, and antioxidants attenuate oxidative stress and cardiovascular damage. We hypothesized that the sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (DASH/SRD) would have similar effects in human hypertensive HFPEF. Thirteen patients with treated hypertension and compensated HFPEF consumed the DASH/SRD for 21 days (all food/most beverages provided). The DASH/SRD reduced clinic systolic (155-138 mm Hg; P=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (79-72 mm Hg; P=0.04), 24-hour ambulatory systolic (130-123 mm Hg; P=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (67-62 mm Hg; P=0.02), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (12.4-11.0 m/s; P=0.03). Urinary F2-isoprostanes decreased by 31% (209-144 pmol/mmol Cr; P=0.02) despite increased urinary aldosterone excretion. The reduction in urinary F2-isoprostanes closely correlated with the reduction in urinary sodium excretion on the DASH/SRD. In this cohort of HFPEF patients with treated hypertension, the DASH/SRD reduced systemic blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and oxidative stress. These findings are characteristic of salt-sensitive hypertension, a phenotype present in many HFPEF animal models and suggest shared pathophysiological mechanisms linking these 2 conditions. Further dietary modification studies could provide insights into the development and progression of hypertensive HFPEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.112.202705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3522520PMC
November 2012

Sink and swim: kinematic evidence for lifting-body mechanisms in negatively buoyant electric rays Narcine brasiliensis.

J Exp Biol 2011 Sep;214(Pt 17):2935-48

Vassar College, Department of Biology, 124 Raymond Ave, Box 731, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604, USA.

Unlike most batoid fishes, electric rays neither oscillate nor undulate their body disc to generate thrust. Instead they use body-caudal-fin (BCF) locomotion. In addition, these negatively buoyant rays perform unpowered glides as they sink in the water column. In combination, BCF swimming and unpowered gliding are opposite ends on a spectrum of swimming, and electric rays provide an appropriate study system for understanding how the performance of each mode is controlled hydrodynamically. We predicted that the dorso-ventrally flattened body disc generates lift during both BCF swimming and gliding. To test this prediction, we examined 10 neonate lesser electric rays, Narcine brasiliensis, as they swam and glided. From video, we tracked the motion of the body, disc, pelvic fins and tail. By correlating changes in the motions of those structures with swimming performance, we have kinematic evidence that supports the hypothesis that the body disc is generating lift. Most importantly, both the pitch of the body disc and the tail, along with undulatory frequency, interact to control horizontal swimming speed and Strouhal number during BCF swimming. During gliding, the pitch of the body disc and the tail also interact to control the speed on the glide path and the glide angle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.053108DOI Listing
September 2011

Peak cardiac power measured noninvasively with a bioreactance technique is a predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure.

Congest Heart Fail 2010 Nov-Dec;16(6):254-8. Epub 2010 Oct 19.

Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Peak oxygen consumption (VO(2) ) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a powerful predictor of survival, providing an indirect assessment of cardiac output (CO). Noninvasive indices of CO derived from bioreactance methodology would add significantly to peak VO(2) as a means of risk-stratifying patients with heart failure. In this study, 127 patients (53 ± 14 years of age, 66% male) with heart failure and an average ejection fraction of 31% ± 15% underwent symptom-limited CPET using a bicycle ergometer while measuring CO noninvasively by a bioreactance technique. Peak cardiac power was derived from the product of the peak mean arterial blood pressure and CO divided by 451. Follow-up averaged 404 ± 179 days (median, 366 days) to assess endpoints including death (n=3), heart transplant (n=10), or left ventricular assisted device implantation (n=2). Peak VO(2) and peak power had similar areas under the curve (0.77 and 0.76), which increased to 0.83 when combined. Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival curves demonstrated different outcomes in the subgroup with a VO(2) <14 mL/kg/min when stratified by a cardiac power above or below 1.5 W (92.2% vs 82.1% at 1 year and 81.6% vs 58.3% at last follow-up, P=.02 by log-rank test). Among patients with heart failure, peak cardiac power measured with bioreactance methodology and peak VO(2) had similar associations with adverse outcomes and peak power added independent prognostic information to peak VO(2) in those with advanced disease (eg, VO(2) <14 mL/kg/min).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-7133.2010.00187.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3058311PMC
June 2011