Publications by authors named "Hannah Gornall"

10 Publications

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CCR7 selected gene-modified T cells maintain a central memory phenotype and display enhanced persistence in peripheral blood in vivo.

J Immunother Cancer 2017 21;5:14. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Clinical and Experimental Immunotherapy Group, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Division of Cancer Sciences, The University of Manchester, Wilmslow Road, Withington, Manchester, M20 4QL UK.

Background: Adoptive T cell immunotherapy (ATCT) for cancer entails infusing patients with T cells that recognise and destroy tumour cells. Efficient engraftment of T cells and persistence in the circulation correlate with favourable clinical outcomes. T cells of early differentiation possess an increased capacity for proliferation and therefore persistence, using these cells for ATCT could therefore lead to improved clinical outcomes.

Method: We describe a method to enrich T cells of early differentiation status using paramagnetic beads and antibodies targeting cells expressing C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7).

Results: Selection of cells expressing CCR7 enriches T cells of bearing markers of early differentiation status. This was validated through analysis of an array of surface markers and an observed reduction in effector cell functions ex vivo. CCR7 selection resulted in dramatic 83.6 and 137 fold increases in circulating levels of CD4 and CD8 T cells respectively compared to non-sorted T cells 3 weeks after adoptive transfer to NSG mice. We observed no significant difference in the engraftment levels of CCR7 or CD62L selected cells in the NSG mouse model. Comparison of cells ex vivo, however, suggests CCR7 selection is superior to CD62L selection in enriching T cells of early differentiation status.

Conclusions: CCR7 selection offers a means to enrich T cells of early differentiation status for ACTC. Together our data suggests that these T cells are likely to display enhanced engraftment and persistence in patients in vivo and could therefore improve therapeutic efficacy of ACTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40425-017-0216-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5319186PMC
June 2018

Characterization of human disease phenotypes associated with mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR, and IFIH1.

Am J Med Genet A 2015 Feb 16;167A(2):296-312. Epub 2015 Jan 16.

INSERM UMR 1163, Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Neuroinflammation, Paris Descartes - Sorbonne Paris Cité University, Institut Imagine, Hôpital Necker, Paris, France; Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Institute of Human Development, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is an inflammatory disease occurring due to mutations in any of TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR or IFIH1. We report on 374 patients from 299 families with mutations in these seven genes. Most patients conformed to one of two fairly stereotyped clinical profiles; either exhibiting an in utero disease-onset (74 patients; 22.8% of all patients where data were available), or a post-natal presentation, usually within the first year of life (223 patients; 68.6%), characterized by a sub-acute encephalopathy and a loss of previously acquired skills. Other clinically distinct phenotypes were also observed; particularly, bilateral striatal necrosis (13 patients; 3.6%) and non-syndromic spastic paraparesis (12 patients; 3.4%). We recorded 69 deaths (19.3% of patients with follow-up data). Of 285 patients for whom data were available, 210 (73.7%) were profoundly disabled, with no useful motor, speech and intellectual function. Chilblains, glaucoma, hypothyroidism, cardiomyopathy, intracerebral vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, bowel inflammation and systemic lupus erythematosus were seen frequently enough to be confirmed as real associations with the Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome phenotype. We observed a robust relationship between mutations in all seven genes with increased type I interferon activity in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and the increased expression of interferon-stimulated gene transcripts in peripheral blood. We recorded a positive correlation between the level of cerebrospinal fluid interferon activity assayed within one year of disease presentation and the degree of subsequent disability. Interferon-stimulated gene transcripts remained high in most patients, indicating an ongoing disease process. On the basis of substantial morbidity and mortality, our data highlight the urgent need to define coherent treatment strategies for the phenotypes associated with mutations in the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome-related genes. Our findings also make it clear that a window of therapeutic opportunity exists relevant to the majority of affected patients and indicate that the assessment of type I interferon activity might serve as a useful biomarker in future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382202PMC
February 2015

CAR T cells: driving the road from the laboratory to the clinic.

Immunol Rev 2014 Jan;257(1):91-106

Clinical and Experimental Immunotherapy Group, Department of Medical Oncology, Institute of Cancer Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Healthcare Science Centre, Manchester, UK; Targeted Therapy Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Healthcare Science Centre, Manchester, UK.

Blockbuster antibody therapies have catapulted immune-based approaches to treat cancer into the consciousness of mainstay clinical research. On the back of this, other emerging immune-based therapies are providing great promise. T-cell therapy is one such area where recent trials using T cells genetically modified to express an antibody-based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeted against the CD19 antigen have demonstrated impressive responses when adoptively transferred to patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The general concept of the CAR T cell was devised some 20 years ago. In this relatively short period of time, the technology to redirect T-cell function has moved at pace facilitating clinical translation; however, many questions remain with respect to developing the approach to improve CAR T-cell therapeutic activity and also to broaden the range of tumors that can be effectively targeted by this approach. This review highlights some of the underlying principles and compromises of CAR T-cell technology using the CD19-targeted CAR as a paradigm and discusses some of the issues that relate to targeting solid tumors with CAR T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12126DOI Listing
January 2014

Definition and application of good manufacturing process-compliant production of CEA-specific chimeric antigen receptor expressing T-cells for phase I/II clinical trial.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2014 Feb 5;63(2):133-45. Epub 2013 Nov 5.

Cellular Therapeutics, Grafton Street, Manchester, M13 9XX, UK.

Adoptive cell therapy employing gene-modified T-cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown promising preclinical activity in a range of model systems and is now being tested in the clinical setting. The manufacture of CAR T-cells requires compliance with national and European regulations for the production of medicinal products. We established such a compliant process to produce T-cells armed with a first-generation CAR specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). CAR T-cells were successfully generated for 14 patients with advanced CEA(+) malignancy. Of note, in the majority of patients, the defined procedure generated predominantly CD4(+) CAR T-cells with the general T-cell population bearing an effector-memory phenotype and high in vitro effector function. Thus, improving the process to generate less-differentiated T-cells would be more desirable in the future for effective adoptive gene-modified T-cell therapy. However, these results confirm that CAR T-cells can be generated in a manner compliant with regulations governing medicinal products in the European Union.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-013-1492-9DOI Listing
February 2014

Potential limitations of the NSG humanized mouse as a model system to optimize engineered human T cell therapy for cancer.

Hum Gene Ther Methods 2013 Oct 24;24(5):310-20. Epub 2013 Aug 24.

Clinical and Experimental Immunotherapy Group, Department of Medical Oncology, The Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Academic Healthcare Science Centre, The University of Manchester , Manchester M20 4BX, United Kingdom .

The genetic modification of peripheral blood lymphocytes using retroviral vectors to redirect T cells against tumor cells has been recently used as a means to generate large numbers of antigen-specific T cells for adoptive cell therapy protocols. However, commonly used retroviral vector-based genetic modification requires T cells to be driven into cell division; this potent mitogenic stimulus is associated with the development of an effector phenotype that may adversely impact upon the long-term engraftment potential and subsequent antitumor effects of T cells. To investigate whether the cytokines used during culture impact upon the engraftment potential of gene-modified T cells, a humanized model employing T cells engrafted with a MART-1-specific T cell receptor adoptively transferred into NOD/Shi-scid IL-2rγ(-/-) (NSG) immune-deficient mice bearing established melanoma tumors was used to compare the effects of the common γ chain cytokines IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 upon gene-modified T cell activity. MART-1-specific T cells cultured in IL-7 and IL-15 demonstrated greater relative in vitro proliferation and viability of T cells compared with the extensively used IL-2. Moreover, the IL-15 culture prolonged the survival of animals bearing melanoma tumors after adoptive transfer. However, the combination of IL-7 and IL-15 produced T cells with improved engraftment potential compared with IL-15 alone; however, a high rate of xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease prevented the identification of a clear improvement in antitumor effect of these T cells. These results clearly demonstrate modulation of gene-modified T cell engraftment in the NSG mouse, which supports the future testing of the combination of IL-7 and IL-15 in adoptive cell therapy protocols; however, this improved engraftment is also associated with the long-term maintenance of xenoreactive T cells, which limits the ultimate usefulness of the NSG mouse model in this situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hgtb.2013.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3798231PMC
October 2013

Synonymous mutations in RNASEH2A create cryptic splice sites impairing RNase H2 enzyme function in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome.

Hum Mutat 2013 Aug 13;34(8):1066-70. Epub 2013 May 13.

Genetic Medicine, Institute of Human Development, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, United Kingdom.

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is an inflammatory disorder resulting from mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A/2B/2C, SAMHD1, or ADAR1. Here, we provide molecular, biochemical, and cellular evidence for the pathogenicity of two synonymous variants in RNASEH2A. Firstly, the c.69G>A (p.Val23Val) mutation causes the formation of a splice donor site within exon 1, resulting in an out of frame deletion at the end of exon 1, leading to reduced RNase H2 protein levels. The second mutation, c.75C>T (p.Arg25Arg), also introduces a splice donor site within exon 1, and the internal deletion of 18 amino acids. The truncated protein still forms a heterotrimeric RNase H2 complex, but lacks catalytic activity. However, as a likely result of leaky splicing, a small amount of full-length active protein is apparently produced in an individual homozygous for this mutation. Recognition of the disease causing status of these variants allows for diagnostic testing in relevant families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.22336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3714325PMC
August 2013

Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase deficiency causes a bone dysplasia with autoimmunity and a type I interferon expression signature.

Nat Genet 2011 Feb 9;43(2):127-31. Epub 2011 Jan 9.

Manchester Academic Heath Science Centre, University of Manchester, Genetic Medicine, Manchester, UK.

We studied ten individuals from eight families showing features consistent with the immuno-osseous dysplasia spondyloenchondrodysplasia. Of particular note was the diverse spectrum of autoimmune phenotypes observed in these individuals (cases), including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypothyroidism, inflammatory myositis, Raynaud's disease and vitiligo. Haplotype data indicated the disease gene to be on chromosome 19p13, and linkage analysis yielded a combined multipoint log(10) odds (LOD) score of 3.6. Sequencing of ACP5, encoding tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, identified biallelic mutations in each of the cases studied, and in vivo testing confirmed a loss of expressed protein. All eight cases assayed showed elevated serum interferon alpha activity, and gene expression profiling in whole blood defined a type I interferon signature. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized link between tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and interferon metabolism and highlight the importance of type I interferon in the genesis of autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3030921PMC
February 2011

Intracerebral large artery disease in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome implicates SAMHD1 in vascular homeostasis.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2010 Aug;52(8):725-32

Department of Paediatric Neurology, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Aim: To describe a spectrum of intracerebral large artery disease in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) associated with mutations in the AGS5 gene SAMHD1.

Method: We used clinical and radiological description and molecular analysis.

Results: Five individuals (three males, two females) were identified as having biallelic mutations in SAMHD1 and a cerebral arteriopathy in association with peripheral vessel involvement resulting in chilblains and ischaemic ulceration. The cerebral vasculopathy was primarily occlusive in three patients (with terminal carotid occlusion and basal collaterals reminiscent of moyamoya syndrome) and aneurysmal in two. Three of the five patients experienced intracerebral haemorrhage, which was fatal in two individuals. Post-mortem examination of one patient suggested that the arteriopathy was inflammatory in origin.

Interpretation: Mutations in SAMHD1 are associated with a cerebral vasculopathy which is likely to have an inflammatory aetiology. A similar disease has not been observed in patients with mutations in AGS1 to AGS4, suggesting a particular role for SAMHD1 in vascular homeostasis. Our report raises important questions about the management of patients with mutations in SAMHD1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2010.03727.xDOI Listing
August 2010

Familial Aicardi-Goutières syndrome due to SAMHD1 mutations is associated with chronic arthropathy and contractures.

Am J Med Genet A 2010 Apr;152A(4):938-42

Institute of Neuroscience and Muscle Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

We report on two siblings doubly heterozygous for null mutations in the recently identified AGS5 gene SAMHD1. The older female child showed mild intellectual disability with microcephaly. Her brother demonstrated a significant spastic paraparesis with normal intellect and head size. Both children had an unclassified chronic inflammatory skin condition with chilblains, and recurrent mouth ulcers. One child had a chronic progressive deforming arthropathy of the small and large joints, with secondary contractures. This family illustrate the remarkable phenotypic diversity accruing from mutations in genes associated with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). The association of arthropathy with SAMHD1 mutations highlights a phenotypic overlap of AGS with familial autoinflammatory disorders such as chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA). This family therefore illustrate the need to consider mutation analysis of SAMHD1 in non-specific inflammatory phenotypes of childhood. We propose that arthropathy with progressive contractures should now be considered part of the spectrum of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome because of SAMHD1 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.33359DOI Listing
April 2010

Mutations involved in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome implicate SAMHD1 as regulator of the innate immune response.

Nat Genet 2009 Jul 14;41(7):829-32. Epub 2009 Jun 14.

Academic Unit of Medical Genetics, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a mendelian mimic of congenital infection and also shows overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus at both a clinical and biochemical level. The recent identification of mutations in TREX1 and genes encoding the RNASEH2 complex and studies of the function of TREX1 in DNA metabolism have defined a previously unknown mechanism for the initiation of autoimmunity by interferon-stimulatory nucleic acid. Here we describe mutations in SAMHD1 as the cause of AGS at the AGS5 locus and present data to show that SAMHD1 may act as a negative regulator of the cell-intrinsic antiviral response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154505PMC
July 2009
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